|This article forms part of the series on the |
The Old Testament - Septuagint
| or simply "LXX", the Koine Greek version|
of the Hebrew Bible.
|Pentateuch or "the Law"|
| 1.Genesis | 2.Exodus | 3.Leviticus | 4.Numbers | 5.Deuteronomy |
| 6.Joshua | 7.Judges | 8.Ruth |
9.I Kingdoms | 10.II Kingdoms | 11.III Kingdoms | 12.IV Kingdoms
|Books of Wisdom|
| 24.Book of Psalms | 25.Job | 26.Proverbs |
27.Ecclesiastes | 28.Song of Solomon
29.Wisdom of Solomon | 30.Wisdom of Sirach
| The Minor Prophets, or "The Twelve" |
31.Hosea | 32.Amos | 33.Micah | 34.Joel | 35.Obadiah | 36.Jonah
| The Major Prophets |
43.Isaiah | 44.Jeremiah | 45.Baruch | 46.Lamentations
| IV Maccabees |
The Book of Exodus, is the second book of Moses and the Old Testament. The English title, Exodus, comes from the Greek translation (Septuagint, LXX) because the departure of Israel from Egypt is the dominant historical fact in the book (19:1). In the Hebrew Bible, the opening line, "And (or Now) these are the names," (Pr. Hebrew "elle-shemot") served as the title of the book. The opening "And" or "Now" in the Hebrew title suggest that this book was to be accepted as the obvious sequel to Genesis, the first book of Moses.
Tradition has it that this book was mostly written by the Prophet Moses 1,300 years before Christ.
Authorship and writing
According to Hebrew and Christian tradition, Moses is the author of Exodus. This is the teaching of Christ (Mk 1:44), of His disciples (Jn 1:45) and affirmed through the book itself (17:14); Moses followed God's instructions and "Then Moses wrote all the words of the LORD" (24:4)
The Book of Exodus immediately follows in the timeline after Genesis. The name of the book suggest that Exodus was likely written during the forty years of Israel's wandering in the wilderness, from the crossing of the Red Sea to the entrance into the land of Canaan.
In the absence of any Egyptian records of the plagues that occurred in Egypt and the defeat of Pharaoh and his elite army at the Red Sea should not give rise to speculation on whether the account is historically authentic. During that period, Egyptian historiography did not permit records of what was considered embarrassing and ignominious defeats of the Pharaoh
God's covenant with Israel and the judgement of her oppressors.
God reveals Himself and His name "YAHWEH," meaning "I AM the Existing One."
God brings about a series of miracles to release His people from slavery in Egypt. The nation of Egypt was judged by God for its treatment of the Hebrews and its rejection of Him as the One True God. The forty years of wandering in the wilderness is the consequence of Israel's sins, as well as a necessary time of preparation to inherit the promised land as a people set apart for God.
- Deliverance from Bondage in Egypt
- Wandering in the Wilderness
- God's Covenant with Israel
- Instructions for Building the Sanctuary and for its ministers
- The Golden Calf
- Instructions for Building and Furnishing the Sanctuary
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The book relates how the sons of Jacob, a small tribe of wondering shepherds, became a God chosen nation. The covenant was central to this event. It bound God and Israel in an agreement by which God undertook to provide for all His people's material needs, including a land in which to live, if they would worship Him alone as the one true God and live as a holy community. Central to the rules of the covenant were the Ten Commandments, which are still fundamental to any relationship with God. The tabernacle was a portable temple of worship which was placed in the center of Israel's wilderness encampment, symbolizing God's presence in their midst. The religious and moral laws listed in the Book of Exodus did not lose their importance until this day, in fact, in His sermon of the Mount, Lord Jesus Christ has taught the deeper level of their understanding. In contrast, the civil laws and religious rites given to Hebrews and listed in the book of Exodus have lost their importance and were revoked by the Holy Apostles in the council of Jerusalem (cf. Acts 15).
This book deals with the miracle of Israel's deliverance from Egypt and with God's covenant relationship with the Israelites at Mount Sinai. Exodus can be subdivided into two main sections, historical and that of the giving of the Law. Preliminaries to the departure from Egypt (Ex. 1:l-4:28), where the providential acts of the Lord in the life of Moses, chosen by God for the deliverance of His people are listed, followed by the circumstances leading up to the Exodus, including the ten plagues of Egypt and the celebrating of the first Passover (4:29-12:39). The deliverance from Egypt and the subsequent journey to Sinai (chapters 12-18) precede the giving of the Law of God through Moses, where chapter 19 describes the circumstances of the giving of the Law, and consecutive chapters contain the codex of the moral and civil laws, sealed by Hebrews entering into covenant with God (chapters 20-24). Next follow the laws related to church services and priesthood (chapters 25-31), transgression of the Law in intervals of idolatry (chapters 32-33). A renewal of the covenant relationship (chapter 34) is followed by narratives describing the construction of the tabernacle and implementation of the Lord’s directions by Moses (chapters 35-40).
It is instructive to put the accounts of Exodus in a historical perspective. Joseph was sold to Egypt by his brothers during the reign of the Hyksos, a Semitic tribe known as shepherd kings (some 2000 years BC). At that time Egypt was highly prosperous and mighty. The Pharaoh was most likely Amenemhet IV. He elevated Joseph in rank when he saved the Egyptians from famine and bestowed great blessings on him and his family. However, the ethnic Egyptian nobles united in Thebes and slowly drove out the Hyksos. Afterward there entered the 18th dynasty of the Pharaoh Amasis 1st (Ahmose I) The new rulers changed their relations toward the Jews. There began persecutions which turned to oppressive slavery. The new Pharaohs while working the Jews as slaves and forcing them to build cities, were at the same time concerned that the Jews would unite with outlying nomadic tribes and seize dominion in Egypt. The exodus of Jews from Egypt falls sometime in the mid 15th century BC. At that time the Pharaoh most probably was Thutmose I. The book First Kings 6:1 states that Solomon began building the temple "in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel had come out of the land of Egypt." Solomon is thought to have begun construction about 960 BC, a fact that also places the time of Exodus to the midst of the 15th century BC.