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Jews have been persecuted for thousands of years, with the most notable persecutions being their expulsion from Spain in 1492 and the genocide waged by the Nazi’s, commonly referred to as the Holocaust (or the Shoah). The Holocaust took the lives of six million Jews in Europe, not without resistance from various Orthodox hierarchs, notably in Greece and Bulgaria.
==Major Movements==
Beginning in the nineteenth century, four major movements within Judaism came to be: Reform, Orthodox, Conservative, and Reconstructionist. The '''Reform''' movement began in Germany, and it "sought to regenerate public worship by enhancing its beauty and relevance, cutting obsolete material, introducing vernacular prayers, a weekly vernacular sermon, choral and organ music, and new ceremonies such as confirmation."<ref>Solomon, pp. 98-99.</ref>first lasting Reform temple was founded in 1818 in Hamburg, Germany. The '''Conservative''' movement is associated particularly with Zacharias Frankel (1801-75) in Germany and Solomon Schecter (1850-1915) in the United States.
<!--- ==The Jewish roots of Orthodoxy==

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