Difference between revisions of "Autocephaly"

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[[Image:World canonical territories.png|right|thumb|450px|Map of the canonical territories of autocephalous and autonomous Orthodox jurisdictions. Click image to magnify.]]
 
[[Image:World canonical territories.png|right|thumb|450px|Map of the canonical territories of autocephalous and autonomous Orthodox jurisdictions. Click image to magnify.]]
 
[[Image:Europe canonical territories.png|right|thumb|150px|The European section of the above map, in closer detail. Click image to magnify.]]
 
[[Image:Europe canonical territories.png|right|thumb|150px|The European section of the above map, in closer detail. Click image to magnify.]]
'''Autocephaly''' (literally "self-headed") is the status of a church within the [[Orthodox Church]] whose [[primate|primatial]] bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. Autocephaly is granted when an [[ecumenical council]] or a high-ranking [[bishop]], such as a [[patriarch]] or other [[primate]], releases an [[Ecclesiastical Province|ecclesiastical province]] from all obligations to any higher authority within the Orthodox Church, while remaining in [[full communion]] with the bishops of that province. Historically, autocephaly was obtained in a variety of ways. There are controversies regarding which historical methods of obtaining autocephaly represent a normative precedent to be followed in the future and which methods represent special exceptions.
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'''Autocephaly''' (literally "self-headed") is the status of a Local Church within the [[Orthodox Church]] whose [[primate|primatial]] bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. Autocephaly is granted when an [[ecumenical council]] or a high-ranking [[bishop]], such as a [[patriarch]] or other [[primate]], releases an [[Ecclesiastical Province|ecclesiastical province]] from all obligations to any higher authority within the Orthodox Church, while remaining in [[full communion]] with the bishops of that province. Historically, autocephaly was obtained in a variety of ways. There are controversies regarding which historical methods of obtaining autocephaly represent a normative precedent to be followed in the future and which methods represent special exceptions.
  
 
==Church usage==
 
==Church usage==
Autocephaly refers to those churches which are not, in any way, dependent upon any other church, or churches, for their life and mission. On the other hand, each and every Orthodox church, regardless of its particular status, is responsible for the faith and life of the others. Therefore any action of any church is subject to the review of the others in reference to its doctrine, morality, sacramental practices, and canonical order. This is just as each and every Orthodox Christian is responsible for each other.
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Autocephaly refers to those Churches which are not, in any way, dependent upon any other Church, or Churches, for their life and mission. On the other hand, each and every Local Orthodox Church, regardless of its particular status, is responsible for the faith and life of the others. Therefore any action of any Church is subject to the review of the others in reference to its doctrine, morality, sacramental practices, and canonical order. This is just as each and every Orthodox Christian is responsible for each other.
  
 
== History ==
 
== History ==
Autocephaly is a developed practical concept in the Church. That is, it is not part of the original organization of the Church but developed over time for practical reasons. Though many arguments are put forth regarding how autocephaly is properly obtained, the historical and canonical record shows a good deal of variation.  But the something that is in common is that history shows that no council or church has ever ''created'' an autocephalous church.  
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Autocephaly is a developed practical concept in the Orthodox Church. That is, it is not part of the original organization of the Church but developed over time for practical reasons. Though many arguments are put forth regarding how autocephaly is properly obtained, the historical and canonical record shows a good deal of variation.
  
Certain areas developed for various reasons into self-governing churches, groups of bishops into synods or councils with a primate. These self-governing areas were then confirmed in their position by the others and '''recognized''' as such. None of them were ''decreed'' into existence or created ''out of nothing'' by some special churchly power.  
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In Antiquity, certain areas developed for various reasons into self-governing Churches, with groups of bishops organizing themselves into synods or councils with a primate. These self-governing areas were then confirmed in their position by the others and recognized as such.
  
Some were simply recognized according to tradition (i.e., "small T" tradition), by which is largely meant that those sees were recognized as primatial in their regions by virtue of the tradition of honor accorded to them:
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Some were simply recognized according to tradition (i.e., "small t" tradition), meaning that the bishops of certain prominent cities in the Roman Empire were recognized as primates over the surrounding regions, by virtue of the size of those cities, the importance and influence of the Christians living in them, and the tradition of honor accorded to them:  
  
 
* The [[Church of Rome]]
 
* The [[Church of Rome]]
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* The [[Church of Antioch]]
 
* The [[Church of Antioch]]
  
In some cases, autocephaly was simply declared by the church in question and then eventually recognized:
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In other cases, autocephaly was granted by an [[Ecumenical Council]]:
  
* The [[Church of Russia]] declared independence from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1448 and then in 1589 styled its primate as ''[[patriarch]]''.
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* The autocephaly of the [[Church of Cyprus]] was recognized at the [[Third Ecumenical Council]] (431).
* The [[Church of Greece]] declared autocephaly in 1833 but was not granted a ''[[tomos]]'' for it by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] until 1850.
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* The [[Church of Jerusalem]] was declared a [[Patriarchate]] with primacy in its area (over the claims of the bishop of Caesarea) at the [[Quinisext Council]] (the council "in Trullo", in 692), which established the canons of the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] .
* The [[Church of Romania]] declared its autocephaly in 1865 with strong protests from [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]], who eventually recognized the autocephaly in 1885.
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* The [[Church of Albania]] claimed its autocephaly in 1922, which was recognized by [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] in 1937.
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Sometimes, autocephaly was granted by one mother Church to a daughter Church:
* The [[Church of Georgia]]'s autocephaly (originally granted in the fifth century by [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]]) was abolished by the Russian authorities in 1811 (after Georgia had been annexed by Tsarist Russia) and then later restored ''de facto'' in 1917.  This restoration wasn't recognized by the [[Church of Russia]] until 1943 or by the [[Church of Constantinople]] until 1989.
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* In 466, the [[Church of Antioch]] elevated the bishop of Mtskheta to the rank of Catholicos of Kartli, thus making the [[Church of Georgia]] autocephalous.
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* The [[Orthodox Church in America]] received autocephaly from the [[Church of Russia]] in 1970 (though that action is still not formally recognized by many of the other autocephalous Churches).
  
Other churches became autocephalous largely from governmental declaration, eventually recognized by other portions of the Church:
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But there were also cases in which two different Churches both claimed to be the mother Church of the same daughter and both granted autocephaly to that same daughter Church, at different times:
  
* The [[Church of Serbia]] was ''de facto'' autocephalous in 1832, but not recognized by the [[Church of Constantinople]] until 1879. Some claim that Serbia's autocephaly goes back to 1219.
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* The [[Church of Poland]] received autocephaly from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1924. This was not recognized by the [[Church of Russia]]. The Church of Russia granted a separate ''[[tomos]]'' of autocephaly to the Church of Poland in 1948.
* The [[Church of Bulgaria]] was declared independent by the decree of the Sultan, creating a canonical mess condemned at a council in Jerusalem in 1872 (by way of condemning [[phyletism]]), eventually sorted out and reconciled by 1945.
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* The [[Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia]] received autocephaly from the [[Church of Russia]] in 1951. This was not recognized by the [[Church of Constantinople]]. The Church of Constantinople granted a separate ''[[tomos]]'' of autocephaly to the Church of the Czech Lands and Slovakia in 1998.
  
In other cases, it was granted by an [[Ecumenical Council]]:
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In some cases, autocephaly was simply declared by the Church in question and then eventually recognized by the others:
  
* The autocephaly of the [[Church of Cyprus]] was recognized at the [[Third Ecumenical Council]] (431).
+
* The [[Church of Russia]] declared autocephaly from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1448 because the Russian Metropolitan appointed by Constantinople had accepted the Union of Florence and converted to Catholicism. In 1589, Russian autocephaly was recognized by the four Patriarchs existing at the time, and the Metropolitan of Moscow was also proclaimed a Patriarch, fifth in rank behind the others.
* The [[Church of Jerusalem]] was declared a [[patriarchate]] with primacy in its area (over the claims of the bishop of Caesarea) at the [[Quinisext Council]] (the council "in Trullo" 692), which established the canons of the [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] .
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* The [[Church of Greece]] declared autocephaly from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1833, following the Greek Revolution against Ottoman rule. The autocephaly of the Church of Greece was only recognized by Constantinople in 1850, and a ''[[tomos]]'' was granted at that time.
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* The [[Church of Romania]] declared autocephaly from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1865. There were strong protests from Constantinople, but Romanian autocephaly was recognized in 1885.
 +
* The [[Church of Albania]] declared autocephaly from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1922. This was recognized by Constantinople in 1937.
  
In still others, it was granted by one mother church to a daughter church:
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And finally, there have been Churches that received autocephaly, then lost it (by being incorporated into other Churches), then received autocephaly again. It is a matter of controversy whether it is legitimately possible to abolish autocephaly after it has been granted, or whether "losses" of autocephaly represent abuses of power:
  
* In 466, the [[Church of Antioch]] elevated the bishop of Mtskheta to the rank of Catholicos of Kartli, thus rendering the [[Church of Georgia]] autocephalous.
+
* The [[Church of Bulgaria]] received autocephaly from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 927, then was re-incorporated into the Church of Constantinople in the 11th century, then declared autocephaly again in 1186 (recognized in 1235), then lost autocephaly again, then was declared autocephalous by a decree of the Ottoman Sultan in 1872. This created a canonical mess condemned at a council in Constantinople in 1872 (by way of condemning [[phyletism]]), which was eventually sorted out decades later. Bulgarian autocephaly was recognized by Constantinople for the third time in 1945.
* The [[Orthodox Church in America]] received autocephaly from the [[Church of Russia]] in 1970 (though that action is still not formally recognized by many of the other autocephalous churches).
+
* The [[Church of Serbia]] received autocephaly from the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1219, but the Ottoman Turkish authorities prevented the Serbs from electing a Patriarch between 1463 and 1557, then abolished Serbian autocephaly entirely in 1766 (incorporating the Serbian flock into the Church of Constantinople). The Church of Serbia received autocephaly again from Constantinople in 1879.
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* The autocephaly of the [[Church of Georgia]] (originally granted in the 5th century by [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]]) was abolished by the Imperial Russian authorities in 1811 (after Georgia had been annexed by Tsarist Russia). The Church of Georgia later declared autocephaly again in 1917. This restoration of autocephaly was recognized by the [[Church of Russia]] in 1943 and by the [[Church of Constantinople]] in 1989.
  
==New autocephalous churches==
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==New autocephalous Churches==
Reguardless of ''how'' a church becomes autocephalous, the normal and historical procedure for a ''new'' autocephalous church, is to be to be formally recognized as autocephalous by the church of which it was originally a part. And then be formally recognized by all of the other Orthodox Churches in the world. This does not require the blessing of any single particular bishop and certainly not an official gathering of an [[Ecumenical Council]].
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Regardless of ''how'' a Church becomes autocephalous, the normal and historical procedure for a ''new'' autocephalous Church is to be formally recognized as autocephalous by the Church of which it was originally a part (the "mother Church"). Following that, it is to be formally recognized by all of the other Orthodox Churches in the world. This does not require the blessing of any single particular bishop and certainly not an official gathering of an [[Ecumenical Council]].
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Latest revision as of 14:38, January 17, 2021

Map of the canonical territories of autocephalous and autonomous Orthodox jurisdictions. Click image to magnify.
The European section of the above map, in closer detail. Click image to magnify.

Autocephaly (literally "self-headed") is the status of a Local Church within the Orthodox Church whose primatial bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. Autocephaly is granted when an ecumenical council or a high-ranking bishop, such as a patriarch or other primate, releases an ecclesiastical province from all obligations to any higher authority within the Orthodox Church, while remaining in full communion with the bishops of that province. Historically, autocephaly was obtained in a variety of ways. There are controversies regarding which historical methods of obtaining autocephaly represent a normative precedent to be followed in the future and which methods represent special exceptions.

Church usage

Autocephaly refers to those Churches which are not, in any way, dependent upon any other Church, or Churches, for their life and mission. On the other hand, each and every Local Orthodox Church, regardless of its particular status, is responsible for the faith and life of the others. Therefore any action of any Church is subject to the review of the others in reference to its doctrine, morality, sacramental practices, and canonical order. This is just as each and every Orthodox Christian is responsible for each other.

History

Autocephaly is a developed practical concept in the Orthodox Church. That is, it is not part of the original organization of the Church but developed over time for practical reasons. Though many arguments are put forth regarding how autocephaly is properly obtained, the historical and canonical record shows a good deal of variation.

In Antiquity, certain areas developed for various reasons into self-governing Churches, with groups of bishops organizing themselves into synods or councils with a primate. These self-governing areas were then confirmed in their position by the others and recognized as such.

Some were simply recognized according to tradition (i.e., "small t" tradition), meaning that the bishops of certain prominent cities in the Roman Empire were recognized as primates over the surrounding regions, by virtue of the size of those cities, the importance and influence of the Christians living in them, and the tradition of honor accorded to them:

In other cases, autocephaly was granted by an Ecumenical Council:

Sometimes, autocephaly was granted by one mother Church to a daughter Church:

But there were also cases in which two different Churches both claimed to be the mother Church of the same daughter and both granted autocephaly to that same daughter Church, at different times:

In some cases, autocephaly was simply declared by the Church in question and then eventually recognized by the others:

  • The Church of Russia declared autocephaly from the Church of Constantinople in 1448 because the Russian Metropolitan appointed by Constantinople had accepted the Union of Florence and converted to Catholicism. In 1589, Russian autocephaly was recognized by the four Patriarchs existing at the time, and the Metropolitan of Moscow was also proclaimed a Patriarch, fifth in rank behind the others.
  • The Church of Greece declared autocephaly from the Church of Constantinople in 1833, following the Greek Revolution against Ottoman rule. The autocephaly of the Church of Greece was only recognized by Constantinople in 1850, and a tomos was granted at that time.
  • The Church of Romania declared autocephaly from the Church of Constantinople in 1865. There were strong protests from Constantinople, but Romanian autocephaly was recognized in 1885.
  • The Church of Albania declared autocephaly from the Church of Constantinople in 1922. This was recognized by Constantinople in 1937.

And finally, there have been Churches that received autocephaly, then lost it (by being incorporated into other Churches), then received autocephaly again. It is a matter of controversy whether it is legitimately possible to abolish autocephaly after it has been granted, or whether "losses" of autocephaly represent abuses of power:

  • The Church of Bulgaria received autocephaly from the Church of Constantinople in 927, then was re-incorporated into the Church of Constantinople in the 11th century, then declared autocephaly again in 1186 (recognized in 1235), then lost autocephaly again, then was declared autocephalous by a decree of the Ottoman Sultan in 1872. This created a canonical mess condemned at a council in Constantinople in 1872 (by way of condemning phyletism), which was eventually sorted out decades later. Bulgarian autocephaly was recognized by Constantinople for the third time in 1945.
  • The Church of Serbia received autocephaly from the Church of Constantinople in 1219, but the Ottoman Turkish authorities prevented the Serbs from electing a Patriarch between 1463 and 1557, then abolished Serbian autocephaly entirely in 1766 (incorporating the Serbian flock into the Church of Constantinople). The Church of Serbia received autocephaly again from Constantinople in 1879.
  • The autocephaly of the Church of Georgia (originally granted in the 5th century by Antioch) was abolished by the Imperial Russian authorities in 1811 (after Georgia had been annexed by Tsarist Russia). The Church of Georgia later declared autocephaly again in 1917. This restoration of autocephaly was recognized by the Church of Russia in 1943 and by the Church of Constantinople in 1989.

New autocephalous Churches

Regardless of how a Church becomes autocephalous, the normal and historical procedure for a new autocephalous Church is to be formally recognized as autocephalous by the Church of which it was originally a part (the "mother Church"). Following that, it is to be formally recognized by all of the other Orthodox Churches in the world. This does not require the blessing of any single particular bishop and certainly not an official gathering of an Ecumenical Council.

See also

External links