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Anthony (Khrapovitsky) of Kiev

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== Theological views ==
Metropolitan Anthony was a remarkable writer, author of many works in apologetics, dogmatic, pastoral and moral theology, hermeneutics, canon law and other disciplines. His ecclesiological opinions were influenced by A. S. [[Khomiakov]]; from Khomiakov's view of the dogma of One Church, Metropolitan Anthony concluded that all [[heterodox]] churches were not part of the Church. He allowed the reception of converts through [[confession]] and [[chrismation]] strictly on the grounds of [[economy]]. Yet in his day, he taught that Orthodox bishops could receive Anglican clergy of that time merely by penance [http://anglicanhistorywesternorthodox.blogspot.orgcom/orthodoxy2007/khrapovitsky_orders192701/why-anglicans-could-have-been-received.html "in existing orders."] He was opposed to Latin influence on the Church, and felt the Greater and Lesser Catechisms of the seventeenth century are "only by a misapprehension are called Orthodox."
In his [[soteriology|sotereological]] conceptions, Metropolitan Anthony held that Orthodox dogmatic views must be entirely rid of the idea of [[substitutional atonement]] of [[Anselm of Canterbury]], which was popular in theological schools. Metropolitan Anthony wrote:
:We must think that during that night at [[Gethsemane]], the thoughts and feelings of the Godman encompassed all fallen men in their many billions, and wept with loving grief for all of them individually, which, of course, was only possible to the Divine, all-knowing heart. This was our atonement ... We are sure that the terrible sufferings of the Saviour at Gethsemane took place while beholding the sinful life and sinful nature of all human generations and that the words of the Lord "Let this cup pass from me" are not pointed to his upcoming [[Crucifixion]] and death, but to this, completely depressing to Him, feeling of profound grief for the sinful human race so beloved by Him.
Thus Metropolitan Anthony considered not [[Golgotha]], but the sufferings in Gethsemane, as central to the Savior's feat of redemption. The bodily sufferings and death on the Cross were necessary so that the faithful would acknowledge the degree of His suffering. This view received criticism from some theologians, including [[John Meyendorff]] and [[Georges Florovsky]], with some going as far as to accuse Metropolitan Anthony of [[Pelagianism]]. Metropolitan Anthony wrote these views in prison, and when they were criticized, he withdrew them. [] It is important to note that Metropolitan Anthony did not pioneer this theological view: it appeared in Russian theology in the 19th century as an attempt to counteract Anselmian atonement. Later theologians claimed that Metropolitan Anthony's views were completely Orthodox, but that the way in which he expressed them led some to misinterpret his teaching.
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== See also ==
*[[ROCOR and OCA]]
== Writings ==
* Selected Theological Works of Blessed Metropolitan Anthony (Khrapovitsky), translated by Tatiana Pavlova. [ Part I] and [ Part II]
* [ Paschal Epistle, 1922]
* [ Why Anglican Clergy Could be Received in their Orders]
* [ Met. Anthony's Final Nativity Epistle, 1935]
== Sources ==
* [ Mitropolit Antonii (Khrapovitsky), Pravoslavnaya Entsiklopediya]
* [ Orthodox Holiness: Metropolitan Anthony of Kiev and Galicia]
[[Category:First Hierarchs of the ROCOR]]
[[Category:Modern Writers]]