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name=Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East[[Image:Antioch logo.gif|center|Church of Antioch]]|
recognition= Traditional |
Ignatius IV ( Hazim) of Antioch| Patriarch Ignatius IV]]|
territory=Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, parts of Turkey|
calendar=[[Revised Julian Calendar|Revised Julian]]|
750,000 to 1,000,000|
website=[http://www.antiochpat.org Church of Antioch]
===The Antiochian school===
During the pre-Nicene period and that of the [[Ecumenical Councils]], Christian theology centered in Antioch tended to emphasize the literal, historical facts of the life of [[Jesus Christ]] over philosophical or allegorical [[hermeneutics|interpretations]] of [[Holy Scripture]], contrasted with the more mystical and figurative theology coming from [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]]. Antiochian theology, though stressing the "earthier" side of interpretation, nevertheless did not neglect the importance of insight into the deeper, spiritual meaning of the Scriptures. These two viewpoints came to be known respectively as the [[Antiochian school]] and the [[Alexandrian school]], represented by major catechetical institutions at both places.
Major figures associated with the origin of the Antiochian school include [[Lucian of Antioch]] and [[Paul of Samosata]], but its real formation was found with writers such as [[Diodore of Tarsus]], [[John Chrysostom]], [[Theodore of Mopsuestia]], [[Nestorius]], and [[Theodoret of Cyrrhus]]. At times, this difference in emphasis caused conflicts within the Church as the tension between the two approaches came to a head, especially regarding the doctrinal disputes over [[Arianism]] and [[Nestorianism]]. Saints such as [[John Chrysostom]] are somewhat regarded as synthesizers of the Antiochian and Alexandrian approaches to theology, and the Antiochian school of theology, whose more deviant proponents produced [[Arianism]] and [[Nestorianism]], also enabled the Orthodox fight against the Alexandrian school's deviances, namely [[Apollinarianism]] and [[Eutychianism]].
===Schism over Chalcedon===
[[Image:Hama church.jpg|left|thumb|200px|The Church of the Entrance of the Theotokos in Hama, Syria]]
Disputes over the [[Christology]] of the [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] at Chalcedon—the [[Monophysitism|Monophysite]] controversy— in 451 led to a [[schism]] within the Church of Antioch, which at that same council was elevated to the status of a [[patriarchate]]. The larger group at the time repudiated the council and became the [[Church of Antioch (Jacobite)|Syriac Orthodox Church]] (also called the "Jacobites" for [[Jacob Baradeus]], an early bishop of theirs who did extensive missionary work in the region). They currently constitute part of the [[Oriental Orthodox]] communion and maintain a Christology somewhat different in language from that of [[Chalcedon]].
The remainder of the Church of Antioch, primarily local Greeks or Hellenized sections of the indigenous population, remained in communion with Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, and Jerusalem. This is the current ''Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East'' which is considered by the other bishops of the Orthodox Church to be the sole legitimate heir to the [[see]] of Antioch.
In 1098, Crusaders took the city and set up a Latin Patriarchate of Antioch to adorn its Latin Kingdom of Syria, while a Greek patriarchate continued in exile in Constantinople. After nearly two centuries of Crusader rule, the Egyptian Mamelukes seized Antioch in 1268, and the Orthodox patriarch, [[Theodosius IV of Antioch|Theodosius IV]], was able to return to the region. By this point, Antioch itself had been reduced to a smaller town, and so in the 14th century [[Ignatius II of Antioch|Ignatius II]] transferred the seat of the patriarchate to Damascus, where it remains to this day, though the patriarch retains the Antiochian title.
The Ottoman Turks conquered the city in 1517, under whose control it remained until the breakup of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. During this period, in 1724, the Church of Antioch was again weakened by schism, as a major portion of its faithful came into submission to the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. The resultant [[Uniate]] body is known as the [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church]], which in the current day maintains close ties with the Orthodox and is currently holding ongoing talks about healing the schism and returning the Melkites to Orthodoxy.
Fearing for the preservation of the Orthodoxy of the Antiochian see, parishioners and bishops requested the [[ecumenical Patriarch]]ate to send them a Greek patriarch. The Greek presence on the Antiochian see lasted from 1724 to 1898 until Malathius I (Doumani) the Damascene, an Arab patriarch, was appointed. A renewal movement, involving Orthodox youth in particular, has been under way since the 1940s.
===The Antiochian church today===
Ignatius Hazim.jpg|right|thumb|200px|[[ Ignatius IV ( Hazim) of Antioch|Patriarch Ignatius IV of Antioch]]]]
The [[St. John of Damascus Institute of Theology (Tripoli, Lebanon)|St. John of Damascus Patriarchal Institute of Theology (Tripoli, Lebanon)]] was established by the patriarchate in 1970, and in 1988 it was fully incorporated into the University of Balamand. The Institute functions as the primary [[seminary]] for theological schooling for the patriarchate's [[clergy]] and [[laity|lay]] leaders.
The [[Holy Synod]] of Antioch includes the [[patriarch]] and all the ruling [[bishop]]s. Meetings are held each year in Spring and Autumn at the patriarchate to consider church-wide issues, and to elect the patriarch and other bishops as needed. The patriarch and holy synod govern the Church of Antioch to preserve the true faith, to maintain ecclesiastical order, and to carry out the commandments of Christ. In addition to the synod itself, a general conciliar body meets twice a year to see to the financial, educational, judicial, and administrative matters of the patriarchate. It is composed of members of the synod and of lay representatives. When a new patriarch is to be elected, this body selects three candidates from whom the holy synod chooses the new patriarch.
current [[patriarch]] is His Beatitude Patriarch [[Ignatius IV (Hazim) of Antioch]] and all the East, elected in 1979. Patriarch Ignatius has been particularly active in strengthening ties with other Christian communions, but particularly with those whose roots are in Antioch. His Beatitude and the [[holy synod]] of Antioch were enthusiastic for the Church of Antioch to participate in general talks between representatives of all the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches.
At Anba Bishoy in Egypt and at Chambesy in Switzerland, plenary talks were held resulting in [http://www.antiochian.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&id=106§ionid=24&Itemid=63 agreements] in 1989, 1990 and 1993. All official representatives of the Eastern Orthodox and the Oriental Orthodox there present reached agreement in these dialogues that the Christological differences between the two communions are more a matter of emphasis than of substance. Although elements in a number of the Eastern Orthodox Churches have criticized the apparent consensus reached by the representatives at Anba Bishoy and Chambesy, the patriarch and holy synod of the Antiochian Orthodox Church welcomed the agreements as positive moves towards a sharing in the Love of God, and a rejection of the hatred of insubstantial division.
As recommended in the Agreement of 1990, the Antiochian (Eastern) Orthodox Patriarch Ignatius IV formally met with the Syriac (Oriental) Orthodox Patriarch, Ignatius Zakka I, on [[July 22]], 1991. At that formal meeting, the two patriarchs signed a [http://www.antiochian.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&id=106§ionid=24&Itemid=63 pastoral agreement] which called for "complete and mutual respect between the two churches." It also prohibited the passing of faithful from one church to the other, envisaged joint meetings of the two holy synods when appropriate, and provided for future guidelines for intercommunion of the faithful and [[Eucharist]]ic [[concelebration]] by the [[clergy]] of the two churches. The Church of Antioch expects these guidelines to be issued when the faithful of both churches are ready, but not before.
has also overseen participation in a bilateral commission with the [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church]], which is exploring ways of healing the 18th century schism between the Melkite Catholics and the Antiochian Orthodox. In an unprecedented event, Melkite Patriarch Maximos V addressed a meeting of the Orthodox holy synod in October 1996.
The members of the holy synod of Antioch continue to explore greater communication and more friendly meetings with their Syriac, Melkite, and Maronite brothers and sisters, who all share a common heritage.
Extensive 20th and 21st century Arab immigration to the New World has further increased the size, vigor and influence of the Church of Antioch, and the majority of Antiochian faithful now reside outside the Middle East and include numerous non-Arabic converts to the Orthodox Christian faith. As a result, besides its Middle Eastern territories in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, the Arabian Peninsular, and parts of Turkey, the Church of Antioch also includes missionary dioceses in Central, North, and South America, in Europe, and in Australia and the Pacific. The archdiocese with the largest population is [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|North America]]. It is also the only one with internal [[diocese]]s. The archdiocese with the largest area is [[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand|Australia and New Zealand]]. Estimates of the membership of the patriarchate range from 750,000 to over 1,000,000 in Syria alone.
Over the centuries, the Church of Antioch has been associated with many [[saint]]s on the Church's calendar. These include the following:
[[Image:Antiochian saints.jpg|right|thumb|200px|[[Synaxis]] of the Great [[Saint]]s of the Holy Church of Antioch]]
*[[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand|Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and All Oceania]]
*[[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Archdiocese of North America]]
*[[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of
Western and Central Europe|Archdiocese of Western and Central Europe]]
The Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East] (Official site, Arabic and English)* [http://www.cnewa.org/ ecc-bodypg-us.aspx? eccpageID=15& IndexView= toc Eastern Christian Churches: The Patriarchate of Antioch], a scholarly text by Ronald Roberson, CSP, a Roman Catholic priest and Eastern Christianity scholar
*[http://www.cc.uoa.gr/theology/html/english/pubs/doctrsec/scouteris/27/27.pdf The Spiritual Tradition of the Antioch Patriarchate], by Prof. [[Constantine Scouteris]]
*[http://www.antiochcentre.net/ 'Antioch']: A Centre for Antiochian Orthodox Christian Studies and Research (Oxford, UK)
===Archdioceses and dioceses===
====The Middle East====
Orthodox Archdiocese of Beirut] ( Arabic and English)*[http://www. ortmtlb.org .lb/ Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of Byblos and Botrys ( Mount Lebanon)] ( Arabic and English)*[http://www. alepporthodox.org/ Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Aleppo] ( Arabic and English)*[http://www. lattakiaorth.org/ Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Lattakia] ( Arabic)
====North and South America====
*[http://www.antiocheurope.org/ Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Western and Central Europe] (Arabic, English, French, German, Italian)
Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch in Germany] (German)
*[http://www.antiochian-orthodox.co.uk/ Antiochian Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom and Ireland] (English)
*[http://www.antiochianarch.org.au/ Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines]