Timeline of Church History
Apostolic era (33-96 A.D.)
- 33 The Holy Spirit descends on the day of Pentecost, filling the followers of Jesus Christ with power from on high.
- 69 St. Ignatius of Antioch consecrated to the episcopacy in Antioch.
- 95 Apostle John writes the Book of Revelation.
- 96 Death of the Apostle John the Theologian.
Ante-Nicene era (96-325 A.D.)
Nicene era (325-451 A.D.)
- 325 First Ecumenical Council held in Nicea, condemning Arianism, setting the Paschalion, and issuing the first version of the Nicene Creed.
- 367 St. Athanasius of Alexandria writes his Paschal letter, listing for the first time the canon of the New Testament of the Holy Scriptures.
- 381 Second Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople, condemning Macedonianism/Pneumatomachianism and Appollinarianism, confirming the previous Ecumenical Council and completing the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed.
- 398 St. John Chrysostom becomes Archbishop of Constantinople.
- 407 Death of John Chrysostom in exile.
- 431 Third Ecumenical Council held in Ephesus, condemning Nestorianism and Pelagianism, confirming the use of the term Theotokos to refer to the Virgin Mary.
- 433 The Formulary of Peace completes the work of the Third Ecumenical Council by reconciling Cyril of Alexandria with John of Antioch.
Byzantine era (451-843)
- 451 Fourth Ecumenical Council meets at Chalcedon, condemning Eutychianism and Monophysitism, affirming that Christ has two natures; a huge schism occurs, with the entire Church of Alexandria breaking from the rest of the Church, bringing large portions of the Church of Antioch along with it.
- 553 Fifth Ecumenical Council held in Constantinople in an attempt to reconcile the Chalcedonians with the non-Chalcedonians. The Three Chapters of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret of Cyrrhus, and Ibas of Edessa are condemned for their pro-Nestorian nature. Origen and his writings are also condemned.
- 589 At the Council of Toledo in Spain, the Filioque is added to the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed in an attempt to combat Arianism.
- 680-681 Sixth Ecumenical Council is held in Constantinople, condemning Monothelitism and affirming the Christology of St. Maximus the Confessor, affirming that Christ has both a natural (human) will and a divine will. Patriarch Sergius of Constantinople and Pope Honorius of Rome are both explicitly anathematized for their support of the Monothelite heresy.
- 692 Quinisext Council (also called the Penthekte Council or the Council in Trullo) is held in Constantinople, issuing canons which are seen as completing the work of the Fifth and Sixth Ecumenical Councils.
- 754 Iconoclastic Council is held in Constantinople under the authority of Emperor Constantine V Copronymus, condemning icons and declaring itself to be the Seventh Ecumenical Council.
- 787 Seventh Ecumenical Council is held in Nicea, condemning Iconoclasm and affirming the veneration of the holy icons, declaring that worship is due to God alone, and that the honor paid to icons passes to its prototype.
- 800 Charlemagne is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Leo III of Rome on Christmas day.
- 843 The Triumph of Orthodoxy occurs on the first Sunday of Great Lent, restoring the icons to the churches.
Late Byzantine era (843-1453)
- 869-870 The Robber Council of 869-870 is held, deposing St. Photius the Great from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne.
- 879-880 The Eighth Ecumenical Council is held in Constantinople, confirming Photius as Patriarch of Constantintople
- 988 Baptism of Russia begins with the conversion of St. Vladimir of Kiev.
- 1054 Cardinal Humbert excommunicates Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Consantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the Great Schism between East and West.
- 1204 Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade sack Constantinople, laying waste to the city and stealing many holy relics and other items.
- 1453 Constantinople falls to the invasion of the Ottoman Turks.