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Russian Orthodox Church in Exile

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The '''Russian Orthodox Church in Exile''' (ROCE/ROCIE) is a [[jurisdiction]] formed in 2001 in protest against and breaking from the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]](ROCOR), primarily over the latter's ongoing [[rapprochement ]] process with the [[Church of Russia|Moscow Patriarchate]]. The ROCE still sometimes uses the ROCOR/ROCA name and regards itself as the true ROCOR.
The two jurisdictions are sometimes distinguished , especially by those in the breakaway jurisdiction, as '''ROCOR (V)''' (ROCE) and '''ROCOR (L)'''(the mainstream ROCOR), the initial in parentheses referring to the [[primate]] of each group.
The ROCE was led by ==Origins==At the Council of Bishops of the [[ROCOR]] in 2001, Metropolitan [[Vitaly (Ustinov) of New York|Vitaly]], who had officially retired in protest as the primate First-Hierarch of the ROCOR, but passed away though attempts to retract what was done on his part were ignored. The reason given was that it was clear that a large faction had already decided upon union with the [[September 25Church of Russia|Moscow Patriarchate]], 2006. Upon and the formation Metropolitan wanted no part of the ROCE Metropolitan Vitaly union. Archbishop [[Laurus (Skurla) of New York|Laurus]] was declared by immediately elected the ROCE to have been retired forcibly new First-Hierarch by his enemies in ROCOR and then removed to Canadasecret ballot, where he governs the ROCE. It is reported winning by critics a majority of this jurisdiction that one vote (the aged Metropolitan did not participate). Metropolitan Vitaly was kidnapped congratulated Arcbishop Laurus on his election and is essentially a figureheadthen left the Synod for ROCOR's Holy Transfiguration Skete in Mansonville, being unfit for [[bishop|episcopal]] governanceQuebec.
In Mansonville, Metropolitan Vitaly was joined by Bishop [[Varnava (Prokofiev) of Cannes|Varnava]], the then suspended vicar bishop of ROCOR's Western European Diocese. Shortly after taking up residence in Mansonville, Metroplitan Vitaly issued a declaration, stating that he had been forcibly removed from his position as First Hierarch and that he was withdrawing his resignation. Bishop Varnava then ordained Hieromonks Sergius (Kindiakov) and Vladimir (Tselischev) to the episcopacy. The new group became called the Russian Orthodox Church in Exile, and was led by Metropolitan Vitaly. Almost immediately, the ROCiE began to fracture because of internal infighting. Conflict broke out between Bishop Varnava and Protopresbyter Benjamin Zhukov of Paris, France, the rector of ROCiE's largest parish and acting ROCiE secretary. As a result, Bishop Varnava, who was suspended by the ROCiE Synod, declared the ROCiE's actions uncanonical. Bishop Varnava subsequently petitioned to be received back into the [[ROCOR]], a petition granted at the ROCOR's 2006 Council of Bishops. Critics of the ROCiE claim that the aged Vitaly was kidnapped and was essentially a figurehead, being unfit for [[bishop|episcopal]] governance, while ROCiE affairs were run by Zhukov and L.D. Rosnyanskaya, the aged Metropolitan's secretary. Courts in Canada and New York have rejected the claim that Metropolitan Vitaly was psychologically unfit after taking into account multiple court-mandated psychiatric evaluations.<ref>New York Supreme Court, Part 34, Index No. 500180/2001, Chemodakov v. Oustinow, p. 11</ref> However, it should be noted that the erratic behavior of Metropolitan Vitaly caused several factions of the ROCiE to claim at various times the very thing that they denied earlier&mdash;namely, that the metropolitan was being taken advantage of by unscrupulous people, and so various epistles, actions, or ukazes should be ignored. <ref>For example, on the "official" ROCE site that is under the control of Anthony Orlov, we find [ this statement] claiming that a "group of common thugs led by L. D. Rosnyansky [had] isolated the First Hierarch against his will from his Assistant and members present at the Sobor..." (August 16, 2006)[]; and then on [ this page], we find claims that the metropolitan was being taken advantage of by these same people, and that these people managed to get Metropolitan Vitaly to sign documents he would not have agreed to.[] It should be noted that these "thugs" are the same people who talked Metropolitan Vitaly into leaving the ROCOR Synod immediately after the election of Metropolitan Laurus, which he had taken part in, and initially approved of.[] Then on the rival "official" web site of the ROCIE, we find [ this letter], in which a group of bishops in Russia are condemned for having somehow "managed to acquire [Metropolitan Vitaly's] written blessing to perform their proposed episcopal elevations and to create an ecclesiastical administration in the form of some sort of parallel Synod", which the group in Mansonville did not consider to be authoritative, because the Metropolitan acted on his own, having again been taken advantage of by unscrupulous people (August, 21 2002).[] See also [ this page], April 20 2002. All of this is very much like what occurred in the last couple of years that Metropolitan Vitaly was First Hierarch of ROCOR. In synod meetings he would sign on to statements, and then subsequently issue epistles taking back what he had said, only to again contradict his epistles at the next Synod meeting.[]</ref>. ==Current status==Following the repose of Metropolitan Vitaly, the ROCIE has broken into several rival jurisdictions. In 2006, [[Varnava (Prokofiev) of Cannes]] asked to return amidst a scandal involving one of his hieromonks, and was re-accepted into the [[ROCOR]] as it appeared he would be deposed from the ROCiE. Following bitter infighting and accusation of misusing Metropolitan Vitaly, the group splintered into a number of factions. According to its original website, the ROCE ROCiE currently has 8 had twelve [[parish]]es, missions and home [[chapel]]s, along with one convent, in the United States; 8 eight parishes, missions and chapels, along with 2 two [[monasticism|monastic]] [[skete]]s, in Canada; 2 two parishes and one convent in South America; 8 eleven parishes and missions in Europe; and a "[[deanery]]" of [[clergy]] and monastics in Russia, at twenty-three parishes and three monasteries.  * The [[Russian True Orthodox Church]] was formed by the break of Bps Lazarus and Benjamin from the ROCiE. Claiming documented proof of Metropolitan Vitaly's blessing, the two Bishops created three more Bishops. A group of clergy and parishioners from Bp. Varnava's Western European diocese joined this body. Their website lists six dioceses and about twenty-eight parishes.<ref>[[|Dioceses and Parishes, from the official website]]</ref> However, even the American diocese contains parishes who have refused to list themselves on their website, usually due to fear of infighting from other True Orthodox groups. * A group called the "Russian Orthodox Church" (Rossiiskaya Pravoslavnaya Tserkov'), commonly referred to as RosPTs, RossPTs, or ROCIE (A), headed by Metropolitan Anthony (Orlov) "of Moscow and All Russia, Los Angeles and All Abroad", which formed in 2007 after the election of Metropolitan Anthony to the rank of First-Hierarch, and in response to a lack of cooperation amongst the Bishops over when a Sobor would be held. The group includes Bp Victor (Pivovarov) Slavyansk and Southern Russia. [ ROCIE (A)(A)]. The ROCE membership figures of ROCIE under Metropolitan Anthony (Orlov) are unknown.  * A group splintering Metropolitan Anthony Orlov's establishment of dioceses in Russia, which also has uses the name "Russian Orthodox Church" (RosPTs- "RusOC" in English), commonly referred to as the ROCIE(A-D). It is headed by Metropolitan Damascene (Balabanov) of Moscow. [ ROCIE(A)(D)] It publicly lists three dioceses and nine parishes inclusive of the diocesan centers.  * The remaining faction of parishes using the name "Russian Orthodox Church in Exile", after the departure of the other Bishops, was left with only two Bishops, who convened a Sobor in 2008 and reorganized the remaining parishes under Eurasian and American districts until more could be done to build the Church. It is currently "headed" (since according to the Sobor the two Bishops hold virtually equal rank) out of Mansonville, Canada, by Vladimir of San Fransisco and Anastassy of Vladivostok. It is commonly called the ROCIE(V/A). [ ROCiE] Its current membership is unknown. * A group headed out of Moldova by Archbishop Anthony (Rudei) which is generally regarded by all as an unjustified schism, due to the fact that he single-handedly consecrated his own Synod.<ref>[ Extraordinary Statement (of the ROCIE(V)(V)]</ref> There are no clear references to any number of parishes on their websites. There is an active parish under this jurisdiction headed by Bishop Seraphim (Skuratov) assisted by a deacon in Birmingham, UK. They have a website in Russian and English. The various ROCIEs may have a handful of clergy and laymen throughout the world which hold allegiance to it them but may not have any parish associated with them, and a number of communities across Russia which remain unlisted to avoid unwanted attention from the state. The various ROCIEs do not maintain [[communion]] with each other or with any other jurisdiction. However, the RTOC has recently made overtures to the [[Church of the Genuine Orthodox Christians of Greece|True Orthodox Church of Greece (Chrysostomos)]], with some success== Notes ==<references/>
==External links==
*[ Official site, Russian]
*[ Official site, English]*[ A Rival Official Site]
*[ ROCIE News, English]
*[] ===Criticism===*[ Stvoicesofreason_old. Vladimir's Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Edmontonhtm Older Documents from the "Voices of Reason" site, Englishthat come more from the time before and after ROCE went into schism with ROCOR]
[[Category:Old Calendarist Jurisdictions]]
[[fr:Église orthodoxe russe en exil]]
[[ro:Biserica Ortodoxă Rusă în Exil]]

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