The Western Rite is a strand of Orthodox Christian worship based on the liturgical traditions of the ancient pre-Schism Orthodox Church of the West. Western Rite Orthodox Christians hold in common the full Orthodox faith with their brethren of the Byzantine Rite, and at present, all of the bishops who care for such parishes are themselves followers of the Byzantine Rite.
|This article forms part|
of the series on the
|Rule of St. Benedict |
|Liturgy of St. Gregory |
Liturgy of St. Tikhon
Liturgy of St. Germanus
|Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate |
Society of St. Basil
Orthodox Church of France
Holy Name Abbey (Old Calendarist)
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The Nineteenth Century
- Main article: Western Rite in the Nineteenth Century
In 1864, 44-year-old Joseph Julian Overbeck, a former German Catholic priest who had left the priesthood, disillusioned with papal supremacy, became Lutheran and later married, was chrismated into the Orthodox Church. He then published, in 1866, Catholic Orthodoxy and Anglo-Catholicism which contained the groundings for his work for the next twenty years. A year later, be began publishing a periodical, Orthodox Catholic Review, aimed at putting forward Orthodoxy and rejecting Catholicism and Protestantism.
1867 saw Overbeck, with 122 signatures from the Oxford Movement, petition the Church of Russia for the establishment of a Western Rite church in full communion with the Eastern Rite. A seven-member synodal commission was then formed, and invited Overbeck to attend. The idea was approved, and Overbeck set about submitting a draft of the proposed Western liturgy. The base of Overbeck's submission was the so-called "Tridentine Mass" of 1570, which added in an epiclesis and the Trisagion hymn. This rite was submitted in 1871, and was examined and approved by the commission. Overbeck focused his efforts on the Old Catholic movement, who had rejected Papal Infallibility. He continued to engage in polemics with Catholics, Anglicans, and Orthodox converts using the Byzantine rite.
In 1876, Overbeck issued an appeal to the various Holy Synods, travelling to Constantinople in 1879. There he met the Ecumenical Patriarch, who authorised him to deliver sermons and apologetics. In 1881, some success was had when the Ecumenical Patriarchate agreed that the West had a right to a Western church and rite.
However, it went no further. Overbeck's marriage after his Catholic ordination was a canonical impediment to the priesthood, the Holy Synod of Greece vetoed his scheme amongst the Orthodox Churches, the Orthodox Catholic Review ended its run, and by 1892 he admitted failure due to the Church of Greece of the time. Overbeck reposed in 1905.
The Twentieth Century
- Main article: Western Rite in the Twentieth Century
The Western Rite continued. In 1890, a Swiss Old Catholic parish in Wisconsin, pastored by Fr Joseph Rene Vilatte, was received by Bp. Vladimir (Sokolovsky); however, Fr. Vilatte soon led the church into the Syrian Orthodox ("Jacobite") church, then back into Old Catholicism. In 1911, Arnold Harris Mathew, an Old Catholic bishop, entered into union with the Patriarchate of Antioch, but parted ways soon after. In 1926, the six-parish Polish Catholic National Church was received into the Polish Orthodox Church. It celebrated the Liturgy of St. Gregory, and flourished as Orthodox until wiped out by the Nazis.  
St. Tikhon's involvement in the Western Rite has been one more enduring. While he was Bishop of the Russian mission in America, some Episcopalians were interested in the possibility of joining Orthodoxy while retaining Anglican liturgics. St. Tikhon, sending the 1892 Book of Common Prayer to the Holy Synod, asked about the possibility, as well as the circumstances under which they would permit this. According to Fr. Edward Hughes, St. Raphael of Brooklyn composed the letter of inquiry. In 1904, the Holy Synod admitted its possibility, including edits necessary for its use in an Orthodox manner. It concluded that such edits "can be carried out only on the spot, in America," and found it "desirable to send the 'Observations' themselves to the Right Rev. Tikhon, the American Bishop." Between communications, the Episcopalians who had petitioned withdrew. Thus, St. Tikhon could not receive any Episcopalians before returning to Russia in 1907. However, his involvement lay the groundwork for the reception and liturgics of some parishes in the Western Rite Vicariate  and later ROCOR.
There has been a significant Western Rite movement in France, the largest remaining group thereof being the Union des Associations Cultuelles Orthodoxes de Rite Occidental (UACORO - the Union of Western Rite Orthodox Worship Associations).
The United States
The Antiochian Archdiocese received the most stable and successful group of Western Rite parishes, the Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil, in 1961. Upon reception, they became the Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate, and their leader, Alexander Turner, becoming an Orthodox priest and the Vicar-General of the Vicariate until 1971. At his repose, Fr Paul W.S. Schneirla became Vicar-General.
Besides the parishes that were in the former Society, other parishes have been received into the Western Rite Vicariate of the Antiochian Archdiocese, especially because of the theological and practical devolution of the Episcopal Church U.S.A. Added to this, several Western Rite missions have been founded, some growing into full parish status.
The Church of Russia received a New York Old Catholic community in 1962 as Mount Royal Monastery, which later moved from Woodstock, New York, to St. Nicholas Cathedral in New York City under Archbishop John (Wendland) of the Russian Exarchate of North America. In 1975, this community was received by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, under Archbishop Nikon (Rklitzsky) and was again relocated. In 1993, after the retirement of the Abbot, Dom Augustine (Whitfield) of Mount Royal, the prior of Mount Royal, Fr James (Deschene) was blessed to found Christ the Saviour Monastery ("Christminster" colloquially) in Rhode Island, under Bishop Hilarion of Manhattan (since transferred). As of 2007 Christminster relocated to Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Its present abbot is Dom James Deschene.
In 1995, the Church of Antioch also established a British Deanery to absorb converts from the Church of England. Not all of these parishes are Western Rite.
Western Rite Orthodoxy, in Australia and New Zealand, has arisen mostly from Anglican and Continuing Anglican communities. Archbishop Hilarion (Kapral) of Sydney, ROCOR, received some communities under his omophorion; while others have been received by Bishop Gibran and Metropolitan Archbishop Paul, both under the Church of Antioch.
Other small groups following the Western Rite have been received, but usually have either had little impact, or have declared their independence soon after their reception.
Some Western Rite parishes are also in the Oriental Orthodox churches. The Syrian patriarchate of Antioch consecrated Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvarez as Archbishop of Ceylon, Goa and India in 1889, authorizing a Roman rite diocese under him; in 1891, the Syrians consecrated the aforementioned Joseph René Vilatte as archbishop for the American Old Catholics.
North American Western Rite parishes generally follow one (or sometimes both) of two types of traditional Western liturgical traditions. The majority celebrate the Liturgy of St. Tikhon of Moscow, which is an adaptation of the Communion service from the 1928 Template:Citation needed Anglican Book of Common Prayer and The Anglican Missal in the American Edition, as their Sunday liturgy. Until 1977, all Western Rite Vicariate parishes celebrated only the Liturgy of St. Gregory the Great, which is a modified form of the Tridentine version of the Mass of Rome, familiar to Roman Catholics before the liturgical reforms of Vatican II in the 1960s. Many parishes within the Western Rite Vicariate continue to celebrate the Gregorian liturgy. However, most WRV parishes celebrate more than one weekly liturgy, and many of the Tikhonite parishes celebrate the Gregorian liturgy on weekdays. The complete Roman rite of Benediction is also authorized.
The Western Rite liturgy has much less repetition than its corresponding elements in the Byzantine rite, and generally has a more brisk, succinct manner to it. Celebrants wear distinctive Western vestments, and the faithful follow pious devotional customs particular to their tradition, as well.
The development of the current use within the Western Rite Vicariate is of particular note:
- Metropolitan Antony was well aware that the Western Rite was "a work for specialists." The new Western Rite usage of the Archdiocese was to be guided by "a Commission of Orthodox Theologians," an advisory committee of qualified clerics or laymen to advise the Metropolitan and determine "the mode of reception of groups desiring to employ the Western Rite, and the character of the rites to be used, as well as the authorization of official liturgical texts." The first WRV Commission, convened by Metropolitan Antony in 1958, was composed of Fathers Paul Schneirla, Stephen Upson, Alexander Schmemann and John Meyendorff. Schneirla, Schmemann, and Meyendorff in particular had seen the Western Rite up close in France, as it had been approved in the Russian Ukase of 1936. Schneirla recalls Schmemann's work in particular as being key, as he was familiar with the Liturgical Movement within the Roman Catholic and Anglican communions. Schmemann was particularly instrumental in joining together the separate Rites of Initiation of the Rituale Romanum – Baptism, Confirmation and First Holy Communion – into one unified rite, according to the Orthodox understanding.
- In January of 1962, the official Western Rite Directory was issued, "establishing liturgical usages and customs and discipline," drawing on principles gleaned from the 1904 Moscow Synodal response to Saint Tikhon, the authorization of Western Rite offices by Metropolitan Gerassimos (Messarah) of Beirut, and the 1932 Russian Ukase of Metropolitan Sergius.
Ironically, before his committed and pivotal involvement with the architecture of the current usage of the Western Rite, Fr. Schmemann had criticized it in a response to a 1958 article Fr. Schneirla wrote in The Word. However, after his criticisms, Fr. Schmemann worked to establish the Western Rite Vicariate and, later still, taught at the Western Rite seminary in Paris.
By far the largest group of these parishes is represented by the Western Rite Vicariate of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America. Other Antiochian Western Rite parishes exist in the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand.
The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR) also has a small number of Western Rite parishes in addition to two monasteries, one located in Tasmania and another in Canada. The former, St. Petroc Monastery, uses the Sarum Rite liturgy in English. Missions and Parishes of the ROCOR Western Rite use either the Rite of St. Gregory in one of varying uses (Sarum, Christminster, Mount Royal, or Overbeck), the Gallican rite, or "The English Liturgy," an English Use service based upon the 1549 Anglican Book of Common Prayer but incorporating certain elements of the Sarum Use.
Dom Augustin (Whitfield), the abbot of the Monastery of Mount Royal from 1963 until retirement, once remarked to St. John Maximovitch that it was difficult to promote Western Rite Orthodoxy, whereupon the saint replied: "Never, never, never let anyone tell you that, in order to be Orthodox, you must also be eastern. The West was Orthodox for a thousand years, and her venerable liturgy is far older than any of her heresies." 
It should also be noted that there are a number of groups who follow various Western rites, so-called, and may call themselves Orthodox but are not part of or in communion with the historic Orthodox Church.
The Orthodox Church of France was once cared for by St. John Maximovitch and later by the Church of Romania—also uses a Western Rite liturgy based on ancient Gallican liturgical materials, with some Byzantine supplements. The Orthodox Church of France currently functions as an independent body, and is not recognized by or in communion with the mainstream Orthodox Church.
In addition, the Holy Synod of Milan, an Old Calendarist group outside of communion with the mainstream Orthodox Church, has a number of communities (under the central direction of the monastery and Archdiocesan center, the Abbey of the Holy Name) which worship according to Western rites, including a restored pre-schism Sarum Use (which differs from the Sarum Rite used within ROCOR).
In 2008, a former hieromonk of the Milan Synod, Father Aidan (Keller), was blessed by Metropolitan Hilarion, ROCOR First Hierarch, to use his own translations of the pre-schism Sarum Use, found in the Old Sarum Rite Missal and previously blessed by the Western Archdiocese of the Milan Synod. Additionally, the uses of the Eastern Archdiocese of the Holy Synod of Milan appear to have been blessed for use by Metropolitan Hilarion of New York from October 2008.
- Main article: Western Rite Criticism
The Western Rite in the Orthodox Church is not without its critics. Objections are made in regards to desire for liturgical uniformity within Orthodoxy and fears that Western Rite vicariates or similar Western Rite practices have produced a para-ecclesiastic organization within the Church. Some question the sincerity of Western Rite parishes as all or mostly-convert groups. Finally, lack of organic liturgical continuity for the Western Rite troubles some Orthodox Christians.
Whether the Western Rite will survive in the Orthodox Church and be accepted by the majority who follow the Byzantine Rite remains yet to be seen. In the meantime, the Byzantine Rite bishops who oversee Western Rite parishes—and many who oversee no Western Rite parishes—continue to declare their Western flocks to be Orthodox Christians and regard them as fully in communion with the rest of the Church.
On the other hand, some Byzantine Rite Orthodox Christians do not recognize the Orthodoxy of those in the Western Rite (despite their being under the jurisdiction of Byzantine Rite bishops with whom they themselves are in communion), and will not attend the Eucharist at Western Rite parishes, declaring them to be "Roman Catholics," "schismatics," or "reverse Uniates." However, no Orthodox parish may deny the Eucharist to visiting faithful of the canonical Western Rite, regardless of their feelings about the concept of Western Rite Orthodoxy. There have been no schisms within the episcopacy of the Orthodox Church regarding the issue of Western Rite parishes.
- Western Rite Vicariate
- Sarum Rite
- Gallican Rite
- Stowe Missal
- Divine Liturgy according to St. Germanus of Paris
- Liturgy of St. Gregory the Great
- Liturgy of St. Tikhon of Moscow
- Western Rite Service Books
- Liturgy of St. Tikhon (text)
- Saint Petroc Monastery, Australia
- Christ the Savior Monastery, Canada
- Western Orthodoxy
- The Unofficial Western Rite Orthodoxy Website
- Western Rite Vicariate of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America
- Saint Petroc Monastery ROCOR Tasmania
- Christ the Savior Monastery ROCOR Rhode Island
- Worldwide directory of canonical Western Rite Orthodox communities
- Western Rite Parishes (North America, with links to parish sites)
- Text of the Divine Liturgy according to Saint Germanus of Paris]
- Text of the Liturgy of Saint Gregory
- Text of the Liturgy of Saint Tikhon, though not in its authorized form.
- Text of the Sarum Rite Liturgy as corrected for use within ROCOR by His Grace Archbishop Hilarion
- Text of the English Liturgy
- Office and Prayers of the Oblates of St. Benedict (PDF) - Western Rite oblates.
- Liturgical Texts Project (PDF) - Compilation of numerous liturgical texts.
- Children of the Promise: An Introduction to Western Rite Orthodoxy, by Fr. Michael Keiser. ISBN 9781418475826
Introduction and History
- A Short History of the Western Rite Vicariate, by Benjamin Andersen: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7, Part 8, Part 9 (permission required)
- Occidental Orthodox Christianity Dedicated to the furtherance of the Western Rite within canonical Orthodoxy.
- An Introduction to Western Rite Orthodoxy, An electronic version of the now out-of-print Conciliar Press booklet; edited by Fr. Michael Trigg, Ph.D.
- Orthodox Resurgence Movement for Western Christians seeking reception in the Orthodox Western Rite.
- "Observations on the American Book of Common Prayer," the Holy Synod of Russia's guidelines for suiting the 1892 Book of Common Prayer for celebration within Orthodoxy.
- The Western Rite: Its Fascinating Past and Its Promising Future, by Fr. Alexander Turner
- The Western Rite and the Eastern Church: Dr. J. J. Overbeck and his scheme for the re-establishment of the Orthodox Church in the West (PDF), by Fr. David F. Abramtsov, University of Pittsburgh, 1959
- On the Western Rite Edict of Metropolitan Anthony (Bashir), by Fr. David Abramstov, in addition to an excerpt from the report of Metropolitan Anthony (Bashir) to the 1958 Archdiocesan Convention
- Western Orthodox Christians: Who Are They?, from Christminster (Providence, Rhode Island), a Benedictine Monastery under ROCOR
- History of Christminster
- What is Western-Rite Orthodoxy?, by Fr. Patrick McCauley
- The Twain Meet, by Fr. Paul W.S. Schneirla
- Western Rite Orthodox in our midst: Ad Fontes!, by Dr. Alexander Roman
- Eastern But Western, from the May 1, 1964, issue of [i]Time[/i] Magazine.
- Video on the Western Rite from St. Paul Orthodox Church, Houston, Texas
- Met. PHILIP (Saliba)'s Promise: Western Rite churches will not be Byzantized.
- Comments on the Western Rite by Bishop Basil (Essey) of Wichita
- Lux Occidentalis (PDF) The Orthodox Western Rite and the Liturgical Tradition of Western Orthodox Christianity, with reference to The Orthodox Missal, Saint Luke's Priory Press, Stanton, NJ, 1995 by the Rev'd John Charles Connely
- Doctrinal Issues: Western Rite Orthodoxy, from the Diocesan News for Clergy and Laity (February 1995), Greek Orthodox Diocese of Denver
- Western Rite Orthodoxy: Its history, its validity, and its opportunity, by Annette Milkovich, including an interview with Fr. Paul W.S. Schneirla, constituting a rough Western Rite "FAQ"
- Occidentalis - A Weblog of Orthodox Catholic Christianity in the Western Rite tradition (permission required)
- On the Question of Western Orthodoxy, by Patriarch Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow in a letter to Vladimir Lossky
- Dealing with Anti-WR Criticism, from the Western Orthodoxy blog.
- The Western Rite, by Fr. Alexander Schmemann
- Notes and Comments on the "Western Rite", ibid.
- News: Bishop Anthony Issues Encyclical on "Western Rite"
- Correspondence on the Western Rite between Bishop Anthony (Gergiannakis) of San Francisco and Fr. Paul W.S. Schneirla
- Some Thoughts on the "Western Rite" In Orthodoxy, by Bishop Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia
- The Western Rite - Some Final Comments, by Fr. Steven Peter Tsichlis
- The "Western Rite": Is It Right for the Orthodox?, by Fr. Michael Johnson
News and Views
- Fr. Matthew Thurman's blog, Western Rite section (archive) - consisting primarily of original documents written by Fr. Alexander Turner and other WRV clergy.
- Occidentalis - maintained by Subdn. Benjamin Andersen (WRV), this blog is a source for this OrthodoxWiki entry. (permission required)
- Western Orthodoxy - Breaking news and views on the Western Rite.
- Oremus - Roman Rite in the Orthodox Church
- Western Rite Critic
- Western Rite Orthodoxy: Discussion of Western Rite Orthodoxy, focusing the Western Rite Vicariate (Antiochian). Most active participants are members of the Antiochian WRV.
- The Ely Forum: "Dedicated to the theological and liturgical heritage of The Church in the British Isles, the ancient Patriarchates of the Undivided Church and the restoration of our genuine heritage of Orthodox Christianity in the West. A place of sane, sensible, lively, discussion between Christian gentlemen." Founded by Fr. Michael of St. Petroc Monastery (ROCOR).
- Occidentalis: Dedicated to exploring genuine pre-schism Western Orthodoxy; moderated by Hieromonk Aidan (Keller) of the ROCOR.