Russian.jpg|right| frame| Russian icon of St. John Chrysostom]]Our father among the saints '''John Chrysostom''' (347-407), [[Archbishop]] of Constantinople, was a notable Christian [[bishop]] and preacher from the fourth and fifth centuries in Syria and Constantinople. He is famous for eloquence in public speaking, his denunciation of abuse of authority in the Church and in the [[Roman Empire]] of the time, and for a [[ divine liturgy]] attributed to him. He had notable [[asceticism|ascetic]] sensibilities. After his death he was named '''Chrysostom''', which comes from the Greek Χρυσόστομος, "golden-mouthed." The [[Orthodox Church]] honors him as a [[saint]] ([[feast day]], [[November 13]]) and counts him among the [[Three Holy Hierarchs]] (feast day, [[January 30]]), together with Saints [[Basil the Great]] and [[Gregory the Theologian]]. He is also recognized by the [[Roman Catholic Church]], which considers him a saint and Doctor of the Church, and the [[Church of England ]], both of whom commemorate him on [[September 13]]. His [[relics ]] were stolen from Constantinople by Crusaders in 1204 (commemorated on [[January 27]]) and brought to Rome, but were returned on [[November 27]], 2004, by [[Pope]] [[John Paul II]].
He is sometimes referred to as "[[John of Antioch]]," but that name more properly refers to the bishop of Antioch in A.D. 429-441, who led a group of moderate Eastern bishops in the [[Nestorianism|Nestorian]] controversy.
"In the matter of piety, poverty serves us better than wealth, and work better than idleness, especially since wealth becomes an obstacle even for those who do not devote themselves to it. Yet, when we must put aside our wrath, quench our envy, soften our anger, offer our prayers, and show a disposition which is reasonable, mild, kindly, and loving, how could poverty stand in our way? For we accomplish these things not by spending money but by making the correct choice. Almsgiving above all else requires money, but even this shines with a brighter luster when the alms are given from our poverty. The widow who paid in the two mites was poorer than any human, but she outdid them all."
"For Christians above all men are forbidden to correct the stumblings of sinners by force...it is necessary to make a man better not by force but by persuasion. We neither have autority granted us by law to restrain sinners, nor, if it were, should we know how to use it, since God gives the crown to those who are kept from evil, not by force, but by choice."
"Why do you beat the air and run in vain? Every occupation has a purpose, obviously. Tell me then, what is the purpose of all the activity of the world? Answer, I challenge you! It is vanity of vanity: all is vanity."
=== The ''Homilies against the Judaizers'' ===
Chrysostom wrote of the [[Judaism|Jews]] and of Judaizers in [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/chrysostom-jews6.html eight homilies ''Adversus Judaeos'' (against the Judaizers)].<ref>"This [Adversus Iudaeos] is the Latin translation of the title given to the homilies in PG 48.843. The Benedictine editor, Montfaucon, gives a footnote (reprinted ibid.) which states that six MSS and [Henry] Savile [in his edition (1612) of Chrysostom] have at the head of this homily: "A discourse against the Jews; but it was delivered against those who were Judaizing and keeping the fasts with them [i.e., the Jews]." This note is not altogether accurate because Savile, for Hom. 27 of Vol. 6 (which is Disc. I among the Adversus Iudaeos in PG and in this translation), gives (p. 366) the title: "Chrysostom's Discourse Against Those Who Are Judaizing and Observing Their Fasts." In Vol. 8 (col. 798) Savile states that he has emended Hoeschel's edition of this homily with the help of two Oxford MSS, one from the Corpus Christi College and the other from the New College; he must have gotten his title from any or all of these sources. Savile gives all eight of the homilies Adverus Iudaeos (Vol. 6.312-88) but in the order IV-VIII (wich are entitled Kata Ioudaion, i.e. Adversus Iudaeos), I (with the title given above), III and II (with the title affixed to them in our translation). Because of the titles in both some MSS and editions and because of the arguments which will be set forth in this introduction, we feel justified in calling this work AgainstJudaizing Christians rather than giving it the less irenic and somewhat misleading traditional title Against the Jews." ''John Chrysostom, Discourses against Judaizing Christians'', translated by Paul W. Harkins. ''The Fathers of the Church''; v. 68 (Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1979), p. xxxi, footnote 47</ref> At the time he delivered these sermons, Chrysostom was a tonsured reader and had not yet been ordained a priest or bishop.
* "The festivals of the pitiful and miserable Jews are soon to march upon us one after the other and in quick succession: the feast of Trumpets, the feast of Tabernacles, the [[fast]]s. There are many in our ranks who say they think as we do. Yet some of these are going to watch the festivals and others will join the Jews in keeping their feasts and observing their fasts. I wish to drive this perverse custom from the Church right now." (Homily I, I, 5)
== Work on liturgy ==
enthroned.jpg|right| thumb|250px|St. John enthroned]]
Two of his writings deserve special mention. He harmonized the liturgical life of the Church by revising the [[prayer]]s and [[rubrics]] of the [[Divine Liturgy]], or celebration of the Holy [[Eucharist]]. To this day, the [[Orthodox Church]] typically celebrates the Divine Liturgy of John Chrysostom, together with [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] churches that are in the Eastern or Byzantine rites (i.e., [[Uniate]]s). These same churches also read his [[Paschal Homily]] at every [[Pascha]], the greatest feast of the [[Church]] year.
:Grace shining forth from your lips like a beacon has enlightened the universe.
:It has shown to the world the riches of
:it has revealed to us the heights of humility.
:Teaching us by your words, O Father John Chrysostom,
* Robert Van de Weyer, ''On Living Simply: The Golden Voice of John Chrysostom'' (Triumph Books, 1997) (ISBN 0764800566)
* Holy Apostles Convent, ''The Lives of the Three Great Hierarchs: Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom'' (Holy Apostles Convent Pubns, 2001) (ISBN 0944359116)
== External links ==
[[ar:يوحنا الذهبي الفم]]
[[el:Ιωάννης ο Χρυσόστομος]]
[[mk:Свети Јован Златоуст]]
[[ro:Ioan Gură de Aur]]