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Old Calendarists

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Official Websites: interwiki
'''Old Calendarists''' are Orthodox Christians in Greece, Romania, Cyprus, Bulgaria that who oppose the use of the Revised Julian liturgical calendar (a calendar with similarities to the Gregorian calendar , combined with the Orthodox Paschalion) in the early 20th centuryto the extent of breaking or limiting Communion with those Orthodox who use the Revised Julian calendar. Citing the 16th-century anathemas against the Gregorian calendar issued by three Patriarchal and Pan-Orthodox Synods in Constantinople, as well as various condemnations by multiple local synods, they have become some of the most vocal critics not only of the new liturgical calendar, but of [[ecumenism]] in general, which is seen as the ultimate cause of the calendar revision.
In 1920, the Patriarchal Locum Tenens, Dorotheus of Prusa, issued the Encyclical "Unto the Churches of Christ Everywhere"<ref>[]</ref>, which officially marked the entrance of Orthodox participation in the Ecumenical Movement. (See [[Ecumenism]].) The Encyclical, tied to the formation of the League of Nations and with that end in mind, gave eleven suggestions so "''that above all, love should be rekindled and strengthened among the churches, so that they should no more consider one another as strangers and foreigners, but as relatives, and as being a part of the household of Christ and “fellow heirs, members of the same body and partakers of the promise of God in Christ” (Eph. 3:6).''" (par. 6.) The first of the suggestions was "''By the acceptance of a uniform calendar for the celebration of the great Christian feasts at the same time by all the churches.''"
In 1921, a council was called in Athens, led by Metropolitan [[Germanos of Demetrias]], the Vice-President of the Holy Synod, deposing Archbishop [[Meletios_IV_(Metaxakis)_of_Constantinople|Meletios (Metaxakis)]] of Athens, who had previously known for ecumenical activity, for recognizing the revolutionary Venizelos government in Greece[]. In a bizzare twist, Meletios was recognized as Patriarch of Constantinople on November 21, 1921, where he began his programs anew, though previously his candidacy was declined by the Holy Synod of Constantinople in 1912.
In 1923, a "Pan-Orthodox Congress" (not a normal term for any Orthodox meeting of hierarchs) was held under the presidency of Meletios which comprised composed of members-- , specifically six Bishops, two laymen, and an archimandrite-- , of a few of the local Churches (none of the members of the Pentarchy save Constantinople sent representatives). [[Anastasy (Gribanovsky) of Kishinev|Metropolitan Anastassy]] of the Russian Church Abroad attended its initial meeting, having been in the area, . He declared that the Synod had given him no instructions on the matter, and soon departed. In total, less than half of the local Churches were represented by so much as a laymananyone. (see [<ref> Bishop Photii of Triaditsa, "The 70th Anniversary of the Pan-Orthodox Congress", Orthodox Life, 1&2, 1994]). </ref> The purpose of the meeting was to implement the suggestions of the 1920 document, along with other uncanonical changes which proposals that were largely rejected, such as the elevation of married men to the Episcopate and the remarriage of widowed priests (sessions three and four). Finally, Representatives of the Anglicans Anglican Church were present at the final meetings in the person of , specifically former Bishop Gore of Oxford. At these meetings, where it was decided that nothing stood in the way of reunionOrthodox-Anglican ecclesiastical union. In response, a five-member commission in Greece (of whom then Archimandrite-- and , later Archbishop-- , Chrysostom Papadopolous of Athens) determined to study the question of the use of the New Calendar and determined found that "''Not a single one of them [local Orthodox Churches] can separate from the others and adopt the New Calendar without becoming schismatic in relation to the others.''" (<ref>''Journal of the Government of the Greek Kingdom'', chapter 1, 24/25. 1. 1923, No. 8, see also ''OEM'', 1989, Chapter 17, p. 73, as noted in [ Bishop Photii].)</ref>
[[Image:1925cr1.jpg|thumb|110px|An artist's rendering of the appearance of the Sign of the Cross near Athens, 1925]]
In 1924, the [[bishop]]s of the [[Church of Greece]], under Archbishop Chrysostom (PapadopolousPapadopoulos), implemented the calendar change discussed at the "Pan-Orthodox Congress " of 1923. In response, Metropolitan [[Germanos of Demetrias]], retired in protest. The "Old Calendarist" movement arose to oppose the adoption of the Revised Julian calendar. The movement was sustained by Athonite monks that encouraged the rejection of the calendar change, hundreds of parish clergy that refused to recognize the calendar change, as well as dozens of monasteries throughout Greece. Lay groups and [[brotherhoods]] formed to keep the use of the [[Julian calendar]] alive, despite state persecution (Greece was an Orthodox country, and the Church enjoyed certain privileges from the state).
In 1925, perhaps the most well-known phenomenon in the Old Calendar movement occurred: a large cross over an secret Old Calendar Church in 1925 during the feast of the exaltation of the Holy Cross, witnessed by approximately two thousand people, including police intent on arresting the clergy of the group, many of whom converted that night.<ref>[]</ref>
In 1935, after more than 10 years, three Metropolitans, Germanos of Demetrias, the former Metropolitan of Florina, Chrysostom (Kavouridis) and Chrysostomos (Demetriou) of Zakynthos declared the Archbishop of Athens as schismatic and declared:
''"Those who now administer the Church of Greece have divided the unity of Orthodoxy through the calendar innovation, and have split the Greek Orthodox People into two opposing calendar parts. They have not only violated an Ecclesiastical Tradition which was consecrated by the Seven Ecumenical Councils and sanctioned by the age-old practice of the Eastern Orthodox Church, but have also touched the Dogma of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. Therefore those who now administer the Greek Church have, by their unilateral, anticanonical and unthinking introduction of the Gregorian calendar, cut themselves off completely from the trunk of Orthodoxy, and have declared themselves to be in essence schismatics in relation to the Orthodox Churches which stand on the foundation of the Seven Ecumenical Councils and the Orthodox laws and Traditions, the Churches of Jerusalem, Antioch, Serbia, Poland, the Holy Mountain and the God-trodden Mountain of Sinai, etc....That this is so was confirmed by the Commission made up of the best jurists and theologian-professors of the National University which was appointed to study the calendar question, and one of whose members happened to be his Blessedness the Archbishop of Athens in his then capacity as professor of Church History in the National University...Since his Beatitude the Archbishop of Athens has by his own signature declared himself to be a Schismatic, what need do we have of witnesses to demonstrate that he and the hierarchs who think like him have become Schismatics, in that they have split the unity of Orthodoxy through the calendar innovation and divided the Ecclesiastical and ethnic soul of the Greek Orthodox People?"'' (<ref>[ ] Cited in Moss, ''New Zion in Babylon'', Part 3, p. 92])</ref>
From April 23rd to April 26th 1935 the ordination of four new bishops took place. Ordained were the Archmandrites: Germanos (Barikopoulos) as Bishop of Kyklades, Christoforos (Hatzis) as Bishop of Megaris, Polycarp (Liosis) as Bishop of Diavleia, and Bishop Matthew (Karpathakes) of Bresthena).<ref>[]</ref>
====The Florinite/Matthewite schism====
By the 1940s, two parties had formed within the Church of Greece: the [[Florinites]] (under Metropolitan [[Chrysostom (Kavourides) of Florina]]) and the [[Matthewites]] (under Bp. [[Matthew (Karpathakis) of Bresthena]]). The schism originated in Metropolitan Chrysostom's hesitation to consider the mysteries of the State Church as graceless, whereas the adherents of Bishop Matthew (the "Matthewites") maintained the rigorist position: that State Church was schismatic and therefore graceless.
In 1948, Bishop Matthew singlehandedly consecrated another bishop, and together they made more new bishops, furthering the rift and causing many former Matthewite clergy to join ranks with the Florintes. After the death of Bishop Matthew, however, Chrysostom of Florina reaffirmed the decision of 1935 declaring the New Calendar State Church as [[schism]]atic. The declaration had two basic motivations: to stop any growth among the Matthewites and as its motivation to heal the Matthewite schism. Nonetheless, the irenic gesture went unheeded and the Matthewites proceeded to elect Archbishop Agathagelos to the rank of Primate of Athens in 1958. We will deal first with the major divisions of the Florinites, since their divisions have generally been larger and more permanent in nature, and then the Matthewites.
'''''The Florinites'''''
After the death of Metropolitan Chrysostom, the Florinites had no bishops, and Metropolitan Chrysostom advised his flock to go under the protection of the Matthewite bishops. Fearing the repercussions, however, the Florinites opted to seek a new hierarchy and appealed to Bishops of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] to help them. In 1960, Archimandrite Akakios Pappas was made a bishop with the title of Bishop of Talantion for these communities without the official blessing of the ROCOR Synod by Archbishop [[Seraphim (Ivanov) of Chicago]]<ref>[ Archbishop Seraphim of Chicago] </ref> and Bp. Theophilos Bishop [[Theophilus (Ionescu) of Sèvres|Theophilus (Ionescu)]], a an anti-communist Romanian New Calendar Bishop bishop under the ROCOR, whose parishes followed the new calendar. The following year, the ROCOR elected and ordained Archimandrite Petros Astyfides as Bishop of Astoria in order to serve as archpastor of the Greek Old Calendarist immigrant communities in the United States and Canada. Later Bp. Bishop Akakios of Talantion and Archbishop Leonty [[Leontius (Filipovich) of Chile (]]<ref>[]</ref> of ROCOR) ordained five more bishops in Greece. Thus in 1961, Akakios of Talantion became the new First-Hierarch of the restored Florinite Synod. He died, however, in 1963. The Synod thus proceeded to elect Auxentios Pastras, Bishop of Gardikion, to be their new leader as Archbishop of Athens. The ROCOR under Metropolitan Philaret eventually recognized the validity of the secret consecrations in 1969.
''Divisions within the Florinites''
The Restored Florinite Synod of the True Orthodox Church of Greece was fraught with problems by the 1970s, and two major separations occurred during the lifetime of Archbishop Auxentios. However, few doubt that Archbishop Auxentios himself was of a saintly character, albeit a poor bishop. Recently there have been attempts to rehabilitate his memory (Archbishop Auxentios died in 1994); most of his synod, barely held together by the 1980s. In 1979, two Florinite Metropolitans, Kallistos of Corinth and Antonios of Attica, unilaterally consecrated seven of Archimandrites to the episcopacy in an attempt to counteract the irregularities they perceived in the administration of Archbishop Auxentios. This led to the formation of the short-lived '''Kallistite Synod''', most of whose members reconciled themselves with the main body of the Florinite Synod by 1985.
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Florinite)|The Auxentios SynodGenuine Orthodox Church of Greece]]''': In 1986, Archbishop Auxentios was removed from the Archdiocese of Athens and the leadership of the Old Calendar Church of Greece by a majority the . The Florinite bishops on account of Synod chose in 1986 a series of controversial episcopal ordinations conducted new leader in Archbishop Chrysostom (Kiousis), who demonstrated rather effectively that the early 1980s True Orthodox in Greece were a force to be reckoned with his apparent consent. Having Choosing to take on the support of the dissenting minority of bishopsGreek legal system, Auxentios proceeded to re-form his Synod. He died in 1994, having failed to reconcile with court cases were held where it was demonstrated that the Synod Old Calendarists of Archbishop ChrysostomGreece were not schismatics. The remaining parishes Though their public reputation had been tarnished over nearly two decades of the Auxentios Synoddivisions, their legal existence was, howeverand is presently, elected Archbishop Maximos of Kephalonia as president in 1995safe. However, after a series The synod of questionable ordinations and maladministration by Archbishop Maximos, the Auxentios Synod dissolved in the mid 1990's. In 2006, clergy and a bishop (Metropolitan Athanasios Chrysostom of Larissa) from the Auxentios Synod reconciled themselves with Athens represents today the main body of the Old Calendar True Orthodox Church in of Greece and were admitted into the Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom. In North AmericaIN 2010, the parishes loyal to Auxentios under the American Bishops organized around Holy Transfiguration Monastery Archbishop Chrysostomos fell asleep in Boston (HOCNA), left the Synod, Lord and elected Makarios of Toronto as locum tenens of the see of Athens. Since 2008, HOCNA has been in a cordial dialogue with the Synod of was succeeded by Archbishop Chrysostom in hope of establishing closer tiesKallinikos (Sarantopoulos).
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Florinite)|The Auxentios Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom of Athens]]''': Amidst charges Archbishop Auxentios was removed in 1986 by the Florinite Synod on account of a series of controversial episcopal ordinations conducted in the early 1980s with his apparent consent. Having the support of the dissenting minority of maladministrationbishops, Auxentios proceeded to form a counter Synod. He died in 1994, having failed to reconcile with the majority Florinite Synod under Archbishop Chrysostom. The remaining parishes of the Florinite synod chose Auxentios Synod, however, elected Archbishop Maximos of Kephalonia as president in 1986 1995. However, after a new leader in series of questionable ordinations and maladministration by Archbishop Chrysostom (Kiousis)Maximos, who demonstrated rather effectively that the True Orthodox Auxentios Synod dissolved in Greece were the mid 1990's. In 2006, clergy and a force to be reckoned bishop (Metropolitan Athanasios of Larissa) from the Auxentios Synod reconciled themselves with. Choosing to take on the Greek legal system, court cases were held where it was demonstrated that main body of the Old Calendarists of Calendar Church in Greece and were not schismaticsadmitted into the Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom. Though their public reputation had been tarnished over nearly two decades of divisionsIn North America, the parishes loyal to Auxentios under the American Bishops organized around Holy Transfiguration Monastery in Boston (HOCNA), their legal existence wasleft the Synod, and is presently, safe. The synod elected Makarios of Toronto as locum tenens of Archbishop Chrysostom the see of Athens represents today . Since 2008, HOCNA has been in a cordial dialogue with the main body Synod of the True Orthodox Church Archbishop Chrysostom in hope of Greeceestablishing closer ties.
'''The [[Holy Synod in Resistance|Synod-in-Resistance]] of Metropolitan Cyprian of Fili''': The Synod in Resistance has its origins in the short-lived Kallistite Synod of 1979-1985. While this church's its official [[ecclesiology]] is peculiar, the amount of work that Metropolitan Cyprian of Fili and his synod have done to assist the True Orthodox Church of Greece throughout the world is impressive, and must be noted. The church itself is rather small, but has been very effective in presenting intellectual arguments against the New Calendar State Churchof Greece. It is headed by another defector from the Auxentios Synod, Cyprian (Koutsoumbas) of Fili, and holds an ecclesiology of “sick" and “healthy" churches, thus avoiding the repercussions that inevitably follow referring to the majority as subject to a schismatic body. Their ecclesiology is considered heretical by some of the more rigorist elements of the True Orthodox, although they were only officially condemned on an ecclesiological basis by the Synod under of Archbishop Chrysostom of Athensin 1986. In 2008, the Synod in Resistance and the Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom met for a number of high-profile meetings in the hope of developing closer ties.<ref>[]</ref>
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Lamian Synod)|The Makarian Synod (Lamian ) Synod)]]''': In 1995, a resistance faction of six bishops formed within the synod of Chrysostom (Kiousis) and separated itself over what they claimed to be a series of canonical infractions, headed by Metropolitan Kallinikos (Hatzis) of Lamia. The charges related to the trial of Metropolitan of Thessaloniki Euthymios (Orphanos), who had been charged with moral infractions, and the election of Bishop Vikentios (Malamatenios) of Avlona as Metropolitan of Peiraeus. By early 1997, the bishops headed by Kallinikos of Lamia movement had fragmented into three groups, one of which reconciled with Archbishop Chrysostom (Kiousis). A second group, Paisios Loulourgas (Met. of America) and Vikentios Malamatenios (titular Bp. of Avlona), submitted to the Ecumenical Patiarchate. Later that same year, Kallinikos of Lamia and Euthymios of Thessaloniki proceeded to ordain five [[bishop|titular bishop]]s in an attempt to create a new synod. In 2003, they finally decided to elect a primate, and elected Makarios (Kavakides) of Athens. A good deal of their membership was then lost, as many who did not see themselves as separate from the Kiousis synod were forced to decide between the two.
'''''The Matthewites'''''
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Matthewite)|The Gregorian Synod]]''': Under the primacy of Andreas of Athens, there were virtually no divisions in the Matthewites until 1995, when Metropolitan Gregory of Messinia separated with a small majority of the synod (five versus four), ostensibly over the issue of the "God the Father" [[icon]] and the related issues of Western-style icons in general. However, with the deaths of three of their bishops, the remaining two split, one remaining completely alone from the eldest hierarch, and the with Gregorios of Messinia naming three more bishops (Abramios, Pavlos, and Nectarios).
'''[[Genuine Orthodox Church (Matthewite)|The Synod of Metropolitan Kirykos]]''': Originally not a schism proper, Metropolitan Kirykos and two other bishops of the synod refused to recognize the retirement of Archbishop Andreas or the enthronement of the new Archbishop, but continued to remain a member of the Synod of Archbishop Nicholas. Finally, in 2005, after several attempts, the Synod of Abp Nicholas endeavored to depose Metropolitan Kirykos, who has since added five Bishops to his Synod in a number of countries.<ref>[ The Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece under the Omophorion of Metropolitan Kirykos of Mesogaias and Lavreotikis].</ref>
===Churches "in resistance" or "walled off"===
These churches refrain from [[concelebration]] with the mainstream Orthodox churches, but do not consider themselves schismatic, nor have they formally declared the mainstream churches without grace. In general, they set up alternative hierarchies that use the names of sees that are not used by the state Church in question<ref>[]</ref>.
It is said that they would also communicate the faithful of those churches after confession. A notable exception is the Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Romania, who receive members of the New Calendar Churches by Chrismation.
**[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece (Florinite)| Synod of Archbishop Chrysostom Kallinikos of Athens]]
**[[Genuine Orthodox Church of Greece| Makarian/Lamian Synod]]
** [[Holy Synod in Resistance| Cyprianite Synod)]]
*[[Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Romania]] ''([ In Resistance-- see above])
*[[Old Calendar Orthodox Church of Bulgaria]] ''([ In Resistance-- see above])
===North America===
===Groups claiming "Autonomous" status within America===
These are bodies which claimed independence from their parent churches.
*[[Holy Orthodox Church in North America]] (HOCNA), under Metropolitan Makarios of Toronto
*[[Genuine Orthodox Church of America]], under Archbishop Gregory of Denver
* [ The Euphrosynos Café: A Portal and Forum for all Old Calendar Orthodox Churches]
**[ Map of some Old Calendarist parishes in the West]
* {{el icon}} [[Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens]]. ''"[ ΚΕΦΑΛΑΙΟΝ ΠΕΜΠΤΟΝ. - ΙΙ. ΠΕΡΙΟΔΟΣ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΑ 1935-1947: Η ανταρσία των τριών Μητροπολιτών και αι μακροπρόθεσμοι συνέπειαι αυτής]."'' In: ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΗ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΝΟΝΙΚΗ ΘΕΩΡΗΣΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΠΑΛΑΙΟΗΜΕΡΟΛΟΓΙΤΙΚΟΥ ΖΗΤΗΜΑΤΟΣ ΚΑΤΑ ΤΕ ΤΗΝ ΓΕΝΕΣΙΝ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΞΕΛΙΞΙΝ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΕΝ ΕΛΛΑΔΙ. Retrieved: 2013-08-14.
::(Discussion of the three bishops who in 1935 declared their separation from the official Church of Greece: Metr. Germanos (Mavrommatis) of Demetrias (1907–1935); Metr. Chrysostom (Kavourides) of Florina (1926–1932), a retired bishop; and Metr. [[Chrysostomos of Zakynthos|Chrysostomos (Demetriou) of Zakynthos]])
===Relevant Articles===
*[| The Calendar Question], by Fr. Basil Sakkas*[ The Old Calendar Greek Orthodox Church: A Brief History], by Bishop Ambrose of Methone*[ 1973-2003: Thirty Years of Ecclesiastical Developments], by Bishop Makarios of Petra*[ An Ecclesiological Position Paper for Orthodox Opposed to the Panheresy of Ecumenism], ''by Metropolitan Cyprian of Oropos and Phyle*[ The Ecclesiological Position of the Old Calendar Question''Orthodox Church of Bulgaria], by Bishop Photii of Triaditsa*[ The True Orthodox Church in Opposition to the Heresy of Ecumenism: Dogmatic and Canonical Issues], a text drawn up by the True Orthodox Churches of Greece and Romania, and the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad*[| Fr. Maximos Marretta, The Problem of Conservative New Calendarism".], by Hieromonk Maximos (Maretta)
*[ Abbot Gabriel of Dionysiou Monastery on Mount Athos, Greece], on the calendar issue and the Old Calendarists
*[| Anti-Patristic: The Stance of the Zealot Old Calendarists] , by Monk Basil of the Holy Monastery of Saint Gregory (Grigoriou), Mount Athos]
*Old Calendarist Responses to the above link:
**[| Fr. Maximos Marretta, A Rejoinder to Fr. Basil Gregoriates and an Apology for Breaking Communion with Ecumenist Bishops].]by Hieromonk Maximos (Maretta)**[| Hieromonk Patapios, The Deficient Scholarship of Monk Basil’s Comments on the Allegedly Anti-Patristic Stand of the So-Called Old Calendarist Zealots], by Hieromonk Patapios (Barker)*A Response to the above article by Hieromonk Patapios:**[ A Rejoinder to Hieromonk Patapios’ essay: “The Deficient Scholarship of Monk Basil’s Comments on the Allegedly Anti-Patristic Stand of the So-Called“Old Calendarist Zealots”], by Fr. John Whiteford
===Official Websites===
[[Category:Featured Articles]]
[[Category: Schisms]]
[[Category:Old Calendarist Jurisdictions|*]]
[[fr:Orthodoxes vieux-calendaristes]]
[[ro:Vechi calendariști]]

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