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Votive Offerings

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[[Image:Chapel of St. James IMG 0495.jpg|right|thumb|Icon of the Virgin Mary in the Chapel of St. James in the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulcher]], with various votive offerings attached.]]
'''Votive Offerings''' (Greek{{el icon}}: τάμα ''' ''Tama'' ''' (''"vow"''), pl. τάματα ''' ''Tamata'' ''' (''"vows"'');<ref group="note">Synonym: {{el icon}} Όρκος ''' - ''Orkos'' ''' (''Oath, Vow'').</ref> Latin{{la icon}}: ''' ''[[w:Ex-voto|Ex Voto]] Suscepto,'' ''' (''"from the vow made"'')) or ''' ''Ex Votos'' ''' refers to those things that are [[w:Vow|vowed]] or dedicated to [[God]], the [[Theotokos]], or a [[saint]], and are in consequence looked upon as being set apart by this act of [[consecration]], and as an expression of reverence and thanksgiving.  They can be grouped into three different types of offerings including: (a) votives consisting of actions or material things that are vowed to [[God]] (or promised to the [[Theotokos]] or to a [[Saint]] for their intercession with God), in return for a hoped-for [[miracle]]; (b) votives offered in thanksgiving for already-answered [[prayer]]s; or (c) votives given in thanksgiving for [[w:Blessings#Christianity|blessings]] not asked for.<ref>''[http://www.fisheaters.com/votiveofferings.html Votive Offerings].'' '''Fish Eaters'''. Retrived 2012-11-19.</ref> Traditionally the [[w:Spiritual practice|spiritual practice]] of making vows that are sealed by the votive offering has been common among the faithful in the [[Orthodox Church]], particularly in the [[Greek Orthodox]] Church.
==Origins==
The making of vows is a pious [[w:Spiritual practice|spiritual expression]] that was a customary practice among the ancient Greeksand Hebrews.<ref group="note">See: Dr. [[w:W. H. D. Rouse|W. H. D. Rouse]]. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/greekvotiveoffer00rousiala Greek Votive Offerings: An Essay in the History of Greek Religion].'' Cambridge: The University Press, 1902. 463pp.</ref> The idea is very old and Hebrewssprings from man's instinctive attitude towards the higher powers.<ref>Jarrett, Bede. The ''"[[Holy Scriptures]] refer to the making of vows in several instances including: Genesis 28:20-22http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15509a.htm Votive Offerings]."'' '''The Catholic Encyclopedia'''. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company,1912.</ref><ref group="note">'''Genesis 28See:<br> * {{fr icon}}:20-22''[http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard_Dhorme Édouard Dhorme]. ''"Choix des textes religeux assyro-babyloniens"''. "Then Jacob made a vow sayingXXXVII, Paris, "If the Lord God will be with me, and keep me in this way I am going, and give me bread to eat and clothing to put on, and bring me back in safety to my father1907. * [[w:Aristotle|Aristotle]]. ''"[[w:Politics_(Aristotle)|Politics]]".''s house[[w:Politics_(Aristotle)#Book_VII|VII]], then the Lord shall be my Godxii. And this stone I set as a pillar shall be God's house </ref> The [[Holy Scriptures]] refer to me, and the making of all You give me I will surely give a vows in several instances including:<br>:* [[titheGenesis]] to You." "</ref> Numbers 628:120-2122,<ref group="note">'''Numbers 6Genesis 28:120-2122'''. '''Law Concerning Vows.''' "Now Then Jacob made a vow saying, "If the [[Lord spoke to ]] [[MosesGod]]will be with me, sayingand keep me in this way I am going, "Speak and give me bread to the children of [[Israel]], eat and say clothing to themput on, and bring me back in safety to my father'When either s house, then the Lord shall be my God. And this stone I set as a man or woman vows an extraordinary vow pillar shall be God's house to sanctify himself as one of purity to the Lordme, he shall separate himself from wine and intoxicants, and shall not drink any wine and vinegar made from wine, and any vinegar made from intoxicants; neither shall he drink anything made from grapes, nor eat fresh grapes or raisinsof all You give me I will surely give a [[tithe]] to You. All the days of his separation he shall eat nothing that is produced by the grapevine, from seed to skin. All the days " "</ref> :* [[Book of his vow of purification no razor shall come upon his head; until the days are fulfilled for which he vowed to Numbers|Numbers]] 6:1-21,<ref group="note">'''Numbers 6:1-21'''. '''Law Concerning Vows.''' "Now the Lord; he shall be holy. Then he shall let spoke to [[Moses]], saying, "Speak to the locks children of the hair of his head grow. All the days of his [[Israel]], and say to them, 'When either a man or woman vows an extraordinary vow to the Lord he shall not go near a dead body. He sanctify himself as one of purity to the Lord, he shall not defile separate himself even for his father or his motherfrom wine and intoxicants, for his brother or his sisterand shall not drink any wine and vinegar made from wine, when they die, because the vow of his God is on his headand any vinegar made from intoxicants; neither shall he drink anything made from grapes, nor eat fresh grapes or raisins. All the days of his vow separation he shall be holy to eat nothing that is produced by the Lordgrapevine, from seed to skin. But if anyone dies very suddenly near him on All the spot, the head days of his vow of purification no razor shall be defiledcome upon his head; and until the days are fulfilled for which he shall shave his head on vowed to the day of his cleansingLord; on the seventh day he shall shave itbe holy. Then on the eighth day he shall bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to let the [[priest]], to the door locks of the tabernacle hair of testimonyhis head grow. The All the priest days of his vow to the Lord he shall make one not go near a sin offering and the other a whole burnt offering and make atonement dead body. He shall not defile himself even for himhis father or his mother, concerning which he sinned in regard to the corpse; and he shall sanctify for his brother or his head that daysister, when they [[Death|die]], because the vow of his God is on his head. He shall sanctify to the Lord All the days of his vow, and bring a male lamb in its first year as a trespass offering; but the former days shall he shall be null and void, because holy to the head of his vow was defiled.<br>Now this is Lord. But if anyone dies very suddenly near him on the law of vowing: When spot, the days head of his vow are fulfilled, shall be defiled; and he shall be brought to shave his head on the doors day of his cleansing; on the tabernacle of testimonyseventh day he shall shave it. Then on the eighth day he shall offer his gift bring two turtledoves or two young pigeons to the Lord: one male lamb in its first year without blemish as a whole burnt offering[[priest]], to the door of the [[Tabernacle (biblical)|tabernacle of testimony]]. The the priest shall make one ewe lamb in its first year without blemish as a sin offering, one ram without blemish as and the other a peace whole burnt offeringand make atonement for him, a basket of unleavened bread of fine flour, prepared with oil, concerning which he sinned in regard to the corpse; and unleavened cakes mixed with oil, and their grain offering with their drink offering. Then the priest he shall bring these things before [[Sanctification|sanctify]] his head that day. He shall sanctify to the Lord and offer the days of his sin offering vow, and his whole burnt offering; and he shall offer the ram bring a male lamb in its first year as a sacrifice of peace trespass offering to ; but the Lordformer days shall be null and void, with because the basket head of unleavened bread; the priest shall also offer his grain offering and his drink offeringvow was defiled. Then <br>Now this is the one law of vowing shall shave : When the head days of his vow at are fulfilled, he shall be brought to the doors of the [[Tabernacle (biblical)|tabernacle of testimony; and ]]. Then he shall put offer his hair on gift to the fireLord: one male lamb in its first year without blemish as a whole burnt offering, which is under the sacrifice of the peace offering. Then the priest shall take the boiled shoulder of the one ewe lamb in its first year without blemish as a sin offering, one ramwithout blemish as a peace offering, one a basket of unleavened loaf from the basketbread of fine flour, prepared with oil, and one unleavened cakecakes mixed with oil, and put these upon the hands of the one vowing, after he has shaved the head of his vow; and their grain offering with their drink offering. Then the [[priest ]] shall bring these things as a deposit offering before the Lord; they are holy for and offer his sin offering and his whole burnt offering; and he shall offer the ram as a sacrifice of peace offering to the priestLord, together with the breast basket of unleavened bread; the deposit priest shall also offer his grain offering and the thigh of the choice portionhis drink offering. After that, Then the one vowing may drink wine.' This is shall shave the law head of his vow at the one vowing, who vows to doors of the Lord his gift to the Lord concerning his vowtabernacle of testimony; and he shall put his hair on the force of his vow is not limited to what he could afford regarding his vowfire, which he vows according to is under the law sacrifice of puritythe peace offering." "</ref> Deuteronomy 23:22-24Then the priest shall take the boiled shoulder of the ram, one unleavened loaf from the basket,<ref group="note">'''Deuteronomy 23:22-24'''. " "If you should make a vow to the Lord your Godand one unleavened cake, you shall not delay to pay it; for and put these upon the Lord your God will surely require it hands of youthe one vowing, and it would be [[sin]] to you. But if you should abstain from vowing, it is not a sin to you. That which proceeds from your lips you shall keep and do in the manner you vowed your gift to after he has shaved the head of his vow; and the priest shall bring these things as a deposit offering before the Lord your God; that which you spoke ; they are holy for the priest, together with your mouththe breast of the deposit offering and the thigh of the choice portion." "</ref> Judges 11:29-39After that,<ref group="note">the one vowing may drink wine.'''Judges 11:28-39'''. '''Jephthah's Vow'''. "Then This is the Spirit law of the Lord came upon Jephthah, and he passed through Gilead one vowing, who vows to the Lord his gift to the Lord concerning his vow; and Manasseh, and passed by the lookout force of Gilead; and from Mizpah of Gilead his vow is not limited to what he could afford regarding his vow, which he advanced beyond vows according to the sons law of Ammonpurity. And Jephthah made a vow to the Lord and said" "</ref> :* Deuteronomy 23:22-24, <ref group="note"If You deliver >'''Deuteronomy 23:22-24'''. " "If you should make a vow to the sons of Ammon into my hand[[Lord]] your [[God]], then you shall not delay to pay it shall be that whoever first comes out of ; for the doors of my house to meet me when I return in peace from the children Lord your God will surely require it of Ammonyou, he shall and it would be the Lord's[[sin]] to you. I will offer him up for But if you should abstain from vowing, it is not a whole burnt offeringsin to you." So Jephthah advanced toward That which proceeds from your lips you shall keep and do in the sons of Ammon manner you vowed your gift to fight against them, and the Lord delivered them into his handyour God; that which you spoke with your mouth. And he struck them from Aroer until he came to Arnon" "</ref> :* [[Book of Judges|Judges]] 11:29-39, twenty cities in number, as far as Abel Keramim, with widespread destruction everywhere<ref group="note">'''Judges 11:28-39'''. Thus '''Jephthah's Vow'''. "Then the sons Spirit of Ammon were subdued before the sons of Israel.<br>When Lord came upon Jephthah came to his house at Mizpah, behold his daughter came out to meet him with drums and danceshe passed through Gilead and [[Prayer of Manasseh|Manasseh]], and she was his only child. He had no other son or daughterpassed by the lookout of Gilead; and from Mizpah of Gilead he advanced beyond the sons of Ammon. And when he saw her, he tore his clothes Jephthah made a vow to the Lord and said, "Ah, ah, my daughter! If You have troubled me greatly! It is you who are deliver the sons of Ammon into my trouble! For I have opened hand, then it shall be that whoever first comes out of the doors of my mouth against you house to meet me when I return in peace from the Lordchildren of Ammon, and he shall be the [[Lord]]'s. I cannot go back on itwill offer him up for a whole burnt offering." So she said Jephthah advanced toward the sons of Ammon to himfight against them, "My father, if you have opened your mouth to and the [[Lord, do to me as it ]] delivered them into his hand. And he struck them from Aroer until he came from your mouthto Arnon, because the Lord has avenged you on your enemiestwenty cities in number, as far as Abel Keramim, with widespread destruction everywhere. Thus the sons of Ammonwere subdued before the sons of [[Israel]]."<br>Then she said When Jephthah came to her fatherhis house at Mizpah, "Let my father do this one thing for me. Leave me alone for two months behold his daughter came out to wander on the mountains meet him with drums and bewail my virginity along with my companions." So he saiddances, "Go." And he sent her away for two months; and she went with was his only child. He had no other son or daughter. And when he saw her companions, he tore his clothes and bewailed her virginity on the mountains. And at the end of two months she returned to her fathersaid, "Ah, and he carried out the vow he vowedah, and she knew no man. And it became a custom in Israel that the daughters of Israel went four days each year my daughter! You have troubled me greatly! It is you who are my trouble! For I have opened my mouth against you to lament the daughter of Jephthah the GileaditeLord, and I cannot go back on it."</ref>Ecclesiastes 5:4So she said to him,<ref group="note">'''Ecclesiastes 5:4'''My father, if you have opened your mouth to the Lord, do to me as it came from your mouth, because the Lord has avenged you on your enemies, the sons of Ammon. "Better not <br>Then she said to vow than to vow and not pay."</ref>Acts 18:18her father,<ref group="note">'''Acts 18:18'''Let my father do this one thing for me. "So [[Apostle Paul|Paul]] remained a good while. There he took leave of Leave me alone for two months to wander on the brethren mountains and sailed for Syriabewail my virginity along with my companions." So he said, "Go." And he sent her away for two months; and Priscilla she went with her companions, and Aquila ''were'' with himbewailed her virginity on the mountains. He had ''his'' hair cut off And at Cenchreathe end of two months she returned to her father, for and he had taken a carried out the vowhe vowed, and she knew no man."<br>:(''The vow Paul makes is likely a form And it became a custom in Israel that the daughters of Israel went four days each year to lament the daughter of Jephthah the [[w:Nazirite_vow#Nazirite_vows_in_the_Hebrew_BibleGileadite."</ref>:* [[Psalter|Nazirite vowPsalm]] (Nm 649:114-21) given in thanksgiving for deliverance from danger.'')</ref> and Acts 21:23-24.15,<ref group="note">'''Acts 21Psalm 49:2314-2415'''. , "Therefore do what we tell you: We have four men who have taken a vow. Take them and be purified with themOffer to [[God]] a sacrifice of praise, and pay their expenses so that they may shave ''their'' headsyour vows to the Most High. Call upon Me in the day of affliction, and that all may know that those things of which they were informed concerning I will deliver you are nothing, but ''that'' ; and you yourself also walk orderly and keep the lawshall glorify Me."</ref> It is for this reason why they have been preserved in Christianity.<:* Ecclesiastes 5:4,<ref namegroup="GERMANOSnote">Metr. Germanos II (Holy [http'''Ecclesiastes 5://www4'''.ecclesia"Better not to vow than to vow and not pay.gr"</greek/dioceses/Eleias/Eleias.html Metropolis ref>:* [[Acts of Ilias the Apostles|Acts]] 18:18,<ref group="note">'''Acts 18:18'''. "So [[Apostle Paul|Paul]] remained a good while. There he took leave of the brethren and Oleni], Greece). sailed for Syria, and Priscilla and Aquila ''were'' with him. He had ''his'' hair cut off at [[w:Kechries|Cenchrea]], for he had taken a vow."<br>:(''The vow Paul makes is likely a form of the [[w:Nazirite_vow#Nazirite_vows_in_the_Hebrew_Bible|Nazirite vow]] (Nm 6:1-21) given in thanksgiving for deliverance from danger.'')</ref> and :* Acts 21:23-24.<ref group="note">'''Acts 21:23-24'''. "Therefore do what we tell you: We have four men who have taken a vow. Take them and be purified with them, and pay their expenses so that they may shave ''their'' heads, and that all may know that those things of which they were informed concerning you are nothing, but ''that'' you yourself also walk orderly and keep the law."</ref>  It is for this reason why they have been preserved in Christianity.<ref name="GERMANOS">{{el icon}} Metr. Germanos II of [http://www.ecclesia.gr/greek/dioceses/Eleias/Eleias.html Ilias and Oleni]. ''Errors and Truth: Refutation of Various Errors and Superstitions.'' '''[[Apostoliki Diakonia]]'''Errors and Truth: Refutation of Various Errors and Superstitions.'' [[Apostoliki Diakonia]], 01/01/1990. 142pp. (''In Greek'')</ref>
==Description==
In general terms a votive offering or tama may be offered at the [[icon]] or [[shrine]] of a [[saint]], as a reminder of a petitioner's particular need, and as a fulfillment of their intended vow or promise. They are also offered in gratitude for a [[prayer]] or vow that has already been answered, or in thanksgiving for blessings received that were not asked for.
<blockquote>"The vow usually takes the form of a commitment by the offerer to present some material gift to the supernatural benefactor if the benefactor grants the supplicant's particular request. Moreover, it is the making of the vow prior to the offering itself that, in the minds of [the faithful], distinguishes the votive offering from such other forms as the [[w:Propitiation|propitiatory ]] or thank offering. While votive offerings are sometimes made in other situations of crisis or uncertain control such as the opening of a new business or the confrontation of one's son with the vagaries of the military draft, most frequently votives are employed in response to illnesses for which no other cure can be found. Promises and subsequent offerings are directed toward individual or local [[Patron saint|patrons]], or toward saints believed to be especially powerful in dealing with certain maladies, such as the [[Theotokos|Panaghia]] (Virgin Mother) who is frequently called upon to aid in conception or childbirth, or Saint [[Paraskevi]] who is regarded as especially efficacious in treating afflictions of the eyes."<ref name=TESKE>Robert T. Teske. ''Votive Offerings and the Belief System of Greek-Philadelphians''. '''Western Folklore.''' Vol. 44, No. 3, Healing, Magic, and Religion (Jul., 1985), pp. 209.</ref></blockquote>
Tamata usually take the form of small metal plaques, which may be of base or precious metal, usually with an embossed image symbolizing the subject of the prayer for which the plaque is offered. A wide variety of images may be found on tamata, which lend themselves to multiple interpretations. A heart may [[Symbolism|symbolize ]] a prayer for love, or a heart problem. Eyes may indicate an eye affliction; hands or legs may indicate maladies of the limbs; a pair of [[Marriage#Office_of_crowning|wedding crowns ]] may mean a prayer for a happy [[marriage]]; a torso, for afflictions of the body, and so forth.
<blockquote>The offerings themselves usually fall into one of three broad categories: (1) representations of the individual offerer, especially small gold- or silver-plated [[w:Effigy|effigies ]] of the bodily part to be cured...which are hung before the [[icon]] of the benefactor; candles the height or weight of the beneficiary; or personal valuables such as necklaces or rings; (2) adornments for the icon of the supernatural invoked, especially the gold or silver plating of parts of the icon such as the [[Mandorla|halo ]] or hands; and (3) humbling acts taken up by votants in the service of the benefactor, especially crawling up the steps of a particular church, begging in behalf of the saint's church, or working for the church community in some self-effacing capacity.<ref name="TESKE"/></blockquote>
Tamata may be bought in shops selling Greek Orthodox religious items, and then hung near an [[icon]] or [[shrine]] of a [[saint]], by using a ribbon tied on a pole, or on hooks, the act of which is usually accompanied with a [[prayer]], and sometimes with the lighting of a votive candle.
As the contractual nature of the vow implies, most offerings are made only after fulfillment of the offerer's request by the [[saint]], and the actual presentations are made almost secretively, with no ostentation. The presentations occasionally take place in the presence of the offerer's immediate family, and often without the knowledge of the local [[priest]].<ref name="TESKE"/> [[Pilgrimage]] sites often include shrines [[shrine]]s that are decorated with many tamata.
One of the most famous Orthodox votive offerings historically is that by Saint [[John of Damascus]]. According to tradition, while he was serving as [[w:Vizier |Vizier]] to the Caliph, he was falsely accused of treachery and his hand was cut off. Upon praying in front of an icon of the [[Theotokos]] his hand was miraculously restored. In thanksgiving, he had a silver replica of his hand fashioned and attached it to the icon. This icon, now called "[[Panagia Tricherousa|Tricherousa]]" or "Trojeručica" (''The Three-handed'') and is preserved at [[Chilandari Monastery (Athos)|Chilandari Monastery]] on [[Mount Athos]].
Tamata correspond almost exactly to the [[w:Milagro (votive)|Milagros]] traditionally used for healing purposes and as votive offerings in the [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] cultures of Mexico, the southern United States, Latin America, and parts of the Iberian peninsula.
==Criticism==
According to Metropolitan Germanos II (Paraskevopoulos) of the Holy [http://www.ecclesia.gr/greek/dioceses/Eleias/Eleias.html Metropolis of Ilias and Oleni] in Greece, this is a subject however which is prone to much misinterpretation by Christians, who are thus removed from the true meaning of making vows, and therefore cause more harm to themselves than good.<ref name="GERMANOS"/>
For example, several people are of the opinion that [[God ]] and the [[Saints ]] will grant their petition simply because they make a vow in an of itself. This is an error, because the Saints are not in need of our material goods, nor do they require a vow to be made before our prayers [[prayer]]s are heard by them. The Lord said ''"...when you pray, do not use vain repetitions as the heathen do. For they think that they will be heard for their many words. Therefore do not be like them. For your Father knows the things you have need of before you ask Him"'' ([[Apostle Matthew|Matthew]] 6:7-8). It is enough that we have a strong [[Symbol of Faith|faith ]] and a pure heart and live a Christian life, and that our requests should me made for our spiritual well being.<ref name="GERMANOS"/>
Furthermore, the way that certain vows are made comes across as making a bargain with God. For example, ''"Saint [[Paraskevi]], please heal me and I will bring you a gold candle"'', or ''"God please help me with my exams and I will bring you..."''. This denigrates God and lessens the personality of man at the same time, while also making manifest our lack of faith.<ref name="GERMANOS"/> In Dr. Teske's field study of the Greek-American community of Philadelphia, he observed that:
In addition, according to Elder [[Paisios (Eznepidis)|Paisios of Mount Athos]]:
:"I also see a new craftiness in the [[devil]]. He causes people to think that if they make a vow to God and fulfill it, if they go on some [[pilgrimage]], then they are alright spiritually. You see hordes of people going to [[Monasticism|monasteries ]] and shrines [[shrine]]s with tall candles and extravagant offerings, ostentatiously making the sign [[Sign of the crossCross]], even weeping a little, and feeling content. They do not [[Repentance|repent]], do not [[Confession|confess]], do not correct or change their way of life ... and this is quite pleasing to the [[devil]]."<ref>Elder [[Paisios (Eznepidis)|Paisios of Mount Athos]]. ''[http://www.alexanderpress.com/downloads/Paisios%203%20blurb%204C2.pdf Spiritual Counsels, Vol. 3: Spiritual Struggle].'' ''' Holy Monastery "Evangelist John the Theologian", '''. Souroti, Thessaloniki, Greece, 2010.</ref>
This is why careful attention is required if one is making vows. They should be of a spiritual nature to help with the purity of the soul and the holiness of one's life, because ''"God is Spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth."'' ([[Apostle John|John ]] 4:24]]).<ref name="GERMANOS"/>
==Symbolism==
The primary message that the votive contains and transmits would appear to be man's dependence upon and subservience to the will of [[God]], and God's concern for man and occasional susceptibility to his influence. This notion is neatly packaged in the relation of the material or behavioral offering of the individual community member, to the symbolic locus of the offering's presentation, the Orthodox church. The [[Church architecture|Orthodox church building]] has long been recognized as a [[Symbolism|symbolic ]] representation of the Divine Kingdom, and the pattern of its decoration "has the character of a clear and precise theological system." Within the context of such a large-scale, hierarchically arranged, symbolic representation of the Orthodox cosmology, votive offerings - especially those described above as being primarily representations of the individual - acquire a clear and precise significance. They constitute a means by which man is capable of inserting himself [[Symbolism|symbolically ]] into an equally symbolic representation of the cosmos, a means by which man can express his place in the spiritual world and his relationship to other spiritual beings.<ref>Robert T. Teske. ''Votive Offerings and the Belief System of Greek-Philadelphians''. '''Western Folklore.''' Vol. 44, No. 3, Healing, Magic, and Religion (Jul., 1985), pp. 212-214.</ref>
==See also==
* [[Nazarite]]* [[Consecration]](''setting aside'') 
* [[Patron saint]]
* [[Paraklesis]]
* [[Litany of Fervent Supplication|Supplication]]
 
* [[Artoklasia]]
* [[Bread and Salt]]
* [[Vigil lamp]]
* [[Nazarite]]
'''Wikipedia'''
* [[w:Nazirite_vow#Nazirite_vows_in_the_Hebrew_Bible|Nazirite vows in the Hebrew Bible]]
* [[w:Vow|Vow]]
* [[w:Ex-voto|Ex-voto]]
* [[w:Votive offering|Votive offering]]
* [[w:Votive candle|Votive candle]]
* [[w:Nazirite_vow#Nazirite_vows_in_the_Hebrew_BiblePropitiation|Nazirite vows in the Hebrew BiblePropitiation]]
==Notes==
<small><references group="note" /></small>
==References==
<small><div><references/></div></small>
==Sources and further reading==
* [[w:Tama (votive)|Tama (votive)]] at Wikipedia.
*[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15509a.htm Votive Offerings]. The Catholic Encyclopedia, 1912.
* Dr. [http://www.elmbrookrotary.org/attend_a_meeting/speaker_details.html?item=44 Robert T. Teske]. ''Votive Offerings and the Belief System of Greek-Philadelphians''. '''Western Folklore.''' Vol. 44, No. 3, Healing, Magic, and Religion (Jul., 1985), pp. 208-224.
:<small>''(Paper discussing the votive offering as employed by the members of the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek-American ]] community of Philadelphia, based on fieldwork conducted between 1972 and 1974)''</small>
* Dr. [http://www.elmbrookrotary.org/attend_a_meeting/speaker_details.html?item=44 Robert T. Teske]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=ybtCi-TuYbgC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Votive Offerings among Greek-Philadelphians: A Ritual Perspective].'' Ayer Publishing, 1980. 326pp. ISBN 9780405133251
:<small>''(Dissertation in Folklore and Folklife. Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of the University of Pennsylvania in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy)''</small>
* ''[[w:Tama (votive)|Tama (votive)]].'' '''Wikipedia'''.
* Athanasios A. Diamandopoulos and Spyros G. Marketos. ''[http://www.humanehealthcare.com/Article.asp?art_id=475 Votive offerings and other magicoreligious health practices in modern Greece].'' '''Humane Medicine''' 9.4 (1993): 296-302.
'''Roman Catholic Sources'''
* Jarrett, Bede. ''"[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15509a.htm Votive Offerings]."'' '''The Catholic Encyclopedia'''. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912.
* ''[http://www.fisheaters.com/votiveofferings.html Votive Offerings].'' '''Fish Eaters'''. Retrived 2012-11-19.
* Martha Egan. ''Mílagros: Votive Offerings from the Americas.'' Museum of New Mexico Press, 1991. ISBN 9780890132197
'''Other Languages'''
* {{el icon}} [http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9C%CE%B7%CF%84%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%80%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%AF%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%82_%CE%97%CE%BB%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%82_%CE%93%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%BC%CE%B1%CE%BD%CF%8C%CF%82_%CE%92%CE%84 Γερμανός Παρασκευοπούλος], Μητροπολίτου Ηλείας. ''Πλάνες και η Αλήθεια: Αναίρεση Διαφόρων Πλανών και Δεισιδαιμονιών.'' '''[[Apostoliki Diakonia]]'''. 01/01/1990. 142pp. <small>(Metr. Germanos II of [http://www.ecclesia.gr/greek/dioceses/Eleias/Eleias.html Ilias and Oleni]. ''Errors and Truth: Refutation of Various Errors and Superstitions.'' '''[[Apostoliki Diakonia]]'''. 01/01/1990. 142pp.)</small>
'''Ancient World'''
* Dr. [[w:W. H. D. Rouse|W. H. D. Rouse]]. ''[http://www.archive.org/details/greekvotiveoffer00rousiala Greek Votive Offerings: An Essay in the History of Greek Religion].'' Cambridge: The University Press, 1902. 463pp.
'''In Greek'''
* [http://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%9C%CE%B7%CF%84%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%80%CE%BF%CE%BB%CE%AF%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%82_%CE%97%CE%BB%CE%B5%CE%AF%CE%B1%CF%82_%CE%93%CE%B5%CF%81%CE%BC%CE%B1%CE%BD%CF%8C%CF%82_%CE%92%CE%84 Γερμανός Παρασκευοπούλος] (Μητροπολίτου Ηλείας). ''[http://www.apostoliki-diakonia.gr/bookshop/Anazitisi.aspx?Titlos=%CE%A0%CE%BB%CE%AC%CE%BD%CE%B5%CF%82%20%CE%BA%CE%B1%CE%B9%20%CE%B7%20%CE%91%CE%BB%CE%AE%CE%B8%CE%B5%CE%B9%CE%B1 Πλάνες και η Αλήθεια: Αναίρεση Διαφόρων Πλανών και Δεισιδαιμονιών].'' [[Apostoliki Diakonia]], 01/01/1990. 142pp.
::<small>Metr. Germanos II (Holy [http://www.ecclesia.gr/greek/dioceses/Eleias/Eleias.html Meteropolis of Ilias and Oleni]). ''Errors and Truth: Refutation of Various Errors and Superstitions.'' [[Apostoliki Diakonia]], 01/01/1990. 142pp.</small>
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