→Early Visits and Missions (530-1900): internal link
*1799 Ioasaph (Bolotov) [[consecration of a bishop|consecrated]] in Irkutsk as first [[bishop]] for Alaska, but dies in a shipwreck during his return.
*1803 Louisiana Purchase expands American territory beyond Mississippi River.
*1816 Martyrdom of [[Peter the Aleut]] near San Francisco.
*1817 Russian colony of Fort Ross established 60 miles from San Francisco.
*1825 First native priest, [[Jacob Netsvetov]].
*1834 Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] moves to Sitka, Alaska; liturgy and catechism translated into Aleut.
*1836 Imperial ''[[ukaz]]'' regarding Alaskan education issued from Czar Nicholas I that students were to become faithful members of the Orthodox Church, loyal subjects of the Czar, and loyal citizens; Fr. John Veniaminov returns to Russia.
*1837 Death of [[Herman of Alaska]] on Spruce Island.
*1840 Consecration of Fr. [[Innocent of Alaska|John Veniaminov]] as [[bishop]] with the name Innocent.
*1841 Return of [[Innocent of Alaska]] to Sitka; sale of Fort Ross property to an American citizen; pastoral school established in Sitka.
*1844 Formation of [[seminary]] in Sitka.
*1845 Former Republic of Texas joins United States.
*1846 Pacific Northwest received by United States via treaty with United Kingdom.
*1848 [[Consecration]] of St. Michael Cathedral in Sitka; Pacific Southwest won from Mexico by United States.
*1850 Alaskan episcopal see and seminary moved to Yakutsk, Russia.
*1858 [[Peter (
Sysakoff) of Sitka|Peter ( Sysakoff)]] consecrated as [[auxiliary bishop]] for Alaska with Innocent's primary see moved to Yakutsk.
*1864 [http://holytrinitycathedral.org/history.html Holy Trinity Church], first Orthodox [[parish]] established on United States soil in New Orleans, Louisiana, by Greeks.
*1865 First [[Divine Liturgy]] celebrated in New York City, by Fr. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
*1867 Alaska purchased by United States from Russia; Bp. [[Paul (Popov) of Novoarkhangelsk|Paul (Popov)]] succeeds Bp. Peter.
*1868 First Russian parish established in US territory in San Francisco, California; [[Innocent of Alaska]] becomes Metropolitan of Moscow.
*1870 Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and Alaska formed by the [[Church of Russia]] with Bp. [[John (Mitropolsky) of the Aleutians|John (Mitropolsky)]] as ruling hierarch; [[Nicholas Bjerring]], a Roman Catholic layman, converts to Orthodoxy and becomes priest of a Russian chapel in New York City.
*1882 Bp. [[Nestor (Zass) of the Aleutians|Nestor (Zass)]] drowns in Bering Sea.
*1883 Fr. [[Nicholas Bjerring]], priest of the Russian chapel in New York City, converts to Presbyterianism.
*1888 Bp. [[Vladimir (Sokolovsky-Avtonomov) of the Aleutians|Vladimir (Sokolovsky)]] becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska.
*1890-1917 Greek Immigration to USA: widespread unemployment and economic problems led to migrations to the US of 450,000 Greeks, one-fifth of the total population.
*1891 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]], a [[Uniate]] priest, petitions to be received along with his parish in Minneapolis into the Russian church; Bp. Nicholas (Adoratsky) assigned as Bishop of Alaska but is transferred before taking up his post; [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] becomes ruling bishop of the Alaskan diocese.
*1892 Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]] and his parish in Minneapolis received into Russian church; Carpatho-Russian [[Uniate]] parishes in Illinois, Connecticut, and several in Pennsylvania soon follow; first Serbian parish established in Jackson, California; Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox parish founded in New York City; Greek and Russian parishes founded in Chicago; first American-born person ordained, Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]].*1895 Archim. [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] arrives in America; Fr. [[John Kochurov]] arrives in America and becomes priest of the Russian parish in Chicago; Fr. [[
Anatolii Kamenskii]] arrives in Alaska; first Syrian parish in Brooklyn, New York, founded by [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; first clergy conference, in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.*1896 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] reports to the [[Church of Russia#The Synodical Church (1700-1917)|Holy Synod of Russia]] that "the commemoration of the Emperor and the Reigning House during the divine services brings forth dismay and apprehension among Orthodox in America of non-Russian background"; [[Alexander Hotovitsky]] appointed as [[rector]] in New York.
*1897 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] and Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] petition [[Church of Serbia]] to oversee Serbian parishes in America, but are rebuffed due to an inability to support the infrastructure.
*1898 Bp. [[Nicholas (Ziorov) of Warsaw|Nicholas (Ziorov)]] returns to Russia; [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] becomes Bishop of the Aleutians and Alaska; American annexation of Hawaii.
*1901 First Orthodox church in Canada, in Vostok, Alberta.
*1902 Building of St. Nicholas Cathedral in [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; first Romanian parish in North America founded in Regina, Saskatchewan.
*1904 [[Innocent (
Pustinsky) of Sitka|Innocent ( Pustinsky)]] consecrated as Bishop of Alaska; [[Raphael of Brooklyn|Raphael (Hawaweeny)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn, becoming the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America; first Romanian-American parish founded in Cleveland, Ohio.
*1905 [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] founded; Bp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] raised to rank of archbishop; seminary opened in Minneapolis; Russian see transferred to [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York]]; Fr. [[Sebastian Dabovich]] elevated to [[archimandrite]] and given charge over Serbian parishes by Tikhon; Episcopal priest of nearly 30 years Dr. [[Ingram Irvine]] converted to Orthodoxy, assigned to "English work."
*1906 Holy Synod of Russia confirms practice of commemorating the American president by name, and not the Russian Tsar, during divine services; blessing of [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)|St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery]] by hierarchs Tikhon, Raphael and Innocent; translation of ''Service Book'' by [[Isabel Hapgood]].
*1907 [[All-American_Sobor#First_All-American_Sobor|1st All-American Sobor]] held in Mayfield, PA, at which name of the Russian mission was declared to be ''The Russian Orthodox Greek-Catholic Church in North America under the Hierarchy of the Russian Church''; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] returns to Russia and is succeeded by [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]]; Uniate Bp. Stephen Ortinsky sent to the US by Rome to stem the tide of Uniate returns to Orthodoxy; Papal decree ''Ea Semper'' issued, mandating all Uniate priests in American be celibate; first [[Sunday of Orthodoxy]] service in New York; first Bulgarian parish in Madison, Illinois; ordination in Constantinople of first Black American Orthodox priest, the Very Rev. Fr. [[Raphael Morgan]], ''Priest-
Apostol''ic to America and the West Indies.
*1908 [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] gives temporary care of American Greek parishes to [[Church of Greece|Greece]]; Fr. [[Theophan Noli]] celebrates first [[Divine Liturgy]] in the Albanian language; first Albanian parish founded in Boston.
*1909 Bp. [[Innocent (
Pustinsky) of Sitka|Innocent ( Pustinsky)]] transferred to Russia, succeeded by [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] as Bishop of Alaska; death of Fr. [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre|Alexis Toth]].
*1911 Minneapolis seminary transferred to Tenafly, New Jersey.
*1913 Serbian clergy vote to come under [[Church of Serbia]] but meet with no response.
*1914 Abp. [[Platon (Rozhdestvensky) of New York|Platon (Rozhdestvensky)]] recalled to Russia and made bishop of Kishinev, after having received 72 communities (mainly ex-Uniate Carpatho-Russians) into Orthodoxy during his rule; [[Church of Antioch|Antiochian]] Metr. [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle]] comes to US to raise funds for an agricultural school in Syria.
*1915 Death of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]]; Abp. [[Evdokim (Meschersky) of the Aleutians|Evdokim (Meschersky)]] succeeds Platon; first [[monastery]] for women in Springfield, Vermont.
*1916 Consecration of [[Philip (Stavitsky) of
Sitka]]; [[Alexander (Nemolovsky) of the Aleutians|Alexander (Nemolovsky)]] appointed Bishop of Canada with his see in Winnipeg; organization of [[Syrian Holy Orthodox Greek Catholic Mission in North America]] by [[Germanos (Shehadi) of Zahle|Germanos (Shehadi)]] with founding of St. Mary's Cathedral in Brooklyn, New York; death of Rev. [[Agapius Honcharenko]].
*1917 Ex-Uniate priest [[Stephen (Dzubay) of Pittsburgh|Alexander Dzubay]] consecrated with the name ''Stephen'' as Bishop of Pittsburgh; Archim. [[Aftimios Ofiesh|Aftimios (Ofiesh)]] consecrated as Bishop of Brooklyn; Abp. [[Tikhon of Moscow|Tikhon (Belavin)]] elected Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia at the [[All-Russian Church Council of 1917-1918|All Russian Sobor of 1917-1918]].
*1918-24 Emigration of 70,000 Greeks to the United States.
*1927 ROCOR synod sends epistle to American parishes [[suspension|suspending]] Platon and his [[clergy]]; founding of [[American Orthodox Catholic Church]] by the [[Orthodox Church in America|Russian Metropolia]] under [[Aftimios Ofiesh]]; founding of [[Federated Russian Orthodox Clubs]] (FROC) in Pittsburgh; consecration of [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]].
*1928 Ukrainian diocese established; consecration of [[Sophronios (Beshara) of Los Angeles|Sophronios (Beshara)]].
*1929 [[Romanian Orthodox Episcopate (OCA)|Romanian Orthodox Episcopate]] established.*1930 [[Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab) of Brooklyn|Emmanuel (Abo-Hatab)]] leaves [[American Orthodox Catholic Church|AOCC]] and returns to [[OCA|Metropolia]], re-establishing Brooklyn diocese.
*1931 [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras (Spyrou)]] becomes primate of [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]].
*1932 Consecration of [[Joseph (Zuk) of New Jersey|Joseph (Zuk)]] and [[Ignatius (Nichols) of Washington|Ignatius (Nichols)]] (first American convert bishop).
==Emergence of American Orthodoxy (1943-1970)==
*1943 Founding of [[Federated Orthodox Greek Catholic Primary Jurisdictions in America]], a proto-[[SCOBA]] body.
*1946 [[All-American_Sobor#Seventh_All-American_Sobor|7th All-American Sobor]] of [[OCA|Russian Metropolia]] breaks ties with [[ROCOR]]; [[Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology (Brookline, Massachusetts)|Holy Cross Greek Orthodox School of Theology]] moved to Brookline, Massachusetts.
*1947 Death of [[Ignatius (Nichols) of Washington|Ignatius (Nichols)]].
*1950 [[ROCOR]] moves headquarters to New York; [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevitch)]] becomes primate of Metropolia at [[All-American_Sobor#Eighth_All-American_Sobor|8th All-American Sobor]] in New York City.
*1951 [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America|Michael (Konstantinides)]] heads [[GOA]]; independent Romanian diocese established; arrival of Fr. [[Alexander Schmemann]] in the United States from Paris, taking up teaching duties at [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)]].
*1954 Recognition of Toledo archdiocese by [[Church of Antioch]].
Founding of [[Council of Eastern Orthodox Churches of Central Massachusetts]]; [[All-American_Sobor#Ninth_All-American_Sobor|9th All-American Sobor]] of Metropolia held in New York City.
*1956 Dr. Constantine Cavarnos founds the [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ibmgs/index.html Institute for Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies] in Belmont, Massachusetts.
*1958 Death of [[Samuel (David) of Toledo]]; reception of [[Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil]] into Antiochian New York Archdiocese, forming [[Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate]].
*1959 [[All-American_Sobor#Tenth_All-American_Sobor|10th All-American Sobor]] of the Metropolia was held in New York City; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] is elected and enthroned as Primate of the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese of North and South America]].
*1960 Founding of [[Standing Conference of the Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas]] (SCOBA); [[Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America (OCA)|Romanian Orthodox Episcopate]] received into the Metropolia.
*1961 Consecration of [[Michael (Shaheen) of Toledo]].
*1962 Antiochian Toledo archdiocese recognized by the [[Church of Antioch]] as equal to the New York archdiocese.
*1963 Autonomous Serbian diocese created; [[All-American_Sobor#Eleventh_All-America_Sobor|11th All-American Sobor]] held in New York City; beginning of
[[rapprochement ]] between Metropolia and Moscow Patriarchate; arguing that the Metropolia's 1924 declaration of "temporary self-government" amounted to a canonical declaration of [[autocephaly]], ''Toward an American Orthodox Church'' published by St. Vladimir's professor Alexander Bogolepov, galvanizing the Metropolia to seek autocephaly; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] vigorously supported the passage of the [[w:Civil Rights Act of 1964|Civil Rights Act of 1964]] that was introduced by President John F. Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11, 1963.
*1964 [[Bulgarian Diocese in Exile]] established under the [[ROCOR]].
*1965 [[SCOBA]] appeals to mother churches to allow concrete steps to be taken toward American Orthodox unity; at [[All-American_Sobor#Twelfth_All-American_Sobor|12th All-American Sobor]], [[Ireney (Bekish) of New York|Ireney (Bekish)]] chosen to succeed [[Leonty (Turkevich) of New York|Leonty (Turkevich)]] as [[primate]] of [[OCA|Metropolia]]; North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation founded; Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]] marched next to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in the [[w:Selma to Montgomery marches |Selma to Montgomery marches]], captured on the cover of LIFE Magazine, March 26, 1965.
*1982 Calendar [[schism]] in [[Diocese of Eastern Pennsylvania (OCA)|OCA Diocese of E. Pennsylvania]], [[ROCOR]] receiving multiple parishes in the area.
*1983 [[All-American_Council#Seventh_All-American_Council|7th All-American Council]] of OCA was held Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
*1985 Founding of [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center]] (OCMC) as Greek Archdiocesan Mission Center.
*1986 [[All-American_Council#Eighth_All-American_Council|8th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Washington, D.C.
*1987 Majority of [[parish]]es of the [[Evangelical Orthodox Church]] received into [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian Archdiocese]] by Metr. [[Philip (Saliba) of New York|Philip (Saliba)]], becoming the Antiochian Evangelical Orthodox Mission (AEOM).
*1989 [[Glorification]] in Russia of [[Tikhon of Moscow]]; [[Ephraim of Philotheou|Elder Ephraim]] begins founding [[Mount Athos|Athonite]]-style monasteries in North America; [[All-American_Council#Ninth_All-American_Council|9th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Saint Louis, Missouri.
*1990 Contact between [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[OCA]] resumes.
*1992 Founding of [[International Orthodox Christian Charities]] (IOCC); [[All-American_Council#Tenth_All-American_Council|10th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Miami, Florida.
==Ligonier and Beyond (1994-present)==
[[Ligonier Meeting]] in Western Pennsylvania at [[Antiochian Village]] held by the majority of Orthodox hierarchs in North America votes to do away with notion of Orthodox Christians in America being a "[[ diaspora]] " and pledges to work together in missions; [[glorification]] of [[Alexis of Wilkes-Barre]] by OCA; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] becomes [[SCOBA]] agency and changes to its current name; glorification in Russia of [[John Kochurov]] and [[Alexander Hotovitsky]]; glorification by [[ROCOR]] of [[John Maximovitch]].
*1995 Death of Bp. [[Gerasimos (Papadopoulos) of Abydos]]; [[All-American_Council#Eleventh_All-American_Council|11th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Chicago, Illinois.
Allegedly forced retirement of Greek Archbishop [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America]], being replaced by [[Spyridon (Papageorge) of Chaldea|Spyridon (Papageorge)]]; [[Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America]] joins [[Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA]], coming under [[Constantinople]].*1997 Visit by [[Ecumenical Patriarch]] [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] to US , heralded as a Bridge Builder and Peacemaker and awarded the Congressional Gold Medal by the U.S. Congress.*1998 Ben Lomond crisis in (formerly [[Evangelical Orthodox Church|EOC]]) [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|Antiochian]] parish of Ss. Peter and Paul (Ben Lomond, California) gains national attention; multiple [[clergy]] are [[deposition|deposed]] and/or [[excommunication|excommunicated]]; SCOBA's Social & Moral Issues Commission (SMIC) is established; the ''[[ w: International Religious Freedom Act of 1998|International Religious Freedom Act]] '' is passed in the US to promote religious freedom as a foreign policy of the United States, and to advocate on the behalf of the individuals viewed as persecuted in foreign countries on the account of religion.
*1999 Retirement of [[Spyridon (Papageorge) of Chaldea|Spyridon (Papageorge)]], Greek Archbishop of America, being replaced by [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetrios (Trakatellis)]]; reception of dissident group from Ben Lomond crisis by the [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem Patriarchate]], including re-ordination of some of the excommunicated and/or deposed clergy; [[All-American_Council#Twelfth_All-American_Council|12th All-American Council]] of OCA held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
*2000 [[Glorification]] of [[Raphael of Brooklyn]] at [[St. Tikhon's Orthodox Monastery (South Canaan, Pennsylvania)]] by the [[OCA]] jointly with Antiochian hierarchs; reception of multiple former parishes of the [[Holy Order of MANS|Holy Order of MANS/Christ the Saviour Brotherhood]] into the patriarchal [[Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Diocese of the USA, Canada and Australia|Bulgarian diocese]].
*2001 Second meeting of most bishops associated with [[SCOBA]].
*2002 Retirement of [[Theodosius (Lazor) of Washington|Theodosius (Lazor)]] and election of [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] as Metropolitan of the [[OCA]] at [[All-American_Council#Thirteenth_All-American_Council|13th All-American Council]] held in Orlando, Florida.
*2003 [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]] is granted "self-rule" (similar but not identical to [[autonomy]]) by [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], establishing 9 new [[diocese]]s in North America and promoting its [[titular bishop]]s to diocesan ones; after years of inactivity, refounding of [[OISM]].
*2005 Death of Abp. [[Iakovos (Coucouzis) of America|Iakovos (Coucouzis)]]; consecration of [[Alejo (Pacheco y Vera) of Mexico City ]], [[auxiliary bishop]] of the [[OCA]] Exarchate of Mexico; OCA's New York [[diocese]] subsumed into its Diocese of Washington, creating [[Diocese of Washington and New York (OCA)|Diocese of Washington and New York]] at [[All-American_Council#Fourteenth_All-American_Council|14th All-American Council]] held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
*2006 [[Fourth All-Diaspora Council]] of the [[ROCOR]] votes to restore [[full communion]] with [[Moscow Patriarchate]]; four priests and one deacon who departed the Antiochian Archdiocese during the Ben Lomond crisis return to Antioch; major financial scandal made public in the [[OCA]]; third meeting of most [[SCOBA]] bishops agrees to work together on canonical and pastoral questions.
*2007 [[OISM]] holds first meeting at a [[ROCOR]] seminary, [[Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary (Jordanville, New York)|Holy Trinity Orthodox Seminary]]; restoration of [[full communion]] between [[ROCOR]] and [[Moscow Patriarchate]] with incorporation of
the ROCOR as a semi-autonomous entity of the patriarchate.
*2008 [[Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem in North and South America|Jerusalem jurisdiction]] transferred to [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]], forming [[Vicariate for Palestinian-Jordanian Communities in the USA|Vicariate for Palestinian/Jordanian Communities in the USA]]; Metr. [[Herman (Swaiko) of Washington and New York|Herman (Swaiko)]] retired by OCA amidst financial scandal; [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] elected primate of OCA; [[All-American Council#Fifteenth All-American Council|Fifteenth All-American Council]] held in Pittsburgh, PA.
*2009 [[Church of Georgia]] names Metr. [[Dimitri (Shiolashvili) of Batumi and Lazeti]] as bishop for North America;
reciprocal visit of Abp. [[Demetrios (Trakatellis) of America|Demetios (Trakatellis) ]] and a delegation from the [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America|Greek Archdiocese]] to Metr. [[ Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion (Kapral)]] and hierarchs of the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]], marking the first visit of a Greek Orthodox Archbishop to ROCOR’s headquarters in more than 40 years; [[Orthodox Christian Mission Center|OCMC]] opens training center; Fourth Pre-Conciliar Pan-Orthodox Conference in Chambesy, Switzerland mandates "Episcopal Assemblies" for various regions of the world, including North America ; Metr. [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] addresses inaugural assembly of [[w:Anglican Church in North America|Anglican Church in North America]]; agreement was announced between [[St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary (Crestwood, New York)|St. Vladimir's Seminary]] and [[w:Nashotah House|Nashotah House]]; OCA Holy Synod reestablishes dioceses for [[Diocese of Washington (OCA)|Washington]] and [[Diocese of New York and New Jersey (OCA)|New York and New Jersey]]; Apostolic and Patriarchal Visit to the U.S. of Ecumenical Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Batholomew I (Archontonis)]], meeting with the Orthodox Primates of the USA; Patr. Bartholomew I officially opened the 8th Religion, Science and the Environment ( RSE) Symposium, entitled '' “Restoring Balance: The Great Mississippi River, ”'' and is published in the Wall Street Journal in an op-ed piece entitled '' “[http:// online. wsj. com/ article/SB10001424052748704500604574485341504345488.html Our Indivisible Environment] ;”'' [[w: Manhattan Declaration: A Call of Christian Conscience| Manhattan Declaration: A Call of Christian Conscience ]] is issued, signed by more than 150 American religious leaders including Metr. [[Jonah (Paffhausen) of Washington and New York|Jonah (Paffhausen)]] and Bp. [[ Basil ( Essey) of Wichita]].
*[[Timeline of Orthodoxy in Japan]]
*[[Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations]]