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The '''History of the Church''' is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of [[Jesus Christ]] to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic [[Holy Tradition]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].
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<!--- This is a large page that blanks out when edited as a full page, please edit one section at a time. ---> {{Template:Timeline of Church History}}
  
==Apostolic era (33-100)==
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{{Orthodoxchristianity}}
*33 The [[Holy Spirit]] descends on the day of [[Pentecost]], filling the followers of [[Jesus Christ]] with power from on high.
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The '''History of the Church''' is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of [[Jesus Christ]] to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic [[Holy Tradition]] of the [[Orthodox Church]].
*34 St. [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] founds the See of Antioch.
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*37 St. [[Joseph of Arimathea]] travels to Britain and lands in Glastonbury.
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==New Testament era==
*49 Apostolic Council of Jerusalem rules that Gentiles do not have to become Jews before becoming Christians.
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:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (New Testament Era)]]
*50 The [[Apostle Matthew]] finishes the [[Gospel of Matthew]] in Aramaic.
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*62 Martyrdom of [[Apostle James the Just]], the Lord's brother and bishop of Jerusalem.
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*ca. 27 BC - AD 180 [[Pax Romana]].
*63 St. [[Aristobulus]] consecrated as first Bishop of Britain.  
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*ca. 4 BC [[Nativity|Christ is born]] in Bethlehem; 14,000 [[Holy Innocents]] slain in Bethlehem.
*64-67 Persecution of Christians by Emperor Nero.
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*ca. 25-26 Death of [[Joseph the Betrothed]]. 
*64 Martyrdom of the [[Apostle Paul]] in Rome.
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*ca. 28 [[John the Forerunner|John the Baptist]] begins ministry.
*67 Martyrdom of the [[Apostle Peter]] in Rome; [[Apostle Linus]] elected first [[bishop]] of Rome.
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*ca. 28-30 Three year ministry of [[Jesus Christ]].
*68 Suicide of Emperor Nero.
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*ca. 30 Martyrdom of [[Apostle Stephen the Protomartyr|Stephen]] the deacon, first Christian martyr. 
*69 St. [[Ignatius of Antioch]] consecrated to the [[bishop|episcopacy]] in Antioch.
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*30 Conversion of [[Apostle Paul]].
*70 [[Apostle Mark]] writes his [[Gospel of Mark|Gospel]]; the Temple in Jerusalem is destroyed by the Romans; expulsion of the Christians from the synagogues.
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*71 [[Apostle Mark]] introduces Christianity to Egypt.
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==Apostolic era (33-100)==  
*75 Judea, Galilea and Samaria are renamed ''Palaestina'' by the Romans.
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: Main article:  ''[[Timeline of Church History (Apostolic Era (33-100))]]''
*80 [[Gospel of Luke]] written by the [[Apostle Luke]]; Jewish historian (and former general) [[Josephus]] writes the ''Antiquities''.
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*85 [[Acts of the Apostles]] is composed by the [[Apostle Luke]].
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*ca. 30-33 [[Holy Spirit]] descends on the day of [[Pentecost]].  
*95 [[Apostle John]] writes the [[Book of Revelation]].
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*34 [[Apostle Peter]] founds [[Church of Antioch|See of Antioch]]. 
*96-98 Persecution of Christians under Emperor Domitian.
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*35 Name ''Christian'' first used in Antioch.  
*96 [[Gospel of John]] written by [[Apostle John|that apostle]] as a supplement and further theological illumination of the [[Synoptic Gospels]].
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*37 [[Joseph of Arimathea]] travels to Britain and lands in [[Glastonbury]]. 
*100 Death of the [[Apostle John]] the Theologian.
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*40 [[Apostle Barnabas]] sent from Jerusalem to Antioch.
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*ca. 42 [[Apostle Paul]]'s ecstasy to the third heaven (2 Cor.12:2-4).
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*ca. 46-48 [[Apostle Paul]]'s first [[missionary]] journey, with [[Apostle Barnabas]].
 +
*49 [[Apostolic Council of Jerusalem]] rules that Gentiles do not have to become Jews before becoming Christians
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*ca. 49-52 [[Apostle Paul]]'s second [[missionary]] journey, with [[Apostle Silas]].
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*50 [[Apostle Matthew]] finishes the [[Gospel of Matthew]] in Aramaic
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*52 [[Apostle Thomas]] arrives in Kerala, introducing [[Church of India|Christianity to India]].
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*ca. 53-57 [[Apostle Paul]]'s third [[missionary]] journey (Acts 18:23 - 21:16).
 +
*ca. 59-62 [[Apostle Paul]]'s fourth [[missionary]] journey, voyage to Rome.
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*62 Martyrdom of [[Apostle James the Just]]; crucifixion of [[Apostle Andrew]] in Patras.  
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*63 [[Aristobulus]] consecrated as first bishop of Britain.  
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*64-68 First of ten major persecutions of the early Church, [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Nero.2C_64-68_A.D.|under Emperor Nero]].  
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*66 Flight of the Christian community in Jerusalem to [[w:Pella, Jordan|Pella]] and other places in the [[w:Decapolis|Decapolis]], and Antioch.
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*67 Martyrdom of Apostles [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] and [[Apostle Paul|Paul]] in Rome; [[Apostle Linus]] elected first [[bishop]] of Rome.  
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*69 [[Ignatius of Antioch]] consecrated [[bishop]] of Antioch.  
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*70 [[Apostle Mark]] writes [[Gospel of Mark|Gospel]]; [[w:Herod's Temple|Temple in Jerusalem]] is destroyed by the Romans; expulsion of Christians from synagogues.
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*71 [[Apostle Mark]] introduces Christianity to Egypt.    
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*80 [[Gospel of Luke]] written by the [[Apostle Luke]]; Titus dedicates [[w:Colosseum|Colosseum]], site of the martyrdom of many early Christians.
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*ca. 80-90 ''[[Didache]]'' written.  
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*85 [[Acts of the Apostles]] written by [[Apostle Luke]].  
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*90 [[w:Council of Jamnia|Council of Jamnia (Javneh)]] marks final separation and distinction between the Jewish and Christian communities, including rejection of the [[Septuagint]] widely then in use among the Hellenized Jewish diaspora. 
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*95 [[Apostle John]] writes [[Book of Revelation]].  
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*ca. 90-96 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Domitian|Persecution of Christians under Emperor Domitian]] (2nd).  
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*96 [[Gospel of John]] written by [[Apostle John]].
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*ca. 100 Emergence of [[w:Catacombs_of_Rome#Christian_catacombs_2|Christian Catacombs]].  
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*100 Death of [[Apostle John]].
  
 
==Ante-Nicene era (100-325)==
 
==Ante-Nicene era (100-325)==
*107 Martyrdom of [[Ignatius of Antioch]].
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: ''Main article:  [[Timeline of Church History (Ante-Nicene Era (100-325))]]''
*130 Conversion of [[Justin Martyr]].
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*132 Jews, led by Bar Kochba, whom some identify as the Messiah, revolt against Rome.
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*107 Martyrdom of [[Ignatius of Antioch]]; death of [[Apostle Symeon]].
*135 [[Christmas]] instituted as a [[feast day|holy day]] in Rome.
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*108-124 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Trajan|Persecution under Emperor Trajan]], continuing under Emperor Hadrian (3rd).
*136 Emperor Hadrian crushes the Jewish resistance, forbids Jews from ever entering Jerusalem, and changes the name of the city to ''Aelia Capitolina''; first recorded use of the title ''Pope'' for the bishop of Rome by Pope [[Hyginus of Rome|Hyginus]].
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*120 Beginning of time of the Apologists: [[Justin Martyr]], [[Apostle Aristides|Aristides]], [[Tatian]], [[Athenagoras of Athens]], [[Theophilus]], [[Minucius Felix]], [[Tertullian]] and [[Apostle Quadratus|Quadratus]].
*144 Excommunication of [[Marcion]] for his [[heresy|heretical]] rejection of the [[Old Testament]] and for his semi-[[Gnosticism|Gnostic]] teachings, particularly [[Docetism]].
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*124 Apostles [[Apostle Quadratus|Quadratus]] and [[Apostle Aristides|Aristides]] present Christian apologies to Emperor Hadrian at Athens.
*150 St. [[Justin Martyr]] describes the [[Divine Liturgy]].
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*128 [[w:Aquila of Sinope|Aquila's]] Greek translation of the [[Old Testament]].
*155 Martyrdom of [[Polycarp of Smyrna]].
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*130 [[Conversion]] of [[Justin Martyr]].  
*156 Beginning of [[Montanism]].
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*132 Jews, led by Bar Kochba, whom some identify as the Messiah, revolt against Rome.  
*165 Martyrdom of [[Justin Martyr|Justin]].
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*135 [[Christmas]] instituted as a [[feast day]] in Rome.  
*180 St. [[Irenaeus of Lyons]] writes ''Against Heresies''.
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*136 Emperor Hadrian crushes Jewish resistance, forbids Jews from returning Jerusalem, and changes city name to ''Aelia Capitolina''; first recorded use of title ''Pope'' for the bishop of Rome by Pope [[Hyginus of Rome|Hyginus]].  
*190 [[Pantaenus]] founds the [[Alexandrian school|Catechetical School at Alexandria]].  
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*144 Excommunication of [[Marcion]].  
*197 [[Quartodeciman]] controversy.
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*150 [[Justin Martyr]] describes [[Divine Liturgy]].  
*200 Martyrdom of St. [[Irenaeus of Lyons]].
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*155 Martyrdom of [[Polycarp of Smyrna]].  
*203 Emperor Septimus Severus issues an edict against Christianity and [[Judaism]].
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*156 Beginning of [[Montanism]].  
*206 King Abgar IX converts Edessa to Christianity.
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*165 Martyrdom of [[Justin Martyr|Justin]]. 
*215 Conversion of [[Tertullian]] to [[Montanism]].
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*166 Pope [[Soter of Rome|Soter]] inaugurates in Rome a separate annual feast for [[Pascha]], in addition to the weekly [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] celebrations of the [[Resurrection]], which is also held on a Sunday, in contrast to the [[Quartodeciman|Quartodecimans]].  
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*ca. 175 Tatian's [[w:Diatessaron|Diatessaron]] harmonizes the four canonical gospels into single narrative.
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*177-180 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Marcus_Aurelius|Persection under Emperor Marcus Aurelius]] (161-180) (4th).
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*180 [[Irenaeus of Lyons]] writes ''Against Heresies''; [[Dyfan]] first martyr in British Isles.
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*180-192 [[w:Theodotion|Theodotion's]] Greek translation of the [[Old Testament]].
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*193-211 [[w:Symmachus the Ebionite|Symmachus']] Greek translation of the [[Old Testament]].      
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*197 [[Quartodeciman]] controversy.  
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*200 Martyrdom of [[Irenaeus of Lyons]].  
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*202 Emperor Septimus Severus issues edict against Christianity and [[Judaism]]; Martyrdom of [[Haralampus of Magnesia]].     
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*202-210 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Septimus_Severus|Persecution under Emperor Septimius Severus]] (193-211) (5th).
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*206 King Abgar IX converts Edessa to Christianity.     
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*ca. 209 Martyrdom of [[Alban]] in Britain. 
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*210 [[Hippolytus of Rome]], bishop and martyr and last of Greek-speaking fathers in Rome, writes ''[[w:Refutation of all Heresies|Refutation of All Heresies]]'' (''Philosophumena''), and ''Apostolic Tradition''.
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*215 Conversion of [[Tertullian]] to [[Montanism]].  
 
*225 Death of [[Tertullian]].
 
*225 Death of [[Tertullian]].
*232 Heraclas becomes Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria on the death of Demetrius.
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*ca. 225-250 ''[[w:Didascalia Apostolorum|Didascalia Apostolorum]]'' written.
*246 [[Paul of Thebes]] retreats to the Egyptian desert and becomes the first Christian hermit.  
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*227 [[Origen]] begins ''Commentary on Genesis'', completes work on ''First Principles''.
*249-251 Persecution under the Emperor Decius.
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*235-238 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Maximinus_the_Thracian|Persecution under Emperor Maximinus Thrax]] (6th); martyrdom of St. [[Hippolytus of Rome]].
*251-253 Persecution under Emperor Gaius.
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*238 During reigns of Gordian and [[w:Philip the Arab|Philip the Arab]] Church  preaches openly and increasingly attracts well-educated converts.
*253-260 Persecution under Emperor Valerian.
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*ca. 240 [[Origen]] produces [[Hexapla]].
*260 [[Paul of Samosata]] begins his heretical preaching against the divinity of Christ.
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*244 [[w:Plotinus|Plotinus]] founds [[w:Neoplatonism|Neoplatonist]] school in Rome in opposition to Church.
*264 Excommunication of [[Paul of Samosata]].
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*246 [[Paul of Thebes]] becomes in Egypt first Christian hermit
*284 Diocletian ascends the Roman imperial throne, and begins the most severe persecution against the Christians.  During his reign, an estimated 1 million [[martyr]]s are slain for Christ.
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*247 Rome celebrates thousandth anniversary, witnessing a period of increased persecution of Christians.
*285 St. [[Anthony the Great]] flees to the desert to pursue a life of prayer.
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*248 [[Origen]] writes ''Against Celsus'' that the [[Pax Romana|Roman Empire was ordained by God]].  
*301 St. [[Gregory the Illuminator]] converts King Tiridates I of Armenia to the Christian faith.
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*249-251 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Decius_Trajan|Persecution under Emperor Decius]] (7th).  
*304 [[Alban]], protomartyr of Britain, killed by Roman authorities.
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*257-260 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Valerian|Persecution under Emperor Valerian]] (253-260) (8th).  
*310 Armenia becomes the first Christian nation.
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*258 Martyrdom of [[Cyprian of Carthage]].
*311 Rebellion of the [[Donatism|Donatists]] in Carthage.
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*260 [[Paul of Samosata]] begins preaching against the divinity of Christ; Synod in Rome condemns Sabellianism and Subordinationism.  
*312 Conversion of [[Constantine the Great]], who defeats Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge and becomes Emperor of the West.
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*264 Excommunication of [[Paul of Samosata]].  
*313 The [[Edict of Milan]] is issued by St. [[Constantine the Great]] and his co-emperor Licinius, officially declaring religious freedom in the Roman Empire and specifically naming toleration for Christianity.
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*265 ''[[Homoousios]]'' used for first time by Modalist Monarchians of Cyrene.
*314 Condemnation of [[Donatism]] as a heresy.
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*274-275 [[w:Persecution_of_early_Christians_in_the_Roman_Empire#Persecution_under_Aurelian|Persecution under Emperor Aurelian]] (9th). 
*318 Publication of "De incarnatione" by St Athanasius. This influenced the conemnation of the teaching of [[Arius]]
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*270 Death of [[Gregory the Wonderworker|Gregory Thaumaturgus]]; [[w:Porphyry of Tyre|Porphyry of Tyre]] writes ''Against the Christians''.   
*318 St. [[Pachomius the Great]], a disciple of [[Anthony the Great]], organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt, founding cenobitic [[monasticism]].
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*284 [[Diocletian]] becomes Roman emperor, persecutes Church and martyrs an estimated one million Christians; martyrdom of [[Cosmas and Damian (Rome)|Cosmas and Damian]], Andrew Stratelates ("the General") and 2,593 soldiers with him in Cilicia.
*320 Expulsion of [[Arius]] by St. [[Alexander of Alexandria]].
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*285 [[Anthony the Great]] flees to desert. 
*323 [[Constantine the Great]] builds a church on the site of the martyrdom of St. [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] in Rome.
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*300 Christian population reaches about 6,200,000, or 10.5% of the population of the Roman Empire.
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*301 [[Gregory the Enlightener]] converts King Tiridates I of Armenia to the Christian faith.  
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*302 20,000 Martyrs burned at Nicomedia. 
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*303 Outbreak of the [[w:Diocletianic Persecution|Great Persecution]] (303-311) (10th); martyrdom of [[George the Trophy-bearer]].   
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*ca. 305-311 [[Lactantius]] writes ''[[Divinae Institutiones]]''.
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*ca. 306 [[w:Synod of Elvira|Synod of Elvira]] requires clerical celibacy and sets severe disciplinary penalties for apostasy and adultery, becoming the pattern in the West.
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*308 Pope [[w:Pope Marcellus I|Marcellus]] opposes leniency for Christians who lapsed under persecution.  
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*310 Armenia becomes first Christian nation; persecution of Christians under Persian King [[w:Shapur II|Shapur II]] (310-379).  
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*311 Galerius issues Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire; [[Donatism|Donatist]] rebellion in Carthage.  
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*312 [[Labarum|Vision]] and conversion of [[Constantine the Great]]; defeat of Maxentius at the [[Battle of Milvian Bridge]], making Constantine Emperor of the West; martyrdom of [[Lucian of Antioch]].
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*313 [[Edict of Milan]] issued by [[Constantine the Great]] and co-emperor Licinius, officially declaring religious freedom in the Roman Empire.  
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*314 [[Council of Ancyra]] held; [[Council of Arles of 314|Council of Arles]] condemns [[Donatism]]
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*315 [[Council of Neo-Caesaria]] held.  
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*318 Publication of ''[[On the Incarnation]]'' by [[Athanasius the Great]]; beginnings of [[Arianism|Arian Controversy]]
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*318 [[Pachomius the Great]] organizes a community of ascetics at Tabennis in Egypt, founding [[cenobitic]] [[monasticism]].    
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*320 Expulsion of [[Arius]] by [[Alexander of Alexandria]]; martyrdom of [[Forty Martyrs of Sebaste]]. 
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*320-21 Licinius' measures against Christians in the East enforced.
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*321 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] declares [[Lord's Day|Sunday]] a holiday in honor of the [[Resurrection]].
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*323 [[Constantine the Great]] builds church on the site of the martyrdom of [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] in Rome
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*324 [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]] defeats Licinius and becomes sole emperor.
  
==Nicene era (325-451)==
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==Nicene era (325-451)==  
*325 [[First Ecumenical Council]] held in Nicea, condemning [[Arianism]], setting the [[Paschalion]], and issuing the first version of the [[Nicene Creed]].
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: ''Main article:  [[Timeline of Church History (Nicene Era (325-451))]]''
*326 Discovery of the [[True Cross]] by the Empress St. [[Helen]]a.
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*326 King Miraeus of Georgia becomes Christian.
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*325 [[First Ecumenical Council]] held in Nicea, condemning [[Arianism]], setting the [[Paschalion]], and issuing the first version of the [[Nicene Creed]], also establishing the supremacy of honor of the Apostolic Sees as Rome, followed by Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.  
*328 [[Athanasius the Great]] becomes bishop of Alexandria.
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*326 Discovery of the [[True Cross]] by the Empress [[Helen]]a; King Miraeus of Georgia becomes Christian.  
*329 St. [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]] ordains St. [[Frumentius]] (Abba Selama) to the [[priest]]hood and commissions him to apostolic work in Ethiopia.
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*328 [[Athanasius the Great]] becomes bishop of Alexandria.  
*330 Amoun and [[Macarius the Great]] found monasteries in the Egyptian desert.
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*329 [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]] ordains [[Frumentius of Axum|Frumentius]] (Abba Selama) to [[priest]]hood and commissions him to evangelize Ethiopia.  
*336 St [[Athanasius the Great]] of Alexandria goes into exile in Treves until 338. He told the Europeans about the rule of St [[Pachomius the Great]], thus awakening interest in [[monasticism]] in Europe
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*330 Byzantium refounded as ''Constantinople / New Rome'', Christian capital of the Roman Empire, and is dedicated to the [[Theotokos]] by Emperor [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]]; Amoun and [[Macarius the Great]] found monasteries in the Egyptian desert.      
*340 Conversion of [[Wulfila]] to [[Arianism]], subsequently missionizing the Goths with his heretical doctrine.
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*336-338 [[Athanasius the Great]] goes into exile in Treves, telling Europeans about the monastic rule of [[Pachomius the Great]], awakening interest in [[monasticism]] in Europe
*348 Death of St. [[Pachomius the Great]].
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*337 Death of [[Constantine the Great|Constantine]].     
*350 St. [[Ninian]] establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland, beginning the missionary effort to the Picts.
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*340 Conversion of [[Wulfila]] to [[Arianism]].  
*356 Death of St. [[Anthony the Great]].
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*341 [[Council of Antioch]] held; Emperor Constans bans pagan sacrifices and magic rituals under penalty of death. 
*358 [[Basil the Great]] founds the monastery of Annesos in Pontus, the model for Eastern [[monasticism]].
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*345 Death of [[Nicholas of Myra]].     
*360 St. [[Martin of Tours]] founds first French monastery at Liguge.
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*348 Death of [[Pachomius the Great]] and [[Spyridon of Trimythous]].  
*367 St. [[Athanasius of Alexandria]] writes his [[Pascha]]l letter, listing for the first time the [[canon]] of the [[New Testament]] of the [[Holy Scriptures]].
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*350 [[Ninian]] establishes the church Candida Casa at Whithorn in Galloway, Scotland, beginning the [[missionary]] effort to the Picts.  
*374 Election of [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]] to the episcopacy of Milan.
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*351 Apparition of the [[Cross]] over Jerusalem. 
*375 St. [[Basil the Great]] writes ''On the Holy Spirit'', confirming the divinity of the [[Holy Spirit]].
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*355 Death of [[Nino of Cappadocia]]. 
*376 Visigoths converted to [[Arianism|Arian]] Christianity.
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*356 Death of [[Anthony the Great]].  
*380 Christianity established as the official faith of the Roman Empire by Emperor St. [[Theodosius the Great]].
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*357 [[Council of Sirmium]] issues ''Blasphemy of Sirmium''. 
*381 [[Second Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Pneumatomachianism|Macedonianism/Pneumatomachianism]] and [[Appollinarianism]], declaring the divinity of the Holy Spirit, confirming the previous [[Ecumenical Council]], and completing the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]].
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*358 [[Basil the Great]] founds monastery of Annesos in Pontus, the model for Eastern [[monasticism]].  
*395 St. [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] becomes bishop of Hippo.  
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*359 Councils of [[Council of Seleucia|Seleucia]] and [[Council of Rimini|Rimini]]. 
*398 St. [[John Chrysostom]] becomes [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople.
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*360 [[Martin of Tours]] founds first French monastery at Liguge; first church of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] inaugurated by Emperor [[w:Constantius II|Constantius II]]. 
*400 Translation of the [[Holy Scriptures]] into Latin as the [[Vulgate]] by St. [[Jerome]].
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*362 Antiochian schism (362-414). 
*401 St. [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes the ''Confessions''.
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*361-63 [[Julian the Apostate]] becomes Roman emperor and attempts to restore paganism. 
*403 Abduction of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Ireland to serve as a slave; he escapes a while later and returns to Britain.
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*363 Emperor [[w:Jovian|Jovian]] reestablishes Christianity as the official religion of the Empire.  
*407 Death of [[John Chrysostom]] in exile.
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*364 [[Council of Laodicea]] held.   
*410 Fall of Rome to the Visigoths.  
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*367 [[Athanasius of Alexandria]] writes [[Pascha]]l letter, listing for the first time the [[canon]] of the [[New Testament]]; death of [[Hilary of Poitiers]]. 
*411 [[Pelagius]] condemned at a council in Carthage.
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*373 Death of [[Athanasius the Great]] and [[Ephrem the Syrian]].  
*415 [[Pelagius]] cleared at a [[synod]] in Jerusalem and a provincial synod in Diospolis (Lydda); St. [[John Cassian]] founds convent at Marseilles.  
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*374 Election of [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]] as bishop of Milan.  
*416 Councils in Carthage and Milevis condemn [[Pelagius]] and convince Pope Innocent I of Rome to excommunicate him.
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*375 [[Basil the Great]] writes ''[[On the Holy Spirit]]''.  
*418 A council in Carthage anathematizes [[Pelagianism]] by way of endorsing [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustinian]] anthropology.
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*376 Visigoths convert to [[Arianism|Arian]] Christianity.  
*426 St. [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''The City of God''.
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*379 Death of [[Basil the Great]]; Emperor Gratian's rescript ''Ordinariorum Sententias'' extends power of Bishop of Rome by allowing him authority over bishops within his own jurisdiction. 
*428 [[Nestorius]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.
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*380 Christianity established as the official faith of the Roman Empire by Emperor [[Theodosius the Great]]; [[Council of Saragossa]] condemns [[Priscillianism]].  
*431 [[Third Ecumenical Council]] held in Ephesus, condemning [[Nestorianism]] and [[Pelagianism]], confirming the use of the term ''[[Theotokos]]'' to refer to the Virgin Mary; the council also grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of Cyprus]]; [[Palladius]] is sent by the Pope of Rome as a missionary bishop to Ireland.
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*381 [[Second Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Pneumatomachianism|Macedonianism/Pneumatomachianism]] and [[Apollinarianism]], declaring the divinity of the Holy Spirit, confirming the previous [[Ecumenical Council]], and completing the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]]; [[Council of Aquileia]] led by [[Ambrose of Milan]] deposes Arian bishops. 
*432 Return of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Ireland to begin missionary work.
+
*382 Pope [[Siricius of Rome]] first to bear title ''Pontifex Maximus''.     
*433 The [[Formulary of Peace]] completes the work of the [[Third Ecumenical Council]] by reconciling [[Cyril of Alexandria]] with [[John of Antioch]].
+
*383 Death of [[Frumentius of Axum]], bishop of Axum and Apostle to Ethiopia.
*445 Founding of the monastery at Armagh in northern Ireland.
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*384 Council of Bordeaux condemns [[Priscillian]]. 
*450 First monasteries established in Wales.
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*385 Death of [[Gregory of Nyssa]]. 
 +
*386 Death of [[Cyril of Jerusalem]].
 +
*387 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] baptized by [[Ambrose of Milan]]. 
 +
*391 Death of [[Gregory the Theologian]].   
 +
*391-92 Closing of all non-Christian temples in the Empire; [[Theodosius the Great (emperor)|Theodosius the Great]] ends pagan Eleusinian Mysteries by decree and causes surviving pagan sacrifices at Alexandria and Rome to cease. 
 +
*392 Death of [[Macarius the Great]].   
 +
*393 [[Council of Hippo]] publishes Biblical canon; Emperor Theodosius bans Olympic Games as a pagan festival. 
 +
*394 [[Epiphanius of Salamis]] attacks teachings of [[Origen]] as heretical; Council of Constantinople held; [[Donatism|Donatist]] [[Council of Bagai]] in Africa held.  
 +
*395 [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]] becomes bishop of Hippo in North Africa; placing of the cincture of the [[Theotokos]] in the Church of the Virgin in Halkoprateia-Constantinople.  
 +
*395 Re-division of Empire with death of Emperor Theodosius the Great. 
 +
*397 [[Councils of Carthage|Council of Carthage]] publishes Biblical canon; death of [[Martin of Tours]] and [[Ambrose of Milan]]. 
 +
*398 [[John Chrysostom]] becomes [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople.  
 +
*ca. 398 Martyrdom of 10,000 Fathers of the Scetis by Patriarch [[Theophilus of Alexandria]]
 +
*399 [[Anastasius I of Rome]] and other bishops condemn doctrine of [[Origen]].  
 +
*401 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''Confessions''; Pope [[Innocent I of Rome]] supports [[John Chrysostom]] and condemns [[pelagianism]].
 +
*402 [[Porphyry of Gaza]] obtains imperial decree ordering closing of pagan temples in Gaza. 
 +
*403 Abduction of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Irelande; visit of [[Victricius of Rouen]] to Britain; [[Synod of the Oak]] held near Chalcedon, deposing and exiling [[John Chrysostom]]. 
 +
*404 Martyrdom of [[Telemachus]], resulting in Emperor Honorius' edict banning gladiator fights. 
 +
*405 Translation of [[Holy Scriptures]] into Latin as the [[Vulgate]] by [[Jerome]].
 +
*407 Death of [[John Chrysostom]] in exile.  
 +
*410 Fall of Rome to the Visigoths under Alaric I; escape of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] back to Britain; Emperor Honorius tells Britain to attend to its own affairs, effectively removing the Roman presence. 
 +
*410 [[Council of Seleucia]] declares Mesopotamian [[Nestorianism|Nestorian]] bishops independent of Orthodox bishops.  
 +
*411 [[Pelagius]] condemned at council in Carthage; [[Rabbula of Edessa|Rabbula]] becomes bishop of Edessa. 
 +
*412 [[Cyril of Alexandria|Cyril]] succeeds his uncle Theophilus as Pope of Alexandria; Honorius outlaws [[Donatism]]; Bishops Lazarus of Aix-en-Provence and Herod of Arles expelled from sees on a charge of [[Manichaeism]]; ''[[Byzantine Creation Era#Alexandrian Era|Alexandrian Creation Era]]'' date finalized at 25 March, 5493 BC.  
 +
*414 Resolution of Antiochian division. 
 +
*415 [[Pelagius]] cleared at [[synod]] in Jerusalem and a provincial synod in Diospolis (Lydda); [[John Cassian]] founds convent at Marseilles.  
 +
*416 Councils in Carthage and Milevis condemn [[Pelagius]] and convince Pope Innocent I of Rome to excommunicate him.  
 +
*418 Foundation of the Arian [[w:Visigothic Kingdom|Visigothic Kingdom]], as Emperor Honorius rewards Visigoth federates by giving them land in Gallia Aquitania on which to settle. 
 +
*418-24 Council in Carthage anathematizes [[Pelagianism]] by way of endorsing [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustinian]] [[anthropology]].  
 +
*426 [[Augustine of Hippo]] writes ''The City of God''.  
 +
*428 [[Nestorius]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.  
 +
*429 Pope [[Celestine of Rome|Celestine I]] dispatches prominent Gallo-Roman Bishops [[Germanus of Auxerre]] and Lupus of Troyes to Britain as [[missionary]] bishops and to combat the [[Pelagianism|Pelagian]] heresy; death of [[Sisoes the Great]].     
 +
*430 [[Peter the Iberian]] founds Georgian monastery near Bethlehem. 
 +
*431 [[Third Ecumenical Council]] held in Ephesus, condemning [[Nestorianism]] and [[Pelagianism]], confirming the use of the term ''[[Theotokos]]'' to refer to the Virgin Mary, and confirming [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Cyprus]]; Pope Celestine sends [[Palladius]] to Ireland.  
 +
*432 Return of [[Patrick of Ireland|Patrick]] to Ireland to begin [[missionary]] work; death of [[Ninian]], Apostle to the Picts.  
 +
*433 [[Formulary of Peace]] completes work of [[Third Ecumenical Council]] by reconciling [[Cyril of Alexandria]] with [[John of Antioch]].  
 +
*435 Death of [[John Cassian]] and [[Acacius of Melitene]]; [[Nestorius]] exiled by imperial edict to a monastery in a Sahara oasis. 
 +
*438 [[w:Codex Theodosianus|Codex Theodosianus]] published. 
 +
*439 Carthage falls to Vandals.   
 +
*444 Death of [[Cyril of Alexandria]]; Pope [[Leo the Great]] abolishes Gallican vicariate. 
 +
*445 Founding of monastery at Armagh in northern Ireland; Emperor Valentinian III issues decree recognizing primacy of the bishop of Rome. 
 +
*447 Earthquake in Constantinople, when a boy was lifted up to heaven and heard the [[Trisagion]]. 
 +
*449 [[Robber Synod of Ephesus]], presided over by [[Dioscorus of Alexandria]], with an order from the emperor to acquit [[Eutyches]] the [[Monophysitism|Monophysite]].  
 +
*450 First monasteries established in Wales; death of [[Peter Chrysologus]].
  
 
==Byzantine era (451-843)==
 
==Byzantine era (451-843)==
*451 [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] meets at Chalcedon, condemning [[Eutychianism]] and [[Monophysitism]], affirming that Christ has two natures; this eventually led to a [[schism]], with the [[Church of Alexandria]] being divided into Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian factions, with a similar schism occurring in the [[Church of Antioch]] along with it.
+
: ''Main article:  [[Timeline of Church History (Byzantine Era (451-843))]]''
*452 Proterios, who was appointed Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria to replace Dioscuros (who had been deposed at the Council of Chalcedon) convened a synod in Alexandria to try to reconcile the Chalcedonian and non-Chalcedonian groups.
 
*466 [[Church of Antioch]] elevates the bishop of Mtskheta to the rank of Catholicos of Kartli, thus rendering the [[Church of Georgia]] [[autocephaly|autocephalous]].
 
*477 Bishop Timothy ("the Wild Cat") of Alexandria, who opposed the Council of Chalcedon, exiled the Orthodox bishops from Egypt.
 
*484 Founding of the Monastery of St. Sabbas in the Judean wilderness; Synod of Beth Papat in Persia declares the [[Nestorianism|Nestorian doctrine]] as the official theology of the [[Assyrian Church of the East]], centered in Edessa.
 
  
*490 St. [[Brigid of Kildaire|Brigid]] founds the monastery of Kildare in Ireland.
+
*451 [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] meets at Chalcedon, condemning [[Eutychianism]] and [[Monophysitism]], affirming doctrine of two perfect and indivisible but distinct natures in Christ, and recognizing [[Church of Jerusalem]] as patriarchate.
*521 St. [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] is born.  
+
*452 [[Proterios of Alexandria]] convenes synod in Alexandria to reconcile Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians; second finding of the Head of [[John the Forerunner]].   
*529 St. [[Benedict of Nursia]] founds the monastery of Monte Cassino and codifies Western [[monasticism]]; [[Council of Orange]] condemns [[Pelagianism]].
+
*457 Victorius of Aquitania computes new [[Paschalion]]; first coronation of Byzantine Emperor by patriarch of Constantinople. 
*533 Mercurius is elected Pope of Rome and takes the name of [[John II of Rome|John II]], the first pope to change his name upon election.
+
*459 Death of [[Symeon the Stylite]].   
*533 Foundation of the Diocese of Selefkia in Central Africa by the Emperor Justinian.
+
*461 Death of [[Leo the Great]] and [[Patrick of Ireland]]. 
*534 Roman Empire destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals.
+
*462 [[Indiction]] moved to [[September 1]]; [[Studion Monastery]] founded. 
*537 Construction of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople begun by Emperor St. [[Justinian the Great]].
+
*466 [[Church of Antioch]] elevates bishop of Mtskheta to rank of [[Catholicos]] of Kartli, rendering the [[Church of Georgia]] [[autocephaly|autocephalous]]; death of [[Shenouda the Archimandrite|Shenouda the Great]], abbott of White Monastery in Egypt, considered the founder of [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Christianity]]. 
*541 [[Jacob Baradeus]], bishop of Edessa, organizes the [[Oriental Orthodox|Non-Chalcedonian Church]] in western Syria (the "Jacobites"), which spreads to Armenia and Egypt (the "Copts").
+
*ca. 471 Patr. [[Acacius of Constantinople]] first called ''Oikoumenikos'' ("Ecumenical"). 
*544 Founding of the monastery at Clonmacnoise in Ireland by St. [[Ciaran of Clonmacnoise|Ciaran]].
+
*473 Death of [[Euthymius the Great]]. 
*546 St. [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds the monastery of Derry in Ireland.
+
*475 Emperor [[w:Basiliscus|Basiliscus]] issues letter to bishops of empire, supporting [[Monophysitism]].   
*553 [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople in an attempt to reconcile the Chalcedonians with the non-Chalcedonians&mdash; the ''Three Chapters'' of [[Theodore of Mopsuestia]], [[Theodoret of Cyrrhus]], and [[Ibas of Edessa]] are condemned for their pro-[[Nestorianism|Nestorian]] nature, and [[Origen]] and his writings are also condemned.
+
*477 [[Timothy II Aelurus of Alexandria|Timothy Aelurus]] of Alexandria exiles Chalcedonian bishops from Egypt. 
*556 St. [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds the monastery of Durrow in Ireland.
+
*482 Byzantine emperor [[Zeno (emperor)|Zeno I]] issues ''[[Henoticon]]''. 
*563 Consecration of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantniople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople; St. [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] arrives on [[Iona]] and establishes his [[monastery]] there.
+
*484 [[Acacian Schism]]. 
*569 Final schism between the Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians in Egypt. Henceforth there were two Popes and Patriarchs of Alexandria: the Greek Orthodox Patriarch and the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch. The Coptic Patriarch later moved to Cairo. The Chalcedonians (Greek Orthodox) were also called "Melkites".
+
*484 Founding of [[Holy Lavra of St. Savas (Jerusalem)|Mar Sabbas Monastery]] by [[Sabbas the Sanctified]]; [[Synod of Beth Lapat]] in Persia declares [[Nestorianism]] as official theology of [[Assyrian Church of the East]], effectively separating the Assyrian church from the Byzantine church.   
*570 Birth of Mohammed, founder of [[Islam]].
+
*489 Emperor [[Zeno (emperor)|Zeno I]] closes [[w:School of Nisibis|Nestorian academy in Edessa]], which was then transferred under Sassanian Persian auspices to Nisibis, becoming the spiritual center of the [[Assyrian Church of the East]]. 
*580 Monte Cassino is sacked by the Lombards and the monks flee to Rome.
+
*490 [[Brigid of Kildaire]] founds monastery of Kildare in Ireland.  
*589 At the [[Council of Toledo]] in Spain, the [[Filioque]] is added to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]] in an attempt to combat [[Arianism]].
+
*494 Pope [[Gelasius I of Rome]] delineates relationship between Church and state in his letter ''Duo sunt'', written to Emperor [[Anastasius I]]. 
*590 Irish missionary St. [[Columbanus]] founds monasteries in France (Luxeuil in Burgundy).
+
*496 [[Remigius of Rheims]] baptizes Franks into Orthodox Christianity. 
*596 St. [[Gregory the Dialogist]] sends St. [[Augustine of Canterbury|Augustine]] along with forty other monks to southern Britain to convert the pagans.
+
*ca. 500 [[Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite]] writes ''The Mystical Theology''.   
*601 [[Augustine of Canterbury]] converts King St. [[Ethelbert of Kent]] and establishes the see of Canterbury.
+
*506 [[Church of Armenia]] separates from Chalcedonian Orthodoxy. 
*615 Death of [[Columbanus]] in Italy.
+
*507 Clovis I defeats the Arian Visigoths at [[w:Battle of Vouillé|Battle of Vouillé]] near Poitiers, ending their power in Gaul.   
*627 Pope St. [[Gregory the Dialogist]] sends Paulinus to found the see of York and convert King St. [[Edwin of Northumbria]].
+
*518 [[Severus of Antioch]] deposed by Emperor [[Justin I]] for Monophysitism; Patr. [[John II of Constantinople]] is addressed as ''Oikoumenikos Patriarches'' ("Ecumenical Patriarch"). 
*635 [[Lindisfarne]] sees the establishment of the monastery that would convert northern England by the missionary saint [[Aidan of Lindisfarne|Aidan]], a monk from [[Iona]]; Cynegils, king of Wessex, converts to Christianity.
+
*519 Eastern and Western churches reconciled with end of [[Acacian Schism]].   
*636 Capture of Jerusalem by the Muslim Arabs.
+
*521 Birth of [[Columba of Iona]].   
*638 Arabs allow Jews to return to Jerusalem.
+
*527 [[Dionysius Exiguus]] calculates the date of birth of Jesus incorrectly; foundation of [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]] on the Sinai peninsula by [[Justinian the Great]].      
*639 Muslim conquest of Syria.
+
*529 Pagan University of Athens closed and replaced by Christian university in Constantinople; [[Benedict of Nursia]] founds monastery of [[Monte Cassino]] and codifies Western [[monasticism]]; [[Council of Orange]] condemns [[Pelagianism]]; death of [[Theodosius the Great]].   
*641 The capture of the great city of Alexandria by Muslim Arabs.
+
*529-534 [[Justinian the Great|Justinian]]'s ''[[w:Corpus Juris Civilis|Corpus Juris Civilis]]'' issued. 
 +
*530 [[Brendan the Navigator]] lands in Newfoundland, Canada, establishing a short-lived community of Irish monks. 
 +
*532 [[Justinian the Great]] orders building of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]]; death of [[Sabbas the Sanctified]].  
 +
*533 Mercurius elected Pope of Rome and takes the name of [[John II of Rome|John II]], first pope to change name upon election.    
 +
*534 Roman Empire destroys the Arian kingdom of Vandals.  
 +
*536 [[Mennas of Constantinople]] summons a synod anathematizing [[Severus of Antioch]]. 
 +
*537 Construction of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] in Constantinople completed.
 +
*538 Emperor [[Justinian the Great]], via deportations and force, manages to get [[Pentarchy|all five patriarchates]] offcially into communion.
 +
*539 [[Ravenna]] becomes exarchate of [[Byzantine Empire]]. 
 +
*541 [[Jacob Baradeus]] organizes the [[Oriental Orthodox|Non-Chalcedonian Church]] in western Syria (the "Jacobites"), which spreads to Armenia and Egypt.  
 +
*543 Doctrine of [[apokatastasis]] condemned by Synod of Constantinople.   
 +
*544 [[Jacob Baradeus]] consecrates Sergius of Tella as bishop of Antioch, opening the lasting schism between the [[Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Syriac Orthodox Church]] and the Chalcedonian [[Church of Antioch]]; founding of the monastery at Clonmacnoise in Ireland by [[Ciaran of Clonmacnoise|Ciaran]].  
 +
*545 [[David of Wales]] moves primatial see of Britain from Caerleon to Menevia (St. Davids's). 
 +
*546 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds monastery of Derry in Ireland.  
 +
*547 [[David of Wales]] does obeisance to the Patriarch of Jerusalem. 
 +
*553 [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople in an attempt to reconcile Chalcedonians with non-Chalcedonians&mdash; ''[[Three Chapters]]'' of [[Theodore of Mopsuestia]], [[Theodoret of Cyrrhus]], and [[Ibas of Edessa]] are condemned for their [[Nestorianism]], and [[Origen]] and his writings are also condemned.  
 +
*553 Bishops of Aquileia, Milan, Venetia and the Istrian peninsula in Italy all refuse to condemn the ''Three Chapters'', causing [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] in those areas, leading to independence of [[Patriarch of Venice]] from [[Patriarch of Aquileia]]; Ostrogoth kingdom conquered by the Byzantines after the [[w:Battle of Mons Lactarius|Battle of Mons Lactarius]]. 
 +
*554 [[Church of Armenia]] officially [[schism|breaks]] with West in 554, during the second Council of Dvin where the dyophysite formula of [[Fourth Ecumenical Council|Chalcedon]] was rejected. 
 +
*556 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] founds monastery of Durrow in Ireland; death of [[Roman the Melodist]].  
 +
*557 [[Brendan the Navigator]] founds monastery at Clonfert, Ireland.  
 +
*563 [[Columba of Iona|Columba]] arrives on [[Iona]] and establishes [[monastery]] there, founding mission to the Picts.    
 +
*569 Final schism between Chalcedonians and non-Chalcedonians in Egypt; [[David of Wales]] holds [[Synod of Victoria]] to re-assert anti-Pelagian decrees of Brefi.
 +
*576 Dual hierarchy henceforth in Alexandria, [[Church of Alexandria|Chalcedonian (Greek)]] and [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Monophysite (Coptic)]].
 +
*577 Patr. [[John Scholasticus|John III Scholasticus]] is responible for the first collection of Canon Law, the ''[[Nomocanon]]'', of the [[Orthodox Church]].
 +
*579 400 Martyrs slain by Lombards in Sicily. 
 +
*580 [[Monte Cassino]] sacked by Lombards, sending its monks fleeing to Rome; Slavs begin to migrate into the Balkans and Greece.  
 +
*587 Visigoth King [[w:Reccared I|Reccared]] renounces [[Arianism]] in favor of [[Orthodoxy]]. 
 +
*589 [[Council of Toledo]] adds [[Filioque]] to [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]] in an attempt to combat [[Arianism]].    
 +
*590 [[Columbanus]] founds monasteries in France.  
 +
*593 [[Anastasius I of Antioch|Anastasius the Sinaite]] restored as Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch. 
 +
*596 [[Gregory the Dialogist]] sends [[Augustine of Canterbury|Augustine]] along with forty other monks to southern Britain to convert pagans. 
 +
*597 Death of [[Columba of Iona]]. 
 +
*598 [[Glastonbury Abbey]] founded. 
 +
*ca. 600 ''[[The Ladder of Divine Ascent]]'' written by [[John Climacus]]; [[Gregory the Dialogist]] inspires development of [[Gregorian Chant]] through his liturgical reforms.  
 +
*601 [[Augustine of Canterbury]] converts King [[Ethelbert of Kent]] and establishes see of Canterbury. 
 +
*602 [[Augustine of Canterbury]] meets with Welsh bishops to bring them under Canterbury. 
 +
*604 [[Mellitus]] becomes first bishop of London and founds first [[w:St Paul's Cathedral|St. Paul's Cathedral]]; death of [[Gregory the Dialogist]]. 
 +
*605 Death of [[Augustine of Canterbury]].     
 +
*610 [[Heraclius]] changes official language of the Empire from Latin to [[w:Medieval Greek|Greek]], already the ''lingua franca'' of the vast majority of the population. 
 +
*612 [[Holy Sponge]] and [[Holy Lance]] brought to Constantinople from Palestine. 
 +
*614 Persians sack Jerusalem under Chosroes II of Persia; [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] damaged by fire, [[True Cross]] captured, and over 65,000 Christians in Jerusalem massacred.  
 +
*615 Death of [[Columbanus]] in Italy.  
 +
*617 Persian Army conquers Chalcedon after a long siege.          
 +
*626 [[Akathist|Akathist Hymn]] to the Virgin Mary written.   
 +
*627 Emperor [[Heraclius]] defeats Sassanid Persians at [[w:Battle of Nineveh (627)|Battle of Nineveh]], recovering [[True Cross]] and breaking Sassanid power.     
 +
*630 Second [[Elevation of the Holy Cross]].  
 +
*633 Death of [[Modestus of Jerusalem]].  
 +
*635 Founding of [[Lindisfarne]] Monastery by [[Aidan of Lindisfarne|Aidan]]; Cynegils, king of Wessex, converts to Christianity.  
 +
*636 Capture of [[Jerusalem]] by Muslim Arabs after [[w:Battle of Yarmouk|Battle of Yarmuk]].    
 +
*640 [[w:Muslim conquest of Syria|Muslim conquest of Syria]]; [[w:Battle of Heliopolis|Battle of Heliopolis]] between Arab Muslim armies and Byzantium opens door for Muslim conquest of Byzantine [[w:Exarchate of Africa|Exarchate of Africa]].  
 +
*641 Capture of Alexandria by Muslim Arabs.  
 
*642 Muslim conquest of Egypt.
 
*642 Muslim conquest of Egypt.
*650 Final defeat of [[Arianism]] as Lombards convert to Orthodox Christianity.
+
*646 Alexandria recaptured by Muslim Arabs after Byzantine attempt to retake Egypt fails, ending nearly ten centuries of [[w:Greco-Roman|Greco-Roman]] civilization in Egypt. 
*657 Founding of [[Whitby Abbey]] in Yorkshire, England.
+
*648 Pope [[Theodore I of Rome]] excommunicates patriarch [[Paul II of Constantinople]]. 
*663 Emperor Constans II is the last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome.
+
*649 Arabs invade and conquer Cyprus. 
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, harmonizing Celtic and Roman liturgical practices in England; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid of York|Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York.
+
*650 Final defeat of [[Arianism]] as Lombards convert to Orthodoxy.   
*668 St. [[Theodore of Tarsus]] is appointed as archbishop of Canterbury.
+
*653 Pope [[Martin the Confessor]] arrested on orders of Byzantine Emperor [[Constans II]].   
*670 Composition of ''Caedmon's Hymn'' by St. [[Caedmon]] of Whitby.
+
*654 Invasion of Rhodes by Arabs. 
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] is held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming the [[Christology]] of St. [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a natural (human) will and a divine will. Patriarch [[Sergius of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of the Monothelite [[heresy]].
+
*655 Martyrdom of [[Martin the Confessor]].  
*685 First monastics come to [[Mount Athos]].
+
*657 Founding of [[Whitby Abbey]] in Yorkshire, England.  
*687 Destruction of [[Whitby Abbey]] by Danish raiders.
+
*662 Death of [[Maximus the Confessor]]. 
*692 [[Quinisext Council]] (also called the ''Penthekte Council'' or the ''Council in Trullo'') is held in Constantinople, issuing [[canon]]s which are seen as completing the work of the Fifth and Sixth [[Ecumenical Councils]], and declaring the [[Church of Jerusalem]] to be a [[patriarchate]].
+
*663 Emperor [[Constans II]] is last Eastern emperor to set foot in Rome; [[Constans II]] declares Pope of Rome to have no jurisdiction over Archbishop of Ravenna, since that city was the seat of the exarch, his immediate representative.  
*698 Muslim conquest of Carthage.
+
*664 [[Synod of Whitby]] held in northern England, adopting Roman calendar and tonsures in Northumbria; [[Iona|Ionian]] monk [[Wilfrid]] appointed as Archbishop of York.    
*716 Monastery at [[Iona]] conforms to Roman liturgical usage.
+
*669-78 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (674)|First Arab siege of Constantinople]]; at [[w:Battle of Syllaeum|Battle of Syllaeum]] Arab fleet destroyed by Byzantines through use of [[w:Greek Fire|Greek Fire]], ending immediate Arab threat to eastern Europe.  
*726 Emperor [[Leo the Isaurian]] starts his campaign against the [[iconography|icons]].
+
*670 Composition of ''Caedmon's Hymn'' by [[Caedmon]] of [[Whitby Abbey|Whitby]]. 
*731 The Venerable [[Bede]] completes the ''[[Ecclesiastical History of the English People]]''.
+
*672 First Synod of Hertford called by [[Theodore of Tarsus]], adopting of ten decrees paralleling the canons of the Council of Chalcedon.  
*732 Muslim invasion of Europe is stopped by the Franks at the Battle of Tours.
+
*673 Second Council of Hatfield upholds Orthodoxy against [[Monothelitism]]. 
*754 [[Iconoclastic Council]] is held in Constantinople under the authority of Emperor [[Constantine V Copronymus]], condemning icons and declaring itself to be the Seventh Ecumenical Council.
+
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, condemning [[Monothelitism]] and affirming [[Christology]] of [[Maximus the Confessor]], affirming that Christ has both a human will and a divine will; Patr. [[Sergius I of Constantinople]] and Pope [[Honorius I of Rome]] are both explicitly [[anathema]]tized for their support of Monothelitism.   
*787 [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] is held in Nicea, condemning [[Iconoclasm]] and affirming the [[veneration]] of the [[iconography|holy icons]], declaring that worship is due to God alone, and that the honor paid to icons passes to its prototype.
+
*682 Foundation of [[Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Abbey]] in England.  
*800 [[Charlemagne]] is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by [[Leo III of Rome]] on [[Christmas]] day.
+
*685 First monastics come to [[Mount Athos]]; death of [[Anastasius of Sinai]].  
*826 St. [[Ansgar]] arrives in Denmark and begins preaching; King Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity.
+
*685 [[John Maron]] elected first Maronite patriarch, founding the [[Maronite Catholic Church]], which embraced [[Monothelitism]], rejected the teaching of the [[Fifth Ecumenical Council]], and separated from the [[Orthodox Church]]. 
*843 The [[Triumph of Orthodoxy]] occurs on the first Sunday of [[Great Lent]], restoring the [[iconography|icons]] to the churches.
+
*687 Destruction of [[Whitby Abbey]] by Danish Vikings; death of [[Cuthbert of Lindisfarne]]. 
 +
*688 Emperor [[Justinian II]] and Caliph [[w:Abd al-Malik|al-Malik]] sign treaty neutralizing Cyprus.  
 +
*ca. 690 Witenagamot of England forbids church appeals to Rome. 
 +
*691 [[w:Dome of the Rock|Dome of the Rock]] completed in Jerusalem. 
 +
*692 [[Quinisext Council]] (also called the ''Penthekte Council'' or ''Council in Trullo'') held in Constantinople, issuing [[canon]]s completing the work of the Fifth and Sixth [[Ecumenical Councils]], and declaring the [[Church of Jerusalem]] to be a [[patriarchate]].  
 +
*694 Byzantine army of [[Justinian II]] defeated by [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who became fully independent. 
 +
*697 [[Council of Birr]] accepts Roman [[Paschalion]] for northern Ireland; at this synod, [[Adomnán of Iona]] promulgates his [[w:Cáin Adomnáin|Cáin Adomnáin]]. 
 +
*698 Muslim conquest of Carthage; at [[Synod of Aquileia]], bishops of the diocese of Aquileia end the [[Schism of the Three Chapters]] and return to communion with Rome. 
 +
*ca. 700 Death of [[Isaac of Syria]].         
 +
*707 Death of [[John Maron]]. 
 +
*710 Pope [[Constantine of Rome|Constantine]] makes last papal visit to Constantinople before 1967.     
 +
*712 Death of [[Andrew of Crete]]. 
 +
*ca. 715 [[Lindisfarne Gospels]] produced in Northumbria (Northern England). 
 +
*715 [[w:Umayyad Mosque|Grand Mosque of Damascus]] built over the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist; Al-Aqsa Mosque constructed over site of [[Church of St. Mary of Justinian (Temple Mount, Jerusalem)|Church of St. Mary of Justinian]]; Pictish [[w:Nechtan IV of the Picts|King Nechtan]] invites Northumbrian clergy to establish Christianity amongst the Picts.  
 +
*716 Monastery at [[Iona]] conforms to Roman liturgical usage; [[Boniface]]'s first [[missionary]] journey to Frisia. 
 +
*717 Pictish king Nechtan expels monks from [[Iona]].  
 +
*717-18 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (718)|Second Arab siege of Constantinople]]. 
 +
*719 [[w:Nubia#Christian Nubia|Nubian Christians]] transfer allegiance from [[Church of Alexandria|Chalcedonian church]] to [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic church]]. 
 +
*723 [[Boniface]] fells Thor's Oak near Fritzlar. 
 +
*726 [[Iconoclasm|Iconoclast]] Emperor [[Leo the Isaurian]] starts campaign against [[iconography|icons]].  
 +
*730 [[Leo the Isaurian]] orders destruction of all icons, beginning the First Iconoclastic Period. 
 +
*731 [[Bede]] completes ''[[Ecclesiastical History of the English People]]''.  
 +
*732 Muslim invasion of Europe stopped by Franks at [[w:Battle of Tours|Battle of Tours]], establishing a balance of power between Western Europe, Islam and the [[Byzantine Empire]]. 
 +
*733 Byzantine Emperor [[Leo the Isaurian]] withdraws the Balkans, Sicily and Calabria from the jurisdiction of the Pope in response to Pope [[Gregory III of Rome]]'s support of a revolt in Italy against iconoclasm.
 +
*734 [[Egbert of York|Egbert]] becomes bishop of York, founding a library and making the city a renowned centre of learning.   
 +
*735 Death of [[Bede]]; See of York achieves archepiscopal status. 
 +
*739 Emperor Leo III (717-41) publishes his ''[[w:Byzantine law#Ecloga|Ecloga]]'' , designed to introduce Christian principle into law; death of [[Willibrord]].   
 +
*742 After a forty-year vacancy, [[Stephen IV of Antioch|Stephen IV]] becomes Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, at the suggestion of Umayyad caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik.     
 +
*747 Witenagamot of England again forbids appeals to the Roman Pope; [[Council of Clovesho I]] adopts Roman calendar, observance of the feasts of Gregory the Great and Augustine of Canterbury, and adopts the Rogation Days.
 +
*749 Death of [[John of Damascus]]. 
 +
*750 ''[[Donation of Constantine]]'' accepted as a legitimate document, used by Pope [[Stephen II of Rome|Stephen II]] to prove territorial and jurisdictional claims.  
 +
*751 Lombard king Aistulf captures [[Ravenna]] and the Romagna, ending Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. 
 +
*752 Death of Pope [[Zacharias of Rome]]. 
 +
*754 [[Iconoclastic Council]] held in Constantinople under the authority of Emperor [[Constantine V Copronymus]], condemning icons and declaring itself to be the Seventh Ecumenical Council; Constantine begins dissolution of monasteries. 
 +
*754 Death of [[Boniface]]. 
 +
*756 [[w:Donation of Pepin|Donation of Pepin]] cedes lands including Ravenna that became basis of [[w:Papal States|Papal States]]. 
 +
*768 Wales adopts Orthodox [[Paschalion]] and other decrees of the Synod of Whitby at teaching of Elfoddw of Gwynedd.   
 +
*769 Pope [[Stephen III of Rome]] holds a council changing papal election procedure and confirming veneration of icons. 
 +
*772 Charlemagne starts fighting Saxons and Frisians; Saxony is subdued and converted to Christianity. 
 +
*781 King [[Charlemagne]] of the Franks summons [[Alcuin]] of York to head palace school at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) to inspire revival of education in Europe. 
 +
*785 Synod of Cealchythe erects the Archbishopric of Lichfield.    
 +
*787 [[Seventh Ecumenical Council]] held in Nicea, condemning [[iconoclasm]] and affirming [[veneration]] of [[iconography|icons]]; two councils held in England, one in the north at Pincanhale, and the other in the south at Chelsea, reaffirming the faith of the first Six Ecumenical Councils (the decrees of the Seventh having not yet been received), and establishing a third archbishopric at Lichfield. 
 +
*792 Synod of Regensburg condemned Adoptionism. 
 +
*793 Sack of [[Lindisfarne|Lindisfarne Priory]], beginning Viking attacks on England. 
 +
*794 Charlemagne convenes council in Frankfurt-in-Main, rejecting decrees of Seventh Ecumenical Council and inserting [[Filioque]] into [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]].    
 +
*800 [[Charlemagne]] crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by [[Leo III of Rome]] on [[Christmas]] day, marking the break of Frankish civilization away from the Orthodox Christian Roman Empire; [[Book of Kells]] produced in Ireland.
 +
*800 Ambassadors of Caliph Harunu al-Rashid give keys to the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]] to Charlemagne, acknowledging some Frankish control over the interests of Christians in Jerusalem ; establishment of the [[Western Rite]] Monastery of Saint Mary in Jerusalem. 
 +
*801 Controversy in Jerusalem over Frankish pilgrims using [[Filioque]]. 
 +
*803 [[Council of Clovesho II]] abolishes archbishopric of Lichfield, restoring the pattern of the two metropolitan archbishoprics (Canterbury and York) which had prevailed before 787, and requires the use of the [[Western Rite]] amongst the English speaking peoples.  
 +
*810 Pope Leo III bans use of [[Filioque]]. 
 +
*814 Conflict between Emperor [[Leo V the Armenian|Leo V]] and Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople|Nicephorus]] over iconoclasm; Leo deposes Nicephorus, Nicephorus excommunicates Leo.   
 +
*826 [[Ansgar]] arrives in Denmark and begins preaching; King Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity.  
 +
*828 Death of Patr. [[Nicephorus I of Constantinople]]. 
 +
*ca. 829-842 Icon of the [[Panagia Portaitissa]] appears on [[Mount Athos]] near [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Iviron Monastery]].   
 +
*836 Death of [[Theodore the Studite]].
  
==Late Byzantine era (843-1453)==
+
==Late Byzantine era (843-1054)==
*846 Muslim raid of Rome.
+
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1054))]]''
*852 St. [[Ansgar]] founds the churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark.
+
*843 [[Triumph of Orthodoxy]] occurs on first Sunday of [[Great Lent]], restoring [[iconography|icons]] to churches.    
*858 St. [[Photius the Great]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.
+
*850 [[Third Finding of the Head of St. John the Forerunner|Third Finding]] of the head of [[John the Forerunner]]. 
*861 Ss. [[Cyril and Methodius]] depart from Constantinople to missionize the Slavs; council presided over by papal legates held in Constantinople which confirms St. [[Photius the Great]] as patriarch.
+
*852 [[Ansgar]] founds churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark.  
*862 Ratislav of Moravia converts to Christianity.
+
*858 [[Photius the Great]] becomes patriarch of Constantinople.    
*863 First translations of [[Holy Scripture|Biblical]] and liturgical texts into [[Church Slavonic]] by Ss. [[Cyril and Methodius]].
+
*ca. 860 [[w:Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate|Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate]]. 
*863 The Venetians steal relics of St Mark from Alexandria.
+
*861 [[Cyril and Methodius]] depart from Constantinople to [[Church of Russia#Conversion of the Slavs|missionize the Slavs]]; Council of Constantinople attended by 318 fathers and presided over by papal legates confirms [[Photius the Great]] as patriarch and passes 17 canons.  
*864 Prince [[Boris of Bulgaria]] is [[baptism|baptized]].
+
*862 [[Rastislav of Moravia]] converts to Christianity.  
*867 Council in Constantinople held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on the work of Greek missionaries in Bulgaria and the use by papal missionaries of the heretical [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing the news of his excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III]] murdered and usurps the Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.
+
*863 First translations of [[Holy Scripture|Biblical]] and liturgical texts into [[Church Slavonic]] by [[Cyril and Methodius]].  
*869-870 The [[Robber Council of 869-870]] is held, deposing St. [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."
+
*863 Venetians steal relics of [[Apostle Mark]] from Alexandria.  
*870 Conversion of Serbia.
+
*864 Baptism of Prince [[Boris of Bulgaria]]; [[Synaxis]] of the [[Theotokos]] in Miasena in memory of the return of her icon. 
*877 Death of St. [[Ignatius I of Constantinople]], who appoints St. [[Photius the Great|Photius]] to succeed him.
+
*865 Bulgaria under Khan [[Boris of Bulgaria|Boris I]] converts to [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity]].  
*879-880 The [[Eighth Ecumenical Council]] is held in Constantinople, confirming [[Photius the Great|Photius]] as Patriarch of Constantintople, anathematizing additions to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]], and declaring that the prerogatives and jurisdiction of the Roman pope and the Constantinopolitan patriarch are essentially equal; this council is reluctantly accepted by Pope [[John VIII of Rome]].
+
*866 Vikings raid and capture York in England. 
*883 Muslims burn the monastery of Monte Cassino.
+
*867 Council in Constantinople held, presided over by [[Photius the Great|Photius]], which anathematizes Pope [[Nicholas I of Rome]] for his attacks on work of Greek [[missionaries]] in Bulgaria and use by papal missionaries of [[Filioque]]; Pope Nicholas dies before hearing news of excommunication; [[Basil the Macedonian]] has Emperor [[Michael III the Amorian|Michael III]] murdered and usurps Imperial throne, reinstating Ignatius as patriarch of Constantinople.  
*885 [[Mount Athos]] gains political autonomy.
+
*867 Death of [[Kassiani the Hymnographer|Kassiani]], Greek-Byzantine poet and hymnographer, who composed the ''[[Hymn of Kassiani]]'', chanted during [[Holy Week]] on Holy Wednesday. 
*912 Normans become Christian.
+
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870]] held, deposing [[Photius the Great]] from the Constantinopolitan see and putting the rival claimant Ignatius on the throne, declaring itself to be the "Eighth Ecumenical Council."  
*962 Denmark becomes a Christian nation with the [[baptism]] of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth").
+
*870 Conversion of Serbia; death of [[Rastislav of Moravia]]; martyrdom of [[w:Edmund the Martyr|Edmund]], King of East Anglia.    
*963 St. [[Athanasius of Athos]] establishes the first major monastery on [[Mount Athos]], the [[Great Lavra (Athos)|Great Lavra]].
+
*877 Death of [[Ignatius of Constantinople]], who appoints [[Photius the Great|Photius]] to succeed him.    
*988 [[Baptism of Rus']] begins with the conversion of St. [[Vladimir of Kiev]].
+
*878 King [[w:Alfred the Great|Alfred the Great]] of Wessex defeats Vikings; the Treaty of Wedmore divides England between the Anglo-Saxons and the Danes (the [[w:Danelaw|Danelaw]]). 
*995 St. [[Olaf of Norway]] proclaims Norway to be a Christian kingdom.
+
*879-880 [[Eighth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople attended by 383 fathers passing 3 canons, confirms [[Photius the Great|Photius]] as Patriarch of Constantinople, anathematizes additions to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed]], and declares that the prerogatives and jurisdiction of the Roman pope and the Constantinopolitan patriarch are essentially equal; the council is reluctantly accepted by Pope [[John VIII of Rome]].    
*1000 Christianization of Greenland and Iceland.
+
*885 [[Mount Athos]] gains political autonomy.  
*1008 Conversion of Sweden.
+
*885 Death of [[Cyril and Methodius|Methodius]]. 
*1009 Patriarch [[Sergius II of Constantinople]] removes the name of Pope [[Sergius IV of Rome]] from the diptychs of the [[Church of Constantinople]], because the pope had written a letter to the patriarch including the [[Filioque]]; Muslims destroy the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] in Jerusalem.
+
*886 [[w:Glagolitic alphabet|Glagolitic alphabet]], (now called [[w:Old Church Slavonic|Old Church Slavonic]]) adopted in Bulgarian Empire; St [[w:Alfred the Great|Alfred the Great]], King of Wessex, captures London from the Danes.         
*1014 [[Filioque]] used for the first time in Rome by Pope [[Benedict VIII of Rome|Benedict VIII]] at the coronation of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor.
+
*910 [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedictine]] [[w:Cluny Abbey|Abbey of Cluny]] founded in France.
*1017 Danish king Canute converts to Christianity.
+
*899 Death of [[Alfred the Great]]. 
 +
*911 [[Protection of the Mother of God|Holy Protection of the Virgin Mary]]. 
 +
*912 Normans become Christian; [[w:Nicholas Mystikos|Nicholas I Mysticus]] becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.   
 +
*927 [[Church of Bulgaria]] recognized as [[autocephaly|autocephalous]] by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]. 
 +
*931 Abbott [[w:Odo of Cluny|Odo of Cluny]] reforms monasteries in Aquitaine, northern France, and Italy, starting the [[w:Cluniac Reforms|Cluniac Reform movement]] within the [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedictine order]], focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art and caring for the poor.     
 +
*935 Martyrdom of [[Wenceslas]], prince of the Czechs.    
 +
*944 City of Edessa recovered by Byzantine army, including [[Image Not-made-by-hands|Icon Not Made By Hands]].
 +
*945 [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes Abbot of [[w:Glastonbury Abbey|Glastonbury]].         
 +
*957 [[Olga of Kiev]] baptized in Constantinople.   
 +
*960 Emperor [[Nicephorus II Phocas]] re-captures [[w:Crete|Crete]] for Byzantines; [[Dunstan of Canterbury|Dunstan]] becomes [[Archbishop of Canterbury]], reforming monasteries and enforcing rule of [[Benedict of Nursia|Benedict]].   
 +
*962 Denmark becomes Christian nation with [[baptism]] of King Harald Blaatand ("Bluetooth"); [[w:Holy Roman Empire|Holy Roman Empire]] formed, with Pope John XII crowning Otto I the Great Holy Roman Emperor.  
 +
*963 [[Athanasius of Athos]] establishes first major monastery on [[Mount Athos]], the [[Great Lavra (Athos)|Great Lavra]].  
 +
*965 Emperor [[Nicephorus II Phocas]] gains Cyprus completely for the Byzantines.     
 +
*969 Death of [[Olga of Kiev]]; Emperor [[w:Nikephoros II|Nikephoros II Phokas]] captures Antioch and Aleppo from Arabs. 
 +
*972 Emperor [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]] grants [[Mount Athos]] its first charter ([[Typikon]]). 
 +
*973 [[w:Great Moravia|Moravia]] assigned to the Diocese of Prague, putting the West Slavic tribes under jurisdiction of German church. 
 +
*975 Emperor [[w:John I Tzimiskes|John I Tzimiskes]] in a Syrian campaign takes Emesa, Baalbek, Damascus, Tiberias, Nazareth, Caesarea, Sidon, Beirut, Byblos and Tripoli, but fails to take Jerusalem. 
 +
*978 Death of King [[Edward the Martyr]]. 
 +
*980 Revelation of the ''[[Axion Estin]]'' (the hymn "It Is Truly Meet"), with the appearance of the [[Archangel Gabriel]] to a monk on [[Mount Athos]]. 
 +
*980-5 The [[Western Rite|Western Rite]] Monastery of Amalfion is founded on [[Mount Athos|Mount Athos]].     
 +
*987 Sixth [[w:Rus'-Byzantine War (987)#Baptism of Vladimir|Rus-Byzantine War]], where [[Vladimir of Kiev]] dispatches troops to the Byzantine Empire to assist Emperor [[w:Basil II|Basil II]] with an internal revolt, agreeing to accept [[Orthodox Christianity]] as his religion and bring his people to the new faith.   
 +
*988 '[[Baptism of Rus']] begins with the conversion of [[Vladimir of Kiev]] who is baptized at [[w:Chersonesos|Chersonesos]], the birthplace of the Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox churches; Vladimir marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II.  
 +
*992 Death of [[Michael of Kiev|Michael]], first Metropolitan of Kiev.  
 +
*995 [[Olaf of Norway]] proclaims Norway to be a Christian kingdom.
 +
*1000 Conversion of Greenland and Iceland.  
 +
*1008 Conversion of Sweden.  
 +
*1009 Patr. [[Sergius II of Constantinople]] removes name of Pope [[Sergius IV of Rome]] from [[diptychs]] of [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], because the pope had written a letter to the patriarch including the [[Filioque]].   
 +
*1009 [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] in Jerusalem destroyed by the "mad" Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, founder of the [[w:Druze|Druze]].  
 +
*1012 Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah issues oppressive decrees against Jews and Christians including the destruction of all Christian and Jewish houses of worship.     
 +
*1014 [[Filioque]] used for first time in Rome by Pope [[Benedict VIII of Rome|Benedict VIII]] at coronation of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor.  
 +
*1015 Death of [[Vladimir of Kiev]]. 
 +
*1017 Danish king Canute converts to Christianity.  
 +
*1022 Death of [[Simeon the New Theologian]].     
 +
*1027 Frankish protectorate over Christian interests in Jerusalem is replaced by a Byzantine protectorate, which begin reconstruction of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]].
 +
*1034 Patriarch [[Alexius I Studites of Constantinople|Alexius I Studites]] writes the first complete ''Studite [[Typikon]],'' for a monastery he established near Constantinople; this was the [[Typikon]] introduced into the Rus' lands by [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]].
 +
*1036 Byzantine [[w:Michael IV the Paphlagonian|Emperor Michael IV]] makes a truce with the Caliph of Egypt to allow rebuilding of the [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] by Byzantine masons; [[w:Varangian Guard|Varangian Guard]] of the Byzantine Emperor sent to protect pilgrims.
 +
*1043 [[Edward the Confessor|Edward the Confessor]] crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral.
 +
*1045-50 [[St. Sophia Cathedral (Novgorod)|Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Novgorod]] built, the oldest Orthodox church building in Russia, executed in an architectural style more austere than the Byzantine, reminiscent of the [[w:Romanesque architecture|Romanesque]]. 
 +
*1048 Re-consecration of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Holy Sepulchre]]. 
 
*1051 [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves]] founded.
 
*1051 [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves]] founded.
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael Cerularius]], Patriarch of Consantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West.
+
 
*1066 Normans invade England flying the banner of the Pope of Rome, defeating King [[Harold of England]] at the Battle of Hastings, beginning the reformation of the church and society there to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics.
+
==Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453)==
*1071 Turkish capture of Jerusalem.
+
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))|Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))]]''
*1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope [[Grgeory VII of Rome|Gregory VII]] and launches the "Gregorian" reforms (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of the papacy over the empire, right of the Pope to depose emperors).
+
*1054 Cardinal [[Humbert of Silva Candida|Humbert]] excommunicates [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]], patriarch of Constantinople, a major centerpoint in the formation of the [[Great Schism]] between East and West; First Letter of [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]] to Peter of Antioch. 
*1088 Founding of monastery of St. [[Apostle John|John the Theologian]] on Patmos.
+
*1059 Errors of Berengar of Tours condemned in Rome; term ''transubstantiation'' begins to come in to use, ascribed to [[Peter Damian]]. 
*1095 Launching of the First Crusade.
+
*1064 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] storm Anatolia taking Caesarea and Ani, conquering Armenia.  
*1096 Persecution of Jews by Crusaders.
+
*1066 Normans invade England flying banner of Pope of Rome, defeating King [[Harold of England]] at Battle of Hastings
*1098 Crusaders capture Antioch.
+
*1066-1171 Beginning reformation of English church and society to align with Latin continental ecclesiology and politics.  
*1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem.
+
*1071 [[w:Seljuk Turks|Seljuk Turks]] defeat Byzantines at the [[w:Battle of Manzikert|Battle of Manzikert]], beginning Islamification of Asia Minor; Norman princes led by [[w:Robert Guiscard|Robert Guiscard]] capture Bari, the last Byzantine stronghold in Italy, bringing to an end over five centuries of [[w:Catapanate of Italy|Byzantine rule in the south]].    
*1144 Bernard of Clairvaux calls for a Second Crusade to rescue the besieged Latin kingdom of Jerusalem, and Louis VII of France and Konrad III of Germany join the Crusaders, but they are defeated by the Muslims.
+
*1073 Hildebrand becomes Pope [[Gregory VII of Rome|Gregory VII]] and launches the [[w:Gregorian Reform|Gregorian reforms]] (celibacy of the clergy, primacy of papacy over empire, right of Pope to depose emperors); Seljuk Turks conquer Ankara. 
*1180 Last formal, canonical acceptance of Latins to communion at an Eastern altar in Antioch.
+
*1074 Death of [[Theodosius of the Kiev Caves]]. 
*1187 Saladdin retakes Jerusalem.
+
*1075 ''[[w:Dictatus papae|Dictatus Papae]]'' document advances Papal supremacy. 
*1189 Third Crusade is led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, King Philip Augustus II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
+
*1077 The Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem and kill 3,000 citizens; Seljuks capture Nicea. 
*1204 Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade [[Sacking of Constantinople|sack Constantinople]], laying waste to the city and stealing many holy [[relics]] and other items; [[Great Schism]] generally regarded as having been completed by this act.
+
*1084 Antioch is captured by the Seljuk Turks.  
*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch.
+
*1088 Founding of monastery of [[Apostle John|John the Theologian]] on Patmos; election of Pope [[w:Pope Urban II|Urban II]], a prominent member of the [[w:Cluniac Reforms|Cluniac Reform movement]] .  
*1336 Meteora in Greece is established as a center of Orthodox [[monasticism]].
+
*1095 Launching of the [[w:First Crusade|First Crusade]].    
*1341-1351 Three sessions of the [[Ninth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, affirming the [[hesychasm|hesychastic]] theology of St. [[Gregory Palamas]] and condemning the rationalistic philosophy of [[Barlaam of Calabria]].
+
*1098 Anselm of Canterbury completes ''Cur Deus homo'', marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East.  
*1379 Western "Great Schism" ensues, seeing the simultaneous reign of three Popes of Rome.
+
*1098 Crusaders capture Antioch.  
*1389 Serbs are defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I.
+
*1099 Crusaders capture Jerusalem founding the [[w:Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem|Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem]] and other crusader states known collectively as "[[w:Outremer|Outremer]]." 
*1396 First English Bible translated by John Wyclif.
+
*1108 Death of Nicetas of [[Monastery of the Kiev Caves|Kiev Caves]], Bishop of Novgorod.  
*1417 End of Western "Great Schism" at the Council of Constance.
+
*ca. 1131-45 Coptic Pope of Alexandria [[w:Pope Gabriel II of Alexandria|Gabriel II]] initiates addition of Arabic as a liturgical language with his Arabic translation of the [[Divine Liturgy|Liturgy]].           
*1439 Ecclesiastical reunion with the West is attempted at the [[Council of Florence]], where only St. [[Mark of Ephesus]] refuses to capitulate to the demands of the delegates from Rome.
+
*1144 [[w:Second Crusade|Second Crusade]]; Muslims take Christian stronghold of Edessa.   
*1448 [[Church of Russia]] declares its independence from the [[Church of Constantinople]].
+
*1149 Crusaders begin to renovate [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] in Romanesque style, adding a bell tower. 
*1453 [[Fall of Constantinople|Constantinople falls]] to the invasion of the Ottoman Turks.
+
*1159 [[w:John of Salisbury|John of Salisbury]] authors ''[[w:Policraticus|Policraticus]]'', a treatise on government drawing from the [[Holy Scripture|Bible]], the [[w:Corpus Juris Civilis|Codex Justinianus]], and arguing for [[w:Divine Right of Kings|Divine Right of Kings]].     
 +
*1170 Miracle of the weeping icon of the [[Theotokos]] "of the Sign" at Novgorod; Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland; city of Dublin captured by the Roman Catholic Normans.   
 +
*1176 [[w:Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm|Sultanate of Rum]] defeats Byzantine Empire in the [[w:Battle of Myriokephalon|Battle of Myriokephalon]], marking end of Byzantine attempts to recover Anatolian plateau; Al-Adil I, Muslim ruler of Egypt, suppresses a revolt by Christian Copts in city of Qift, hanging nearly 3,000 of them.       
 +
* 1179 Pope Alexander III convened the [[w:Third Council of the Lateran|Third Lateran Council]], which was attended by a certain Nectarios of the important [[w:Basilian monks|Basilian]] Monastery of St. Nicholas of Kasoulon near [[w:Otranto|Otranto]], under Norman patronage, who made himself the champion of the Greek Church, and vigorously supported their [[Byzantine Rite|customs and doctrines]].<ref>K. Lake. ''"The Greek Monasteries in South Italy III."'' '''J Theol Studies''' (1903) os-V(17): 22-41. p. 35.</ref>
 +
*1180 Last formal acceptance of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar in Antioch.  
 +
*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]], who assisted the Crusaders during the Crusades, reaffirm their affiliation with Rome in 1182; dedication of [[w:Monreale#The_Cathedral|Monreale Cathedral]] in Sicily, containing the largest cycle of Byzantine mosaics extant in Italy.   
 +
*1186 Byzantine Empire recognizes independence of Bulgaria and Serbia. 
 +
*1187 [[w:Saladin|Saladin]] retakes Jerusalem after destroying crusader army at [[w:Battle of Hattin (1187)|Battle of Hattin]], and returns Christian holy places to [[Church of Jerusalem|Orthodox Church]].  
 +
*1189 [[w:Third Crusade|Third Crusade]] led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, King Philip Augustus II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.  
 +
*ca. 1189 Ethiopian Emperor [[w:Gebre Mesqel Lalibela|Gebre Mesqel Lalibela]] orders construction of [[w:Lalibela|Lalibela]].   
 +
*1204 [[Fourth Crusade]] [[Sacking of Constantinople|sacks Constantinople]], laying waste to the city and stealing many [[relics]] and other items; [[Great Schism]] generally regarded as having been completed by this act; [[w:Theodore I Laskaris|Theodore I Lascaris]] establishes the [[w:Empire of Nicaea|Empire of Nicaea]].     
 +
*ca.1207 [[w:Stephen Langton|Stephen Langton]] divides the Bible into the defined modern chapters in use today.       
 +
*ca.1220 English Bp. [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Poore Richard Le Poore ] is said to have been responsible for the final form of the "[[Sarum Use|Use of Sarum]]", which had the sterling reputation of being the best liturgy anywhere in the West.     
 +
*1228 [[w:Sixth Crusade|Sixth Crusade]] results in 10-year treaty starting in 1229 between Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and Egyptian sultan; Jerusalem ceded to Franks, along with a narrow corridor to the coast, as well as Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa and Bethlehem.
 +
*1231 [[w:Medieval Inquisition|Papal Inquisition]] initiated by Pope Gregory IX, charged with suppressing heresy.
 +
*1235 Death of [[Sava of Serbia]]. 
 +
*1237 Golden Horde begin [[Church of Russia#Mongol Tartars over Russia (1237-1448)|subjugation of Russia]]. 
 +
*1240 Mongols sack Kiev; Prince [[Alexander Nevsky]] defeats Swedish army at Battle of the Neva. 
 +
*1242 [[Alexander Nevsky]]'s Novgorodian force defeats Teutonic Knights in [[w:Battle of the Ice|Battle of Lake Peipus]], a major defeat for the Catholic crusaders. 
 +
*1244 Jerusalem conquered and razed by [[w:Khwarezm|Khwarezmian]] mercenaries (Oghuz Turks) serving under the [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubid]] ruler of Egypt Salih Ayyub, triggering Seventh Crusade.     
 +
*1247 [[w:Ayyubid dynasty|Ayyubids]] conquer Jerusalem, driving out the Khwarezmian Turks.     
 +
*1258 [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] seizes the throne of the Nicaean Empire, founding the last Roman (Byzantine) dynasty, beginning reconquest of Greek peninsula from Latins.
 +
*1259 Byzantines defeat Latin [[w:Principality of Achaea|Principality of Achaea]] at the [[w:Battle of Pelagonia|Battle of Pelagonia]], marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece. 
 +
*ca. 1259-80 Martyrdom by Latins of monks of [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Iveron Monastery]].
 +
*1260 Subjugation of [[Church of Cyprus]] to the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. 
 +
*1261 End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] makes [[Mystras]] seat of the new [[w:Despotate of Morea|Despotate of Morea]], where a Byzantine renaissance occurred. 
 +
*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch.  
 +
*1269 Orthodox patriarch returns to Antioch after a 171-year exile and usurpation by Latin patriarch.
 +
*1274 Second [[Councils of Lyons|Council of Lyons]] held, proclaiming union between the Orthodox East and the Roman Catholic West, but generally unaccepted in the East.
 +
*1275 Unionist Patriarch of Constantinople [[John XI Bekkos of Constantinople|John XI Bekkos]] elected to replace Patriarch [[Joseph I Galesiotes of Constantinople|Joseph I Galesiotes]], who opposed [[Councils of Lyons|Council of Lyons]]; 26 martyrs of Zographou monastery on [[Mount Athos|Mt. Athos]], martyred by the Latins. 
 +
*ca. 1280 ''[[w:Kebra Nagast|Kebra Nagast]]'' ("Book of the Glory of Kings") compiled, a repository of Ethiopian national and religious feelings. 
 +
*1281 [[w:Pope Martin IV|Pope Martin IV]] authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established [[Byzantine Empire]] in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor [[Michael VIII Palaiologos]] and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the [[w:Sicilian Vespers|Sicilian Vespers]].     
 +
*1291 Fall of Acre; end of crusading in Holy Land. 
 +
*1298 [[Ambrose of Milan|Ambrose]], [[Augustine of Hippo|Augustine]], [[Jerome]], and [[Gregory the Dialogist|Pope Gregory I]] are named collectively as the first Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Western Church.   
 +
*1302 Papal Bull ''[[w:Unam sanctum|Unam Sanctum]]'' issued by Pope [[Boniface VIII of Rome|Boniface VIII]] proclaims Papal supremacy. 
 +
*1326 Metr. [[Peter of Moscow|Peter]] moves his see from Kiev to Vladimir and then to Moscow.         
 +
*1332 [[w:Amda Seyon I of Ethiopia|Amda Syon]], Emperor of Ethiopia begins his campaigns in the southern Muslim provinces, allowing for the spread of Christianity to frontier areas. 
 +
*1336 [[Meteora]] in Greece established as a center of Orthodox [[monasticism]].  
 +
*1338 [[Gregory Palamas]] writes ''Triads in Defense of the Holy Hesychasts'', defending the Orthodox practice of [[hesychasm|hesychast spirituality]] and the use of the [[Jesus Prayer]].
 +
*1340 [[Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra]] founded by [[Sergius of Radonezh]]. 
 +
*1341-51 Three sessions of the [[Ninth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, affirming [[hesychasm|hesychastic]] theology of [[Gregory Palamas]] and condemning rationalistic philosophy of [[Barlaam of Calabria]].  
 +
*1342 Patriarchate of Antioch transferred to Damascus under [[Ignatius II of Antioch|Ignatius II]].   
 +
*1349 Prince [[Stephen Dushan]] of Serbia assumes the title of ''Tsar'' (Caesar); principality of [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galicia]] (Halitsh) comes under Polish control.     
 +
*1354 Ottoman Turks make first settlement in Europe at Gallipoli. 
 +
*1359 Death of [[Gregory Palamas]].   
 +
*1360 Death of [[John Koukouzelis]] the Hymnographer.     
 +
*1379 Western Great Schism ensues, including simultaneous reign of three Popes of Rome.  
 +
*ca. 1380 English Church reformer John Wyclif writes that the true faith is preserved only in the East, "among the Greeks."   
 +
*1382-95 [[w:Wyclif's Bible|First English Bible]] translated by John Wyclif. 
 +
*1383 [[Stephen of Perm]], [[missionary]] to Zyrians, consecrated bishop; appearance of [[Theotokos of Tikhvin]] icon. 
 +
*1385 [[w:Union of Krewo|Kreva Agreement]] provides for conversion of Lithuanian nobles and all pagan Lithuanians to Roman Catholicism, joining Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the Kingdom of Poland through a dynastic union. 
 +
*1387 [[w:Christianization of Lithuania|Lithuania converts to Roman Catholicism]], while most [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] lands (Belarus and Ukraine) remain Orthodox. 
 +
*1389 Serbs defeated by Ottoman Turks of Sultan Murad I at the battle of Kosovo Polje; death of [[Lazar of Serbia|Lazar]], prince of Serbia. 
 +
*1390 Ottomans take [[w:Alaşehir|Philadelphia]], last significant Byzantine enclave in Anatolia.   
 +
*1391-98 Ottoman Turks unsuccessfully besiege Constantinople for the first time.  
 +
*1410 Iconographer [[Andrei Rublev]] paints his most famous icon depicting the three angels who appeared to Abraham and Sarah, the angels being considered a type of the [[Holy Trinity|Holy Trinity]].   
 +
*1414-18 Council of Constance in Roman Catholic Church represents high point for [[w:Conciliarism|Conciliar Movement]] over authority of pope.  
 +
*1417 End of Western Great Schism at the [[Council of Constance]].  
 +
*1418 Latin monk [[w:Thomas à Kempis|Thomas à Kempis]] authors ''[[w:The Imitation of Christ (book)|The Imitation of Christ]]''. 
 +
*1422 [[w:Siege of Constantinople (1422)|Second unsuccessful Ottoman siege]] of Constantinople. 
 +
*1423-24 [[w:Council of Siena|Council of Siena]] in the Roman Catholic Church was the high point of [[w:Conciliarism|conciliarism]], emphasizing the leadership of the bishops gathered in council, but the conciliarism expressed there was later branded as a heresy. 
 +
*1439 Ecclesiastical reunion with West attempted at [[Council of Florence]], where only [[Mark of Ephesus]] refuses to capitulate to demands of delegates from Rome.  
 +
*1440-41 Encyclical Letter of [[Mark of Ephesus]]. 
 +
*1444 ''[[Donation of Constantine]]'' proved forgery. 
 +
*1448 [[Church of Russia]] unilaterally declares its independence from the [[Church of Constantinople]].
 +
*1452 Unification of Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox Churches in [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] on West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed. 
 +
*1453 [[Fall of Constantinople|Constantinople falls]] to invasion of the Ottoman Turks, ending Roman Empire; [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] turned into a mosque; martyrdom of [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], last of the [[List of Byzantine Emperors|Byzantine Emperors]]; many Greek scholars escape to the West with books that become translated into Latin, triggering the [[w:Renaissance|Renaissance]].
 +
[[Media:Example.ogg]]
  
 
==Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)==
 
==Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)==
*1455 Gutenberg makes the first printed [[Bible]].
+
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821))]]''
*1480 Spanish Inquisition.
+
*1455 Gutenberg makes first printed [[Bible]].  
*1517 Martin Luther nails his ''Ninety-Five Theses'' to the door at Wittenburg, sparking the Protestant Reformation; Ottomans conquer Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria, when Joakim the Athenian was Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria.
+
*1455-56 ''Confession of Faith'' by Patr. Gennadius of Constantinople. 
*1534 King Henry VIII declares himself supreme head of the Church of England.
+
*1456-1587 Byzantine [[w:Pammakaristos Church|Church of Theotokos Pammakaristos]] became the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].        
*1547 Council of Trent held to answer the Protestant Reformation.
+
*1492 Millennialist movements in Moscow, due to end of church calendar (year 7,000, according to the [[Byzantine Creation Era|Byzantine Date of Creation]]).  
*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].
+
*1503 [[Church of Russia#Non-Possessors|Possessor and Non-Possessor controversy]].     
*1582 Institution of the Gregorian Calendar by Pope Gregory XIII.
+
*1516 Desiderius Erasmus publishes "[[w:Textus Receptus|Textus Receptus]]" of New Testament on the basis of six late manuscripts of the Byzantine text-type.  
*1589 [[Autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Russia]] recognized; the [[primate]] of the [[Church of Russia]] is styled as "[[patriarch]]."
+
*1517 [[Maximus the Greek]] invited to Russia to translate Greek service books and correct Russian ones; Ottomans conquer Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria.     
*1596 At the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the [[Church of Russia]] and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs, creating the [[Uniate]] church.
+
*1526 [[Non-Possessors]] attack Tsar Vassily III for divorcing his wife and are driven underground.   
*1627 Pope and Patriarch Cyril Lukaris of Alexandria presented the famous "Codex Alexandrinus" to King Charles I of England for "safe keeping".
+
*1529 First Ottoman [[w:Siege of Vienna|Siege of Vienna]], marking Ottoman Empire's apex and end of Ottoman expansion in central Europe.               
*1642 The [[Council of Jassy]] (Iaşi) revises [[Peter Moghila]]'s confession to remove overtly Roman Catholic theology. Also confirms the canonicity of certain of the deuterocanonical books.
+
*1551 [[Council of the Hundred Chapters]] in Russia.
*1652-1658 Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]] revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek liturgical customes, leading to the excommunication of dissenters, who become known as the [[Old Believers]].
+
*1555 Abp. Gurian begins mission to Kazan.     
*1647 An Orthodox Church is erected in Tunisia.
+
*1557 Death of [[Basil the Blessed]].
*1652 A school and hospital were established in Old Cairo by Patriarch Joannikios.
+
*1568 Pope Pius V recognizes four Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Eastern Church, [[John Chrysostom]], [[Basil the Great]], [[Gregory the Theologian|Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]].    
*1685 Orthodoxy introduced in Beijing, China by the [[Church of Russia]].
+
*1569 [[w:Union of Lublin|Union of Lublin]] unites Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the [[w:Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth|Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]], placing the [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenian]] Orthodox lands of Belarus, and modern Ukraine under direct Roman Catholic rule.  
*1715 Metropolitan Arsenios of Thebaid sent to England by Pope and Patriarch Samuel of Alexandria to negotiate with non-juror Anglican bishops (those who had refused to take the oath to William and Mary).
+
*1571 Restoration of [[Church of Cyprus]] to Orthodox rule.   
*1724 [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite]] schism, many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.
+
*1573-81 Correspondence of Patr. [[Jeremias II (Tranos) of Constantinople|Jeremias II of Constantinople]] with Lutherans.  
*1767 A community of Orthodox Greeks establishes itself in New Smyrna, Florida.
+
*1575 [[Church of Constantinople]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of Sinai]].      
*1768 Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland.
+
*1582 Institution of the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Pope Gregory XIII.
*1782 First publication of the ''[[Philokalia]]''; [[autonomy]] of [[Church of Sinai]] confirmed by [[Church of Constantinople]].
+
*1583 [[Sigillion of 1583]] issued against [[Gregorian Calendar]] by council convened in Constantinople.  
*1794 Missionaries, including St. [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska.
+
*1587-Present. The relatively modest [[w:Church of St. George, Istanbul|Church of St George]] in the Phanar district of Istanbul becomes the seat of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].  
*1811 [[Autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]] revoked by the Russian imperial state after Georgia's annexation, making it subject to the [[Church of Russia]].
+
*1589 [[Autocephaly]] and [[canonical territory]] of [[Church of Russia]] recognized, as Patr. Jeremias II of Constantinople raises Metr. Job of Moscow to the rank of [[Patriarch]] of Moscow and of All Russia.  
 +
*1596 [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], several million Ukrainian and Byelorussian Orthodox Christians, living under Polish rule, leave the [[Church of Constantinople]] and recognize the Pope of Rome, without giving up their Byzantine liturgy and customs, creating the [[Uniate]] church. 
 +
*ca. 1600-1700 Conversion of Albania to Islam mainly through discriminatory tax system, the ''Djize''.          
 +
*1625 ''Confession of Faith'' by Metrophanes Kritopoulos written. 
 +
*1627 Pope [[Cyril Lucaris]] of Alexandria presents [[Codex Alexandrinus]] to King Charles I of England for safe keeping. 
 +
*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia. 
 +
*1642 [[Council of Jassy]] (Iaşi) revises [[Peter Mogila]]'s confession to remove overtly Roman Catholic theology and confirms canonicity of certain [[Deuterocanon|deuterocanonical]] books.     
 +
*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].           
 +
*1652-1658 Patriarch [[Nikon of Moscow]] revises liturgical books to bring them into conformity with the Greek liturgical customs, leading to mass excommunication and schism of dissenters, who become known as [[Old Believers]].           
 +
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheos II of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).
 +
*1682 The ''Sabaite [[Typikon]]'' was published in its final form in Russia; from 1682 to 1888 the Greek and Russian Churches shared a common [[Typikon]]. 
 +
*1685-87 The [[w:Slavic Greek Latin Academy|Slavic Greek Latin Academy]] is organized as the first higher education establishment in Moscow, under the guidance of two Greek brothers, [[Joannicus and Sophronius Likhud]], on the premises of the [[w:Zaikonospassky monastery|Zaikonospassky Monastery]] with over 70 students. 
 +
*1685 Orthodoxy introduced in Beijing by [[Church of Russia]].     
 +
*1698 Consecration of the first Orthodox [[Church of China|Church in China]], in the name of Sophia (Divine Wisdom), when Emperor Kangxi ordered a Buddhist temple to be cleared for Russian inhabitants in Beijing.
 +
*1700 The ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' calendar in Russia, in use since AD 988 was changed to the [[Julian Calendar]] by Peter the Great; Peter the Great published an ''Ukase''  on [[June 18|June 18th]] that made a resounding appeal for the propagation of the faith in Siberia and China.
 +
*1700-02 Submission of the dioceses of Lemberg (Lviv) and Luzk (Lutsk) in the [[w:Galicia (Central Europe)|Galician]] area of Ukraine to Roman Catholic Church completes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], so that two-thirds of the Orthodox in western Ukraine had become Greek Catholic. 
 +
*1715 Metr. [[Arsenios of Thebaid]] sent to England by Pope [[Samuel of Alexandria]] to negotiate with [[Non-Jurors|Non-Juror]] Anglican bishops.
 +
*1715-1956 [[Russian Orthodox Mission in China|Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in China]].
 +
*1716-25 Correspondence of Ecumenical Patriarch and Russian Czar with English Non-Jurors. 
 +
*1721 Czar [[Peter I of Russia]] replaces Russian patriarchate with a ruling [[holy synod]]. 
 +
*1724 [[Melkite]] schism, in which many faithful from the [[Church of Antioch]] become [[Uniate]]s.
 +
*1728 The [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] formally replaced the ''[[Byzantine Creation Era|Creation Era]]'' (AM) calendar with the ''[[w:Anno Domini|Christian Era]]'' (AD).
 +
*1731 Death of [[Innocent of Irkutsk]]. 
 +
*1754 Hesychast Renaissance begins with the [[Kollyvades Movement]]. 
 +
*1755 Synod of Constantinople declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.   
 +
*1756 ''[[Sigillion of 1756]]'' issued against the [[Gregorian Calendar]] by Patr. [[Cyril V of Constantinople]].     
 +
*1767 Ottoman Empire legally divides [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] among claimants. 
 +
*1767-1815 [[w:Suppression of the Society of Jesus|Suppression of the Jesuits]] in Roman Catholic countries, subsequently finding refuge in Orthodox nations, particularly in Russia. 
 +
*1768 Jews are massacred during riots in Russia-occupied Poland. 
 +
*ca. 1770 About 1,200 Kiev region Uniate churches return to Orthodoxy under political pressure from Russia. 
 +
*1774 Russia and Ottoman Empire sign [[w:Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca|treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji]], bringing Russia for the first time into the Mediterranean as the acknowledged protector of Orthodox Christians. 
 +
*1779 Death of [[Kosmas Aitolos]]. 
 +
*1782 First publication of ''[[Philokalia]]''; [[autonomy]] of [[Church of Sinai]] confirmed by [[Church of Constantinople]]. 
 +
*1793-95 Over 2,300 Uniate churches became Orthodox under Tsarina Catherine the Great.   
 +
*1794 [[Missionaries]], including [[Herman of Alaska]], arrive at Kodiak Island, bringing Orthodoxy to Russian Alaska; death of [[Paisius Velichkovsky]] of Moldova and Mt. Athos. 
 +
*1796 [[Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain|Nicodemus the Hagiorite]] publishes ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' in Venice. 
 +
*1798 Patriarch [[Anthimus of Jerusalem]] contended that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].
 +
*1800 ''[[The Rudder]]'' published and printed in Athens.       
 +
*1805 Death of [[Macarius Notaras of Corinth|Makarius of Corinth]], a central figure in the [[Kollyvades Movement|Kollyvades]] movement.     
 +
*1811 [[Autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]] revoked by the Russian imperial state after Georgia's annexation, making it subject to the [[Church of Russia]].     
 +
*1819 Council at Constantinople endorses views of Kollyvades fathers.
 +
 
 +
==Modern era (1821-1917)==
 +
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Modern Era (1821-1917))]]''
 +
*1821 Metr. [[Germanos of Patra]] declares Greek independence on Day of [[Annunciation]] ([[March 25]]), also [[Kyriopascha]]; martyrdom of Patr. [[Gregory V of Constantinople]], Abp. [[Kyprianos of Cyprus]], and Abp. [[Gerasimos of Crete]] in retaliation.     
 +
*ca. 1830 [[Slavophile movement]] begins in Russia. 
 +
*1831 Return of 3,000,000 [[Uniate]]s with the [[Orthodox Church]] at Vilnius in 1831. 
 +
*1832 [[Church of Serbia]] becomes ''de facto'' [[autocephaly|autocephalous]]. 
 +
*1833 [[Church of Greece]] declares [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; death of [[Seraphim of Sarov]]. 
 +
*1839 Synod of Polotsk abolishes [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] in all areas under Russian rule as Greek Catholic dioceses in Lithuania and Belarus re-enter the Orthodox Church.   
 +
*1848 ''[[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]]'' sent by the primates and synods of the four ancient patriarchates of the Orthodox Church, condemning the [[Filioque]] as [[heresy]], declaring the [[Roman Catholic Church]] to be [[heresy|heretical]], [[schism]]atic, and in [[apostasy]], repudiating [[Ultramontanism]] and referring to the Photian Council of 879-880 as the "[[Eighth Ecumenical Council]]." 
 +
*1850 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Greece]]. 
 +
*1851 Translation into English of [[Septuagint]] by Lancelot C. L. Brenton; Ottoman Empire recognizes France as supreme Christian authority in Holy Land and grants it possession of the [[Church of the Nativity (Bethlehem)|Church of the Nativity]]. 
 +
*1852 Ottoman Empire makes division of [[Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)|Church of the Holy Sepulchre]] permanent. 
 +
*1853-56 [[w:Crimean War|Crimean War]] fought between Russia and the Ottoman Empire together with Britain and France, beginning over which church would be recognized as the "sovereign authority" of the Christian faith in the Holy Land. 
 +
*1854 [[Immaculate Conception]] declared [[dogma]] by [[Roman Catholic Church]]. 
 +
*1859 [[w:Constantin von Tischendorf|Constantin von Tischendorf]] discovers [[w:Codex Sinaiticus|Codex Sinaiticus]] at [[St. Catherine's Monastery (Sinai)|St. Catherine's Monastery]].
 +
*1860 Death of [[Alexei Stepanovich Khomiakov|Alexei Khomiakov]], co-founder of the [[Slavophile movement]]. 
 +
*1864 First Orthodox [[parish]] established on American soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks; death of [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
 +
*1865 [[Church of Romania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]]. 
 +
*1869 Russian synod authorizes corrected text of [[Western Rite]] liturgy and Benedictine offices. 
 +
*1870 [[Papal Infallibility]] declared [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] dogma necessary for salvation by First Vatican Council. 
 +
*1871 [[Nicholas of Japan|Nikolai Kasatkin]] establishes Orthodox mission in Japan. 
 +
*1872 Council in Jerusalem declares [[phyletism]] to be [[heresy]]; [[Church of Bulgaria]] gains ''de facto'' [[autocephaly]] by a decree of the Sultan.   
 +
*1875 Uniate diocese of [[w:Chełm|Chelm]] in Poland incorporated into Russian Orthodox Church under Alexander II, with all of the local Uniates converted to Orthodoxy. 
 +
*1876 [[Theophan the Recluse]] begins issuing a translation of the ''[[Philokalia]]'' in Russian.   
 +
*1879 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Serbia]]; death of [[Innocent of Alaska]]. 
 +
*1882 Synod of Constantinople gives conditional approval to use of Roman liturgy and Benedictine offices; [[Mitrophan Ji]] becomes the first Chinese ordained a priest in the [[Church of China]]. 
 +
*1885 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Romania]]; [[w:Revised Version|English Revised Version]] published; [[Archbishop of Canterbury]] officially removes all of [[Apocrypha]] from [[w:Authorized King James Version|King James Bible]].
 +
*1888  ''[[Typikon]] of the Great Church of Christ'' is published with revised church services, prepared by Protopsaltis George Violakis, issued with the approval and blessing of the Ecumenical Patriarch, while the ''Sabaite (monastic) [[Typikon]]'' continues to be used in Russia.
 +
*1889 Federation of [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic Churches]], not in communion with Rome, at the [[w:Utrecht Union|Union of Utrecht]]. 
 +
*ca. 1890 ''[[Unseen Warfare]]'' further revised by [[Theophan the Recluse]].   
 +
*1891 Death of [[Ambrose of Optina]].     
 +
*1895 Reply of Synod of Constantinople to Pope Leo XIII.       
 +
*1898 Last ethnically Greek patriarch of [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]] deposed; [[Western Rite]] diocese organized in Czechoslovakia by [[Church of Russia]]. 
 +
*1899 Restoration of Arabs to the [[Church of Antioch|Patriarchal throne of Antioch]]. 
 +
*1900 [[Martyrs of China|Martyrdom of Orthodox Christians]] in Chinese Boxer Rebellion (Yihetuan Movement). 
 +
*1901 [[Evangelakia Events (Athens, 1901)|"Evangelakia" riots]] in Athens Greece in November, over translations of [[New Testament]] into [[w:Dimotiki|Demotic (Modern) Greek]], resulting in fall of both government and Metropolitan of Athens.   
 +
*1904 [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]] publishes the [http://kainh.homestead.com/files/noteptxt.pdf "Patriarchal" Text of the Greek New Testament], based on about twenty Byzantine manuscripts; petition to Russian synod by Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]], Bp. [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]], and Fr. [[John Kochurov]] to permit adaption of services taken from Anglican Book of Common Prayer for use by Orthodox people. 
 +
*1905 Death of [[Apostolos Makrakis]]; Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas Romanov's]] decree on freedom of religion results in about 250,000 [[w:Ruthenians|Ruthenians]] returning to [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniatism]]; seat of Russian Orthodox bishop in America moved from San Francisco to New York, as immigration from Eastern Europe and the reception of ex-[[Uniate]]s shifts the balance of Orthodox population to eastern North America. 
 +
*1907 Archim. [[Eusebius Matthopoulos]] founds [[Brotherhood of Theologians Zoe|Zoe Brotherhood]]; Commission on Anglican and Old Catholic Affairs of Russian synod reports in favor of adaptation of services from Book of Common Prayer and sets out criteria. 
 +
*1908 Fr. [[Nikodemos Sarikas]] sent to Johannesburg, Transvaal, by Ecumenical Patriarchate as first Orthodox priest there, leaving after a short time for German East Africa (later Tanzania) because of the opposition of Johannesburg Greeks to mission among Africans. 
 +
*1908 Death of [[John of Kronstadt]].     
 +
*1912 Death of [[Nicholas of Japan]].
 +
 
 +
==Communist era (1917-1991)==
 +
: ''Main article:  [[Timeline of Church History (Communist Era (1917-1991))]]''
 +
*1917 [[w:Bolshevik Revolution|Bolshevik Revolution]] throws [[Church of Russia]] into chaos, effectively stranding the fledgling Russian Orthodox mission in America; restoration of Moscow Patriarchate with [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon]] as patriarch; [[Church of Georgia]]'s [[autocephaly]] restored ''de facto'' by political chaos in Russia.
 +
*1917-40 [[w:Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union|Persecution of the Orthodox Church in Russia]] begins, with 130,000 priests arrested, 95,000 of whom were executed by firing squad.   
 +
*1918 Tsar [[Nicholas II of Russia]] murdered together with his wife [[Alexandra Romanov|Alexandra]] and children. 
 +
*1919-1922 [[w:Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)|Greco-Turkish War]]; a million refugees flee to Greece joining half a million Greeks who had fled earlier; [[w:Pontic Greek Genocide|Pontic Greek Genocide]] eliminates the Christian population of Trebizond. 
 +
*1920 Death of [[Nektarios of Aegina]]; publication of Encyclical Letters by Constantinople on Christian unity and on the Ecumenical Movement. 
 +
*1921 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] renounces all claims to jurisdiction in any part of Africa, with Alexandrian primate thenceforth known as ''Pope and Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria and All Africa]]''; [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of America]] formed ; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow; [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague|Gorazd (Pavlik)]] consecrated as bishop for Western Rite Diocese of Moravia and Silesia; an all-Ukrainian Synod is called in Kyiv and the [[Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church]] (UAOC) (as yet unrecognized) is declared independent from the Moscow Patriarchate (MP).
 +
*1922 [[Church of Albania]] declares [[autocephaly]] from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]]; formation of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]]; [[Solovetsky Monastery]] converted by Lenin's decree to the [[w:Solovki|"Solovki Special Purpose Camp"]], one of the earliest forced-labor camps of the Gulag where 75 bishops died, along with tens of thousands of laity; the predominatly Christian city of [[w:Great Fire of Smyrna|Smyrna is destroyed]], ending 1900 years of Christian civilization.   
 +
*1923 [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]] granted [[autonomy]] by [[Church of Constantinople]]; [[w:Treaty of Lausanne|Treaty of Lausanne]] affirmed the international status of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]], with Turkey guaranteeing respect and the Patriarchate’s full protection.
 +
*1924 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Poland]]. 
 +
*1925 [[Church of Romania]] becomes a [[patriarchate]]; first Africans in sub-Saharan Africa baptized in Tanganyika by Fr. Nikodemos Sarikas; death of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]. 
 +
*1926 Polish Catholic National Church received as a [[Western Rite]] diocese in Poland of [[Church of Russia]] under Bp. Alexis of Grodno; [[John Maximovitch]] tonsured by [[ROCOR]] Metr. [[Anthony (Khrapovitsky) of Kiev]]. 
 +
*1927 Bishops of Russian church in America authorize formation of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]], including a [[Western Rite]] [[missionary]] outreach.   
 +
*1929 Kingdom of Italy and Papacy ratify [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]]. 
 +
*1931 Reception of [[Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe]] into the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]], led by Metr. [[Eulogius (Georgievsky) of Paris]]. 
 +
*1932 Daniel William Alexander travels to [[Uganda]] to meet [[Christopher Reuben Spartas|Reuben Spartas]], establishing African Orthodox Church there. 
 +
*1933 [[Church of Greece]] bans [[Freemasonry]]. 
 +
*1934 Daniel William Alexander travels to Kenya, establishing African Orthodox Church led by Arthur Gathuna; episcopal consecration of [[John Maximovitch]]. 
 +
*1935 Critical edition of [[Septuagint]] published in Gottingen Germany by Alfred Rahlfs at the Septuaginta-Unternehmens (Institute); [[Old Calendarists|Old Calendar]] schism when three bishops declared their separation from the official [[Church of Greece]] stating that the calendar change was a schismatic act. 
 +
*1935-40 Italian forces occupy Ethiopia and begin intermittent persecutions of the [[Church of Ethiopia|Ethiopian Orthodox Church]]. 
 +
*1936 Ukase of Moscow Patriarchate establishes Western Orthodox Church in France using [[Western Rite]]. 
 +
*1936-37 Many Russian Orthodox Clerics die in Joseph Stalin's [[w:Great Purge|Great Purge]].   
 +
*1937 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Albania]].
 +
*1938 Death of [[Silouan the Athonite]]; [[American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese]] founded, when a group of 37 Carpatho-Russian Eastern Catholic parishes, under the leadership of Fr. [[Orestes (Chornock) of Agathonikeia|Orestes Chornock]], were received into the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
 +
*1941 Martyrdom of [[Gorazd (Pavlik) of Prague]] by Nazis. 
 +
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]] terrorists kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]]. 
 +
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of [[Church of Georgia]]; first constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by Reuben Spartas and Arthur Gathuna; Joseph Stalin meets with hierarchs of Russian Orthodox Church to establish a "patriotic union," granting concessions to the church, including the gathering of the holy synod and the election of [[Sergius I (Stragorodsky) of Moscow|Sergius I]] as patriarch of Moscow. 
 +
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA. 
 +
*1944 Fr. [[Jean-Nectaire (Kovalevsky) of Saint-Denis|Evgraph (Kovalevsky)]] completes restoration of [[Divine Liturgy according to St. Germanus of Paris|Liturgy of St. Germaine de Paris]]. 
 +
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]]. 
 +
*1945-90 Persecution of the [[Church of Albania|Orthodox Church in Albania]]. 
 +
*1946 Reuben Spartas of the African Orthodox Church visits Alexandria; Holy Synod of the [[Church of Alexandria]] officially recognizes and accepts the African Greek Orthodox Church in Kenya and Uganda; state-sponsored synod is held at Lviv, Ukraine in March, which officially dissolves the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] and integrates the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the Russian Orthodox Church, Soviet authorities arresting resisters or deporting them to Siberia. 
 +
*1947 Death of [[Alexis (Kabaliuk) of Carpathia|Alexei Kabalyiuk]], who played a major role in reviving Orthodoxy in [[w:Zakarpattia Oblast|Transcarpathia]] in the early 20th century. 
 +
*1948 [[Church of Russia]] re-grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of Poland]] (after having revoked it in the aftermath of World War II); [[w:World Council of Churches|World Council of Churches]] is founded; Council of Moscow is held on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the independence of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Church]] from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], with representatives of the local Orthodox Churches rejecting all participation in the World Council of Churches. 
 +
*1949 Soviet authorities revoke the [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] of 1646, creating the Orthodox Eparchy of Mukachiv-Uzhhorod, under the Patriarch of Moscow.
 +
*1950 [[w:Pope Pius XII|Pope Pius XII]] proclaims the [[w:Bodily Assumption|Bodily Assumption]] of the Virgin Mary as a dogma. 
 +
*1951 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]]; 1500th anniversary celebration of the [[Church of Jerusalem|Patriarchate of Jerusalem]].     
 +
*1952-60 With the [[w:Mau Mau Uprising|Mau-Mau Movement]] in Kenya (''British East Africa Protectorate''), the [[Orthodox Church]] is banished by the Colonial Government.
 +
*1953 Metr. [[Antony (Bashir) of New York|Antony (Bashir)]] accepts three [[Western Rite]] parishes into Syrian Metropolitanate in America. 
 +
*1957 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autonomy]] to [[Church of China]]. 
 +
*1958 Patriarch of Antioch adopts provisions of Russian synods of 1879 and 1907 for use by [[Western Rite]] in America; Western Orthodox Church of France comes under Abp. [[John Maximovitch]], who authorizes the use of the restored Gallican rite. 
 +
*1959 Abp. [[Anastasios (Yannoulatos) of Albania]] establishes inter-Orthodox mission agency ''Porefthentes'' to revive the church's mission activities; autocephaly granted to the [[Church of Ethiopia]] by Coptic Pope [[Cyril VI (Atta) of Alexandria]].   
 +
*1961 Creation of [[Western Rite Vicariate]] in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]; death of [[Luke (Voino-Yasenetsky) of Simferopol and Crimea]]; consecration of first Orthodox Church in Uganda; first Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes.
 +
*1962-1965 Second Vatican Council held in Rome, initiating major liturgical and theological reforms for the [[Roman Catholic Church]], including restriction of ancient [[Tridentine Mass]] and introduction of the Novus Ordo.   
 +
*1963 Second Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; 1000th anniversary celebration of founding of [[Mount Athos]].   
 +
*1964 Meeting of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome]] and Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] in Jerusalem; third Pan-Orthodox Conference in Rhodes; [[Synaxis of the Saints of Rostov]] established by resolution of His Holiness Patriarch [[Alexei I (Simansky) of Moscow|Alexis I]] and the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]]. 
 +
*1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] mutually nullify the [[excommunication]]s of 1054.
 +
*1966 The [[w:Cultural Revolution|Cultural Revolution]] almost totally destroyed the young [[Church of China|Chinese Orthodox Church]].
 +
*1967 [[Macedonian Orthodox Church |Church of Macedonia]] unilaterally declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Serbia]] (as yet unrecognized); Albania is declared an atheist state, closing all religious institutions and forbiding any religious practices.
 +
*1968 Visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives; fourth Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland. 
 +
*1970 [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian-American Metropolia]] reconciles with [[Church of Russia]] and is granted [[autocephaly]], renamed as the Orthodox Church in America, returning control of [[Church of Japan]] to Moscow, which grants it [[autonomy]]; Abp. [[Makarios III (Mouskos) of Cyprus]] baptizes 10,000 into the Orthodox Church in Kenya. 
 +
*1971 [[Theological School of Halki|Halki Seminary]] closed by Turkish authorities.     
 +
*1975 Division in the Antiochian church in North America overcome by the uniting of the two Antiochian archdioceses into one by Metr. [[Philip (Saliba) of New York]] and Abp. [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]]; Joint Commission of Orthodox and Old Catholic theologians is established.
 +
*1976 First Pre-Synodal Pan-Orthodox Conference at Orthodox Centre of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Chambesy, Switzerland.   
 +
*1979 Pope [[John Paul II]] visits Ecumenical Patriarchate.
 +
*1979 Joint Commission of Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches for Theological Dialogue established by Pope [[John Paul II]] and Patr. [[Demetrius I (Papadopoulos) of Constantinople]].   
 +
*1981 Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission meets for the first time in Espoo, Finland.   
 +
*1982 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission publishes in Munich first official common document, ''"The Mystery of the Church and of the Eucharist in Light of the Mystery of the Holy Trinity"''; second Pre-Synodal Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland.
 +
*1985 Founding of [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center]] (OCMC) as Greek Archdiocesan Mission Center; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Divine Revelation."'' 
 +
*1986 Third Pre-Synodal Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland. 
 +
*1987 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission issues common document ''"Faith, Sacraments and the Unity of the Church"''; visit by Patr. [[Demetrius I (Papadopoulos) of Constantinople]] to Vatican. 
 +
*1987 Group of twenty parishes of the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]], originally formed by former Campus Crusade for Christ leaders [[Peter Gillquist]] and [[Jon Braun]], are received into [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian Archdiocese]] in US, becoming the Antiochian Evangelical Orthodox Mission; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues the statement ''"Scripture and Tradition."''   
 +
*1988 1000th anniversary of Orthodoxy in Russia; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission publishes common document ''"The Sacrament of Order in the Sacramental Structure of the Church"''; Indonesian Muslim convert to Orthodoxy Fr. [[Daniel (Bambang Dwi) Byantoro|Daniel Byantoro]] begins his mission in Indonesia, sparking the rebirth of Orthodoxy there.
 +
*1989 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"The Canon and the Inspiration of the Holy Scripture"''; glorification in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; Uniate Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church legalized, with Greek Catholics beginning seizure of property from Russian Orthodox Church, which they claimed as theirs prior to the synod of 1946.   
 +
*1990 [[Church of Ukraine (Kiev Patriarchate)|Ukrainian Orthodox Church-Kiev Patriarchate]] (UOC-KP) self-proclaims its independance from the [[Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church|UAOC]] (both groups unrecognized).
 +
 
 +
==Post-Communist era (1991-Present)==
 +
:''Main article: [[Timeline of Church History (Post-Communist Era (1991-Present))]]''
 +
*1991 Representatives of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches meet in Chambesy, Switzerland, discussing relations with World Council of Churches. 
 +
*1992 Synaxis of primates of Orthodox churches in Constantinople.
 +
*1993 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Balamand, Lebanon, issuing common document ''"Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and Present. Search for Full Communion"'' (the "[[Balamand document]]"); Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"The Ecumenical Councils."'' 
 +
*1993 [[Church of Cyprus]] condemns [[Freemasonry]]; ''[[Orthodox Study Bible|Orthodox Study Bible: New Testament and Psalms]]'' published; [[Church of Eritrea|Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church]] becomes autocephalous.
 +
*1994 [[Ligonier Meeting]] in Western Pennsylvania at [[Antiochian Village]] held by the majority of Orthodox hierarchs in North America votes to do away with the notion of Orthodox Christians in America being a "[[diaspora]]".
 +
*1995 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew I]] visits Vatican; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Understanding of Salvation in the Light of the Ecumenical Councils"''; Pope John Paul II issues encyclical ''[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html Orientale Lumen]'', encouraging reunion between East and West.   
 +
*1996 Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America reorganized by the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]], dividing the administration of the two continents into four parts.
 +
*1998 [[Church of Constantinople]], not recognizing Russia's right to issue a [[tomos]] of [[autocephaly]] in 1951, issues its own tomos for the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]]; [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/thessaloniki_roc.aspx Thessaloniki Summit] held to discuss Orthodox participation in [[w:World Council of Churches|WCC]]; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Salvation: Grace, Justification and Synergy."'' 
 +
*1999 Numerous Serbian Orthodox sites in Kosovo and Metohia destroyed and desecrated during NATO peacekeeping presence.
 +
*2000 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, discusses text on ''"The Ecclesiological and Canonical Implications of Uniatism,"'' but is suspended; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Word and Sacraments (Mysteria) in the Life of the Church"''.
 +
*2001 [[Church of Armenia]] celebrates 1700th Anniversary of Christianity in Armenia (in 301 AD, King Tiridates III declared Christianity as Armenia’s state religion); Pope John Paul II of Rome [[Fourth Crusade#Papal Apology to Orthodox Church|apologizes to Orthodox Church]] for Fourth Crusade; [[Church of Alexandria|Chalcedonian]] and [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Non-Chalcedonian]] Patriarchates of Alexandria agree to mutually recognize baptisms and marriages performed in each other's churches. 
 +
*2002 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] and Pope [[John Paul II]] co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"Mysteria/Sacraments as Means of Salvation."''   
 +
*2003 Orthodox Churches in Europe commemorated the 550th anniversary of the fall of Constantinople in May; [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by [[Church of Antioch]]; Coptic priest Fr. [[Zakaria Botros]] begins his television and internet mission to Muslims in North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and western countries, resulting in thousands of conversions.
 +
*2004 Pope [[John Paul II]] returns [[relics]] of [[John Chrysostom]] and [[Gregory the Theologian]] to [[Church of Constantinople]]; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission statement ''"Baptism and Chrismation as Sacraments of Initiation into the Church."''   
 +
*2006 Pope [[Benedict XVI]] visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from [[Mount Athos]]; Abp. [[Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens]] visits Vatican; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement ''"The Holy Eucharist in the Life of the Church."''   
 +
*2007 Restoration of [[full communion]] between [[Moscow Patriarchate]] and [[ROCOR]]; synod of over 50 bishops of the [[Church of Ukraine]] announce that the UOC-MP is ''"an autonomous, historical part of the Russian Orthodox Church"''; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy, 10th plenary, led by co-presidents [[w:Walter Kasper|Cardinal Walter Kasper]] and Metr. [[John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon]], agreeing upon a joint document consisting of 46 articles providing an ecclesiastical road map in discussing union; Russian delegation walks out of Ravenna talks in protest of presence of Estonian delegation ([[Church of Constantinople|EP]]). 
 +
*2008 ''[[Orthodox Study Bible]] (with [[Septuagint]]'') published; [http://www.ec-patr.org/docdisplay.php?lang=en&id=995&tla=en Pan-Orthodox meeting in Constantinople] in October of the Primates of the fourteen Orthodox Churches, signing a document calling for inter-orthodox unity and collaboration and "''the continuation of preparations for the Holy and Great Council''".
 +
*2009 The 4th Pan-Orthodox pre-conciliar consultation was held in Chambésy on June 6-13; Death of popular Elder [[Joseph of Vatopedi]], [[July 1]].
 +
 
 +
{{Template:Timeline of Church History}}
 +
 
 +
==Notes== 
 +
*Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately. 
 +
*The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events. 
 +
*This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the [[Orthodox Church]], though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference. 
 +
   
 +
==See also==
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in America]] 
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Australia]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Britain]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in China]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece]] 
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in New Zealand]] 
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Russia]]
 +
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]
 +
*[[History of Orthodox Missions]]
  
==Modern era (1821-present)==
+
==Published works==  
*1821 Greek independence declared on the Day of [[Annunciation]] ([[March 25]]).
+
   
*1829 The Treaty of Adrianople ends the Greek War of Independence, culminating in the creation of the modern Greek state.
+
The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history: 
*1832 [[Church of Serbia]] becomes ''de facto'' [[autocephaly|autocephalous]].
+
   
*1833 [[Church of Greece]] declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Constantinople]].
+
'''From an Orthodox perspective'''  
*1848 ''[[Encyclical of the Eastern Patriarchs]]'' sent by the primates and synods of the four ancient patriarchates of the Orthodox Church, condemning the [[Filioque]] as heresy, declaring the [[Roman Catholic Church]] to be [[heresy|heretical]], [[schism]]atic, and in [[apostasy]], repudiating [[Ultramontanism]] and referring to the Photian Council of 879-880 as the "[[Eighth Ecumenical Council]]."
+
* Angold, Michael (Ed.). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=1xUV-nMxNGsC&printsec=frontcover Eastern Christianity]''. The Cambridge History of Christianity. Cambridge University Press, 2006. 722 pp. ISBN 9780521811132
*1850 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Greece]].
+
* [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew I]] (Ecumenical Patriarch). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=citwDOTiWV8C&source=gbs_navlinks_s Encountering the Mystery: Understanding Orthodox Christianity Today].'' Random House of Canada, 2008. ISBN 9780385518130
*1854 [[Immaculate Conception]] declared dogma by [[Roman Catholic Church]].
+
* [[Sergius Bulgakov|Bulgakov, Sergeĭ Nikolaevich]]. ''[http://www.svspress.com/product_info.php?products_id=203&osCsid=b1daf845e88be28003d36749c5127b7a The Orthodox Church].'' Revised Ed. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1997. ISBN 978-0881410518
*1870 [[Papal Infallibility]] declared [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] dogma necessary for salvation by the First Vatican Council.
+
* Clark, Katherine. ''The Orthodox Church.'' '''Simple Guides: Religion (series)'''. Random House Inc, 2009. ISBN 9781857334876 (''Concise, accessible introduction'')
*1864 First Orthodox [[parish]] established on American soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
+
* [[Olivier Clement|Clément, Olivier]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=MhJGJbPKpz4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s Conversations with Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I].'' St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1997. ISBN 9780881411782
*1865 [[Church of Romania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]].
+
* [[Georges Florovsky|Florovsky, Georges]]. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=UO1rAAAAIAAJ&pgis=1 Christianity and Culture].'' 2nd ed. Nordland Pub. Co., 1974. 245 pp. (ISBN 0913124044; ISBN 9780913124048)
*1871 [[Nicholas of Japan|Nikolai Kasatkin]] establishes Orthodox mission in Japan.
+
* Keegan, Paul, and B.J. Kidd. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Ufw_AAAACAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Churches of Eastern Christendom: From A.D. 451 to the Present Time].'' Ed. Prof. Daniel Herwitz. Publ. Paul Kegan, 2006. 541 pp. (ISBN 9780710310811)
*1872 Council in Jerusalem declares [[phyletism]] to be a [[heresy]]; [[Church of Bulgaria]] gains ''de facto'' [[autocephaly]] by a decree of the Sultan.
+
* Maloney, George A. (S.J.). ''A History of Orthodox Theology Since 1453''. Norland Publishing, Massachusetts, 1976.  
*1879 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Serbia]].
+
* Payton, James R. (Prof. Dr.). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=khL2qJ7gLPwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Light from the Christian East: An Introduction to the Orthodox Tradition].'' InterVarsity Press, 2007. ISBN 9780830825943
*1881 Wave of anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia causes mass migrations of Jews (2.5 million Jews settle in the United States, thousands settle in Palestine).
+
* [[Alexander Schmemann|Schmemann, Alexander]]. ''The Historical Road of Eastern Orthodoxy''.  
*1885 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Romania]].
+
* Tsai, Kathryn (Dr.). ''A Timeline of Eastern Church History.'' [[St. John of San Francisco Monastery (Manton, California)|Divine Ascent Press]], CA, 2004. ISBN 0971413924
*1898 Last Greek patriarch of [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]] deposed.
+
* [[Kallistos (Ware) of Diokleia|Ware, Timothy]]. ''The Orthodox Church: New Edition''. (ISBN 0140146563)
*1899 Restoration of Arabs to the [[Church of Antioch|Patriarchal throne of Antioch]].
+
* [[Meletios (Webber)|Webber, Meletios]] (Archimandrite). ''[http://www.conciliarpress.com/bread-water-wine-oil.html Bread & Water, Wine & Oil: An Orthodox Christian Experience of God].'' Conciliar Press. 2007.
*1908 Fr Nikodemos Sarikas sent to Johannesburg, Transvaal, by the Ecumenical Patriarchate as the first Orthodox priest there. After a short time he left for German East Africa (later Tanzania) because of the opposition of Johannesburg Greeks to mission among Africans.
+
<br>
*1917 [[Church of Georgia]]'s [[autocephaly]] restored ''de facto'' by the political chaos in Russia.
+
* Kesich, Rev. Dr. Veselin. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=vc0wBCU70NwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s Formation and Struggles: The Birth of the Church AD 33-200]''. '''The Church in History Vol. I: Part I'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007. ISBN 9780881413199
*1918 The Bolshevik Revolution throws the [[Church of Russia]] into chaos, effectively stranding the fledgling Orthodox mission in America; St. [[Nicholas II of Russia|Nicholas Romanov]], Tsar of Russia is martyred together with his wife St. [[Alexandra Romanov|Alexandra]] and children.
+
* [[John Meyendorff|Meyendorff, Rev. Dr. John]]. ''Imperial Unity and Christian Divisions: The Church, 450-680 AD''. '''The Church in History Vol. II'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1989. ISBN 9780881410563
*c1921 The [[Church of Constantinople]] renounces all claims to jurisdiction in any part of Africa, and the Patriarch of Alexandria is henceforth known as the Pope and Patriarch of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria and all Africa]].
+
* Louth, Rev. Dr. Andrew. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=WlpPjOlVzQwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Greek East and Latin West : The Church, AD 681-1071]''. '''The Church in History Vol. III'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007. ISBN 9780881413205
*1922 [[Church of Albania]] declares its [[autocephaly|independence]] from the [[Church of Constantinople]].
+
* Papadakis, Prof. Dr. Aristeides (with John Meyendorff). ''The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy: The Church 1071-1453 A.D.'' '''The Church in History Vol. IV'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1994. ISBN 9780881410587
*1923 [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]] granted [[autonomy]] by the [[Church of Constantinople]].
 
*1924 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Poland]].
 
*1924 Bishop Daniel William Alexander convenes a meeting in Kimberley, South Africa, which decides to secede from the African Church (a Protestant denomination) and affiliate with the African Orthodox Church in New York under George McGuire.
 
*1925 [[Church of Romania]] becomes a [[patriarchate]].
 
*1925 First Africans in sub-Saharan Africa baptised in Tanganyika by Fr Nikodemos Sarikas.
 
*1927 Daniel William Alexander travels from South Africa to America to be consecrated a bishop of the African Orthodox Church. Orthodox Archbishopric of Johannesburg established.
 
*1932 Daniel William Alexander travels to Uganda to meet Reuben Spartas, and establish African Orthodox Church there.
 
*1934 Daniel William Alexander travels to Kenya, and establishes African Orthodox Church led by Arthur Gathuna.
 
*1937 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Albania]].
 
*1938 [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]] and [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Theological Seminary (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded.
 
*1943 [[Church of Russia]] recognizes the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]].
 
*1943 First constitution of the African Orthodox Church in East Africa signed by Reuben Spartas and Arthur Gathuna.
 
*1945 [[Church of Bulgaria]]'s [[autocephaly]] generally recognized; library of early Christian texts is discovered at Nag Hammadi in Egypt; Soviet Union annexes Czechoslovakia; [[Church of Russia]] claims jurisdiction over the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].
 
*1946 Reuben Spartas of the African Orthodox Church visits Alexandria. The Holy Synod of the [[Church of Alexandria]] officially recognises and accepts the African Greek Orthodox Church in Kenya and Uganda.
 
*1947 [[Dead Sea Scrolls]] are discovered near Qumran in Egypt.
 
*1948 [[Church of Russia]] re-grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of Poland]] (after having revoked it in the aftermath of World War II).
 
*1951 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autocephaly]] to the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].
 
*1957 [[Church of Russia]] grants [[autonomy]] to the Church of China.
 
*1958 Creation of [[Western Rite Vicariate]] in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] with the reception of multiple [[Western Rite]] parishes into Orthodoxy.
 
*1962-1965 Second Vatican Council held in Rome, initiating major liturgical and theological reforms for the [[Roman Catholic Church]], including the abolition of the ancient [[Tridentine Mass]] and the introduction of the Novus Ordo.
 
*1965 Pope Paul VI of Rome and Patriarch [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople]] mutually nullify the excommunications of 1054.
 
*1967 [[Church of Macedonia]] declares its [[autocephaly]], making it independent of the [[Church of Serbia]]. To date, this declaration has not been recognised by any other Orthodox Church.
 
*1970 [[Orthodox Church in America]] reconciles with the [[Church of Russia]] and is granted [[autocephaly]].
 
*1975 Division in the Antiochian church in North America overcome by the uniting of the two Antiochian archdioceses into one by Metropolitan [[Philip (Saliba) of New York]] and Archbishop [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]].
 
*1989 [[Church of Constantinople]] recognizes the [[autocephaly]] of the [[Church of Georgia]].
 
*1994 [[Ligonier Meeting]] in Western Pennsylvania at the [[Antiochian Village]] held by the majority of Orthodox hierarchs in North America votes to do away with the notion of Orthodox Christians in America being a "diaspora."
 
*1998 [[Church of Constantinople]], not recognizing Russia's right to issue a [[tomos]] of [[autocephaly]] in 1951, issues its own tomos for the [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]].
 
*2003 The [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] is granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by the [[Church of Antioch]].
 
*2004 Pope John Paul II returns the [[relics]] of Ss. [[John Chrysostom]] and [[Gregory the Theologian]] to the [[Church of Constantinople]].
 
  
==Notes==
+
   
*Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
+
'''From a [[Heterodox]] perspective''' 
*The division of Church History into separate eras as we do here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though we have tried to group periods according to major watershed events.
+
   
*This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the [[Orthodox Church]], though a number of non-Orthodox events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy.
+
* Boer, Harry R. ''A Short History of the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802813399) 
 +
* Cairns, Earle E. ''Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 0310208122) 
 +
* Chadwick, Henry. ''The Early Church''. (ISBN 0140231994) 
 +
* Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. ''Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith''. (ISBN 0789446057) 
 +
* Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). ''Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History''. (ISBN 1565633717) 
 +
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon''. (ISBN 0687171822) 
 +
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation''. (ISBN 0687171830) 
 +
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century''. (ISBN 0687171849) 
 +
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation''. (ISBN 0060633158) 
 +
* Gonzalez, Justo L. ''The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day''. (ISBN 0060633166) 
 +
* Hall, Stuart G. ''Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church''. (ISBN 0802806295) 
 +
* Hastings, Adrian, ed. ''A World History of Christianity''. (ISBN 0802848753) 
 +
* Hurtado, Larry W. (Dr.). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=_MH-_ZQuZrgC&source=gbs_navlinks_s Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity].'' Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005. (ISBN 9780802831675)
 +
* Hurtado, Larry W. (Dr.). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=w5FpP9ZxqlYC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins].'' Cambridge 2006.
 +
* Hussey, J. M. ''The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church.'' (ISBN 0198264569) 
 +
* Jones, Timothy P. ''Christian History Made Easy''. (ISBN 1890947105) 
 +
* Noll, Mark A. ''Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity''. (ISBN 080106211X) 
 +
* [[Jaroslav Pelikan|Pelikan, Jaroslav]]. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600)''. (ISBN 0226653714) 
 +
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653730) 
 +
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300)''. (ISBN 0226653749) 
 +
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700)''. (ISBN 0226653773) 
 +
* Pelikan, Jaroslav. ''The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700)''. (ISBN 0226653803) 
 +
* Schaff, Philip. ''History of the Christian Church''. (ISBN 156563196X) 
 +
* Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. ''A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies''. (ISBN 1565630572) 
 +
* Walton, Robert C. ''Chronological and Background Charts of Church History''. (ISBN 0310362814)
  
 +
==External links== 
 +
*[http://saintignatiuschurch.org/timeline.html A Timeline of Church History] provided by [http://saintignatiuschurch.org/ St. Ignatius of Antioch Orthodox Christian Church] 
 +
   
 +
*History of Orthodox Christianity ''(QuickTime movies)'' 
 +
** [http://realserver.goarch.org/en/gotelecom/history_pt1-DSL.mov Part 1: Beginnings] 
 +
** [http://realserver.goarch.org/en/gotelecom/history_pt2-DSL.mov Part 2: Byzantium] 
 +
** [http://realserver.goarch.org/en/gotelecom/history_pt3-DSL.mov Part 3: A Hidden Treasure] 
 +
   
 +
*[http://www.archons.org/patriarchate/ Timeline of Patriarchal History]. Order of St. Andrew the Apostle. Archons of the Ecumenical Patriarchate. ''(Pop-up Video Presentation, in Sections)'' 
 +
 
 +
*[[w:Timeline of the Roman Catholic Church|Timeline of the Roman Catholic Church]]
  
[[Category:Church History]]
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[[Category:Featured Articles]]
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[[Category:Church History]]  
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[[Category:Featured Articles]] 
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[[Category:Timelines|Church History]] 
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[[ar:ملخص تاريخ الكنيسة]] 
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[[bg:Времева линия на църковната история]] 
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[[el:Ιστορικό χρονολόγιο της Εκκλησίας]] 
 +
[[ro:Istoria Bisericii Ortodoxe (cronologie)]]

Latest revision as of 23:01, May 30, 2020

Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


This article forms part of the series
Introduction to
Orthodox Christianity
Holy Tradition
Holy Scripture
The Symbol of Faith
Ecumenical Councils
Church Fathers
Liturgy
Canons
Icons
The Holy Trinity
God the Father
Jesus Christ
The Holy Spirit
The Church
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History
Holy Mysteries
Church Life
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The History of the Church is a vital part of the Orthodox Christian faith. Orthodox Christians are defined significantly by their continuity with all those who have gone before, those who first received and preached the truth of Jesus Christ to the world, those who helped to formulate the expression and worship of our faith, and those who continue to move forward in the unchanging yet ever-dynamic Holy Tradition of the Orthodox Church.

New Testament era

Main article: Timeline of Church History (New Testament Era)

Apostolic era (33-100)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Apostolic Era (33-100))

Ante-Nicene era (100-325)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Ante-Nicene Era (100-325))

Nicene era (325-451)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Nicene Era (325-451))

Byzantine era (451-843)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Byzantine Era (451-843))

Late Byzantine era (843-1054)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Late Byzantine Era (843-1054))

Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453))

Media:Example.ogg

Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821))

Modern era (1821-1917)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Modern Era (1821-1917))

Communist era (1917-1991)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Communist Era (1917-1991))

Post-Communist era (1991-Present)

Main article: Timeline of Church History (Post-Communist Era (1991-Present))
  • 1991 Representatives of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox Churches meet in Chambesy, Switzerland, discussing relations with World Council of Churches.
  • 1992 Synaxis of primates of Orthodox churches in Constantinople.
  • 1993 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Balamand, Lebanon, issuing common document "Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and Present. Search for Full Communion" (the "Balamand document"); Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "The Ecumenical Councils."
  • 1993 Church of Cyprus condemns Freemasonry; Orthodox Study Bible: New Testament and Psalms published; Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church becomes autocephalous.
  • 1994 Ligonier Meeting in Western Pennsylvania at Antiochian Village held by the majority of Orthodox hierarchs in North America votes to do away with the notion of Orthodox Christians in America being a "diaspora".
  • 1995 Patr. Bartholomew I visits Vatican; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Understanding of Salvation in the Light of the Ecumenical Councils"; Pope John Paul II issues encyclical Orientale Lumen, encouraging reunion between East and West.
  • 1996 Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America reorganized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate, dividing the administration of the two continents into four parts.
  • 1998 Church of Constantinople, not recognizing Russia's right to issue a tomos of autocephaly in 1951, issues its own tomos for the Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia; Thessaloniki Summit held to discuss Orthodox participation in WCC; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Salvation: Grace, Justification and Synergy."
  • 1999 Numerous Serbian Orthodox sites in Kosovo and Metohia destroyed and desecrated during NATO peacekeeping presence.
  • 2000 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, discusses text on "The Ecclesiological and Canonical Implications of Uniatism," but is suspended; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Word and Sacraments (Mysteria) in the Life of the Church".
  • 2001 Church of Armenia celebrates 1700th Anniversary of Christianity in Armenia (in 301 AD, King Tiridates III declared Christianity as Armenia’s state religion); Pope John Paul II of Rome apologizes to Orthodox Church for Fourth Crusade; Chalcedonian and Non-Chalcedonian Patriarchates of Alexandria agree to mutually recognize baptisms and marriages performed in each other's churches.
  • 2002 Patr. Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople and Pope John Paul II co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "Mysteria/Sacraments as Means of Salvation."
  • 2003 Orthodox Churches in Europe commemorated the 550th anniversary of the fall of Constantinople in May; Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to autonomy) by Church of Antioch; Coptic priest Fr. Zakaria Botros begins his television and internet mission to Muslims in North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia, and western countries, resulting in thousands of conversions.
  • 2004 Pope John Paul II returns relics of John Chrysostom and Gregory the Theologian to Church of Constantinople; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission statement "Baptism and Chrismation as Sacraments of Initiation into the Church."
  • 2006 Pope Benedict XVI visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from Mount Athos; Abp. Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens visits Vatican; Lutheran-Orthodox Joint Commission issues statement "The Holy Eucharist in the Life of the Church."
  • 2007 Restoration of full communion between Moscow Patriarchate and ROCOR; synod of over 50 bishops of the Church of Ukraine announce that the UOC-MP is "an autonomous, historical part of the Russian Orthodox Church"; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy, 10th plenary, led by co-presidents Cardinal Walter Kasper and Metr. John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon, agreeing upon a joint document consisting of 46 articles providing an ecclesiastical road map in discussing union; Russian delegation walks out of Ravenna talks in protest of presence of Estonian delegation (EP).
  • 2008 Orthodox Study Bible (with Septuagint) published; Pan-Orthodox meeting in Constantinople in October of the Primates of the fourteen Orthodox Churches, signing a document calling for inter-orthodox unity and collaboration and "the continuation of preparations for the Holy and Great Council".
  • 2009 The 4th Pan-Orthodox pre-conciliar consultation was held in Chambésy on June 6-13; Death of popular Elder Joseph of Vatopedi, July 1.
Timeline of Church History
Eras Timeline of Church History (Abridged article)
Eras New Testament Era | Apostolic Era (33-100) | Ante-Nicene Era (100-325) | Nicene Era (325-451) | Byzantine Era (451-843) | Late Byzantine Era (843-1054) | Post-Roman Schism (1054-1453) | Post-Imperial Era (1453-1821) | Modern Era (1821-1917) | Communist Era (1917-1991) | Post-Communist Era (1991-Present) |
(Main articles)


Notes

  • Some of these dates are necessarily a bit vague, as records for some periods are particularly difficult to piece together accurately.
  • The division of Church History into separate eras as done here will always be to some extent arbitrary, though it was attempted to group periods according to major watershed events.
  • This timeline is necessarily biased toward the history of the Orthodox Church, though a number of non-Orthodox or purely political events are mentioned for their importance in history related to Orthodoxy or for reference.

See also

Published works

The following are published writings that provide an overview of Church history:

From an Orthodox perspective


  • Kesich, Rev. Dr. Veselin. Formation and Struggles: The Birth of the Church AD 33-200. The Church in History Vol. I: Part I. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007. ISBN 9780881413199
  • Meyendorff, Rev. Dr. John. Imperial Unity and Christian Divisions: The Church, 450-680 AD. The Church in History Vol. II. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1989. ISBN 9780881410563
  • Louth, Rev. Dr. Andrew. Greek East and Latin West : The Church, AD 681-1071. The Church in History Vol. III. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007. ISBN 9780881413205
  • Papadakis, Prof. Dr. Aristeides (with John Meyendorff). The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy: The Church 1071-1453 A.D. The Church in History Vol. IV. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1994. ISBN 9780881410587


From a Heterodox perspective

  • Boer, Harry R. A Short History of the Early Church. (ISBN 0802813399)
  • Cairns, Earle E. Christianity Through the Centuries: A History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0310208122)
  • Chadwick, Henry. The Early Church. (ISBN 0140231994)
  • Collins, Michael, ed.; Price, Matthew Arlen. Story of Christianity: A Celebration of 2000 Years of Faith. (ISBN 0789446057)
  • Eusebius Pamphilus; Cruse, C.F. (translator). Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History. (ISBN 1565633717)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 1: From the Beginnings to the Council of Chalcedon. (ISBN 0687171822)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 2: From Augustine to the Eve of the Reformation. (ISBN 0687171830)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. A History of Christian Thought, Volume 3: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century. (ISBN 0687171849)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 1: The Early Church to the Reformation. (ISBN 0060633158)
  • Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Volume 2: Reformation to the Present Day. (ISBN 0060633166)
  • Hall, Stuart G. Doctrine and Practice in the Early Church. (ISBN 0802806295)
  • Hastings, Adrian, ed. A World History of Christianity. (ISBN 0802848753)
  • Hurtado, Larry W. (Dr.). Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2005. (ISBN 9780802831675)
  • Hurtado, Larry W. (Dr.). The Earliest Christian Artifacts: Manuscripts and Christian Origins. Cambridge 2006.
  • Hussey, J. M. The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire: Oxford History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 0198264569)
  • Jones, Timothy P. Christian History Made Easy. (ISBN 1890947105)
  • Noll, Mark A. Turning Points: Decisive Moments in the History of Christianity. (ISBN 080106211X)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600). (ISBN 0226653714)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (600-1700). (ISBN 0226653730)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 3: The Growth of Medieval Theology (600-1300). (ISBN 0226653749)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 4: Reformation of Church and Dogma (1300-1700). (ISBN 0226653773)
  • Pelikan, Jaroslav. The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine, Volume 5: Christian Doctrine and Modern Culture (since 1700). (ISBN 0226653803)
  • Schaff, Philip. History of the Christian Church. (ISBN 156563196X)
  • Wace, Henry; Piercy, William C., ed. A Dictionary of Christian Biography: Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D. With an Account of the Principal Sects and Heresies. (ISBN 1565630572)
  • Walton, Robert C. Chronological and Background Charts of Church History. (ISBN 0310362814)

External links

  • K. Lake. "The Greek Monasteries in South Italy III." J Theol Studies (1903) os-V(17): 22-41. p. 35.
  • Retrieved from "https://en.orthodoxwiki.org/index.php?title=Timeline_of_Church_History&oldid=128080"