→External links: Fixed broken link to CNEWA website.
The '''Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church''' (in Amharic: ''Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan'') is an [[Oriental Orthodox]] church in Ethiopia that was part of the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Church]] until 1959, when it was granted its own [[Patriarch]] by [[List of Coptic Popes|Coptic Pope]] Cyril VI. The only pre-colonial Christian church of [[Orthodoxy in Sub-Saharan Africa|Sub-Saharan Africa]], it claims a membership of close to 36 million people worldwide, and is thus the largest of all Oriental Orthodox churches. Its
current head is His Holiness Abune P'awlos (born 1935, elected 1992), Patriarch of Addis Ababa and All Ethiopia.
''Tewahedo'' (Ge'ez ''tawāhidō'', modern pronunciation ''tewāhidō'') is a Ge'ez word meaning "being made one"; it is related to the Arabic word توحيد ''tawhid'', meaning "monotheism," or more literally "unification." This refers to the [[Oriental Orthodoxy|Oriental Orthodox]] belief in the one single unique [[Christology|Nature of Christ]] (i.e., a belief that a complete, natural union of the Divine and Human Natures into One is self-evident in order to accomplish the divine salvation of humankind), as opposed to the "two Natures of Christ" belief (unmixed, separated Divine and Human Natures, called the [[Hypostatic Union]]) promoted by today's [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] and Eastern Orthodox churches. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia article on the [[Henoticon]] [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07218b.htm]: the [[Patriarch]]s of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, and many others, all refused to accept the "two natures" doctrine decreed by the Byzantine Emperor Marcian's [[Council of Chalcedon]] in 451, thus separating them from the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox, who themselves separated from one another later in the [[Great Schism]] (1054). The Oriental Orthodox Churches, which today include the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Orthodox Church]], the [[Church of Armenia|Armenian Apostolic Church]], the [[Church of Antioch (Syriac)|Syriac Orthodox Church]], the [[Church of India|Malankara Orthodox Church]] of India, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and the [[Church of Eritrea|Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church]], are referred to as "Non-Chalcedonian", and, sometimes by outsiders as "[[Monophysitism|monophysite]]" (meaning "One Nature", in reference to Christ; a rough translation of the name ''Tewahido''). However, these Churches themselves describe their [[Christology]] as [[Miaphysitism|Miaphysite]].
The Church of Ethiopia claims its origins from [[Philip the Evangelist]] ([[Acts of the Apostles|Acts]] 8). It became the established church of the Ethiopian Axumite Kingdom under king Ezana in the 4th century through the efforts of a Syrian Greek named [[Frumentius of Axum|Frumentius]], known in Ethiopia as ''Abba Selama, Kesaté Birhan'' ("Father of Peace, Revealer of Light"). As a boy, Frumentius had been shipwrecked with his brother Aedesius on the Eritrean coast. The brothers managed to be brought to the royal court, where they rose to positions of influence and converted Emperor Ezana to Christianity, causing him to be baptized. Ezana sent Frumentius to Alexandria to ask the Patriarch, St. [[Athanasius the Great|Athanasius]], to appoint a bishop for Ethiopia. Athanasius appointed Frumentius himself, who returned to Ethiopia as Bishop with the name of ''Abune Selama''. For centuries afterward, the Coptic Patriarch of Alexandria always named a Copt (''an Egyptian'') to be ''[[Abuna]]'' or Archbishop of the Ethiopian Church.
The divine services of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church are celebrated primarily in the Ge'ez language, which has been the language of the Church at least since the arrival of the [[Nine Saints]] (Abba
Pantelewon, Abba Gerima (Issac or Yisihaq), Abba Aftse, Abba Guba, Abba Alef, Abba Yem'ata, Abba Liqanos, and Abba Sehma), who fled persecution by the East Roman emperors after the Council of Chalcedon in 451. The [[Septuagint]] version of the Old Testament was translated into Ge'ez around the time of the Nine Saints. Services are also occasionally served in Amharic or English in the Ethiopian Diaspora and in Amharic at St. Stephen's Church in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. [[Sermon]]s are delivered in the local languages of the Church's faithful, which include Amharic, Gambela, Gurage, Oromo, Sidama, and Tigrayan.
As with Orthodox [[synagogue]]s, men and women are seated separately in Ethiopian Orthodox churches, with men on the left and women on the right (when facing the altar). However, women covering their heads and separation of the sexes in church is common to many [[Oriental Orthodox]], [[Eastern Orthodox]] and [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholic]] Christians and not unique to Judaism. Ethiopian Orthodox worshipers remove their shoes when entering a church, in accordance with [[Exodus]] 3:5 (in which [[Moses]], while viewing the [[burning bush]], is commanded to remove his shoes while standing on holy ground). Furthermore, both the [[Sabbath]] (Saturday), and the [[Lord's Day]] (Sunday) are observed as holy, although more emphasis, because of the [[Resurrection]], is laid upon the Sunday.
htm General Information (1)]
*[http://www.eotc.faithweb.com/ General Information (2)]
*[http://www.angelfire.com/ny3/ethiochurch/ History of the Church]
*[http://www.tewahedo.org/ Tewahedo Songs & Records]
*[http://www.tadias.com/?p=2452 History of Ethiopian Church Presence in Jerusalem]. Tadias Magazine, New York, August 16, 2008.
[[ar:كنيسة التوحيد الأرثوذكسية الإثيوبية]]