== New Testament era ==
*168 BC-70 AD Late Second Temple period: the main internal struggles amongst the Jews were between the [[w:Pharisees|Pharisees]] and the [[w:Sadducees|Sadducees]], as well as the [[w:Essenes|Essenes]] and [[w:Zealotry|Zealots]].
*63 BC Judea becomes a Roman [[w:Client state|client kingdom]] ([[w:Iudaea Province|Iudaea Province]] by 6 AD).
*46 BC Julius Caesar institutes [[Julian Calendar]].
*27 BC-180 AD [[Pax Romana]].
*20 BC Herod the Great begins a [[w:Herod's Temple|massive renovation and expansion]] of the [[w:Second Temple|Second Temple]] complex; treaty between Rome and Persia fixes boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates.
*ca.4 BC '''[[Nativity|Christ is born]] in Bethlehem'''; 14,000 [[Holy Innocents]] slain in Bethlehem.
*1 ''Assumption of Moses'', Jewish apocrypha written. *6 [[w:Census of Quirinius|Census of Quirinius]]; [[w:Iudaea Province|Iudaea Province]] created under direct Roman administration with capital at Caesarea, as the Romans annex [[w:Samaria|Samaria]], [[w:Idumea|Idumea]], and [[w:Judea|Judea]] ''(corresponding to the region of the ancient Kingdom of Judah).''
*18-37 [[w:Caiaphas|Caiaphas]] becomes the [[w:List of High Priests of Israel|High Priest]] of the Jews.
*ca.25-26 Death of [[Joseph the Betrothed]].