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Raphael Morgan

2,044 bytes added, 00:58, July 27, 2009
edit note on Baptism (confirmed info); detail on ACV Cartier request; add to monastic tonsure section; tour in jamaica;
After some time, Robert again visited England for private study, and then America to work amongst the African-American community as a lay-reader. He was accepted as a Postulant and as candidate for the Episcopalian [[deacon]]ate. During the waiting period, Robert again returned to England to study at Saint Aiden's Theological College in [[w:Birkenhead|Birkenhead]], but prosecuted his studies at [[w:King's College London|King's College]] of the University of London.
 
Robert later said that he served five years in West Africa, of which he spent three years in missionary work.<ref>''The Daily Gleaner''. ''[http://www.joyousjam.com/fatherraphael/id10.html West Africa]''. October 9, 1901. p.7.</ref>
===Period in the Episcopal Church===
He returned to America, and on [[June 20]], 1895 was [[ordination|ordained]] as [[deacon]]<ref>Fr. Rapahel Raphael's name is listed given on a list of Black Episcopal ordinations as follows: ''"1895: Robert Josias Morgan, d. June 20, Coleman; deposed; went abroad and was made a priest in Greek Church."'' (Bragg, Rev. George F. (D.D.). ''Chapter XXXVI: Negro Ordinations from 1866 to the Present''. In: '''[http://www.archive.org/details/historyofafroame00brag History of the Afro-American group of the Episcopal church (1922)].''' Baltimore, Md.: Church Advocate Press, 1922. p.273.)</ref> by the Rt. Rev. [[w:Leighton Coleman|Leighton Coleman]],<ref>The ''New York Times''. ''[http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9D0DE1DF1639E333A25756C1A9649D946697D6CF Bishop Coleman of Delaware Dies].'' Sunday December 15, 1907. Page 13. (Obituary)</ref> Bishop of the [[w:Episcopal Diocese of Delaware|Episcopalian Diocese of Delaware]]. Robert was appointed honorary curate in St Matthews' Church in Wilminton, and procured a job as a teacher for a few public schools.
In 1898, the deacon Robert (Rev. R.J. Morgan) was transferred to the Missionary Jurisdiction of Ashville (now in western the [[w:Episcopal Diocese of Western North Carolina|Diocese of Western North Carolina]]). By the next year 1899 he was listed as being assistant minister at St . Stephen's Chapel in Morganton and St . Cyprian's Church in Lincolnton. <ref>Lumsden, Joy, MA (Cantab), PhD (UWI). ''[http://www.joyousjam.com/fatherraphael/id1.html Father Raphael: His Background and Career].'' September 29, 2007.</ref>
Between 1900 and 1905, Robert moved around much of the Eastern seaboard, serving in Delaware, Charleston (South Carolina), Richmond (Virginia), Nashville (Tennessee), until finally ending up in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. At some point during this period he joined an off-shoot of the Episcopalian Church, known as the ''"American Catholic Church",'' (''ACC'') , a sect founded by [[w:Joseph René Vilatte|Joseph René Vilatte]].<ref>The ''"American Catholic Church"'' (ACC) included the jurisdictions and groups which had come out of [[w:Joseph René Vilatte|Joseph René Vilatte's]] Episcopal ministry or were under his oversight. Among them were French and English speaking constituencies, and Polish and Italian ordinariates. The ACC began on August 20, 1894, at a synod held in Cleveland, Ohio, where Polish-speaking parishes joined the jurisdiction of Bishop Vilatte, however the ACC was actually incorporated in July 1915.</ref> He is listed in the records of the Episcopal Church of the USA as late as 1908, when he was suspended from ministry on the allegations of abandoning his post.
==Orthodoxy==
===Baptism and Ordination===
On [[August 2]], 1907 the Holy Synod approved that the Baptism take place the following Sunday in the ''Church of the Lifegiving Source'' at Valoukli. Metropolitan [[Joachim (Phoropoulos) of Pelagonia|Joachim]] was to officiate at the sacrament, and the [[Godparent|sponsor]] was to be Bishop Leontios (Liverios) of Theodoroupolis, Abbott of the Monastery at Valoukli. Robert was baptised "Raphael" before 3000 people; subsequently he was ordained a [[deacon]] on [[August 12]], 1907 by Metropolitan Joachim; and finally ordained a [[Presbyter|priest]] on the feast of the [[Dormition]] of the [[Theotokos]], [[August 15]], 1907.<ref>In a letter from the Chief Archivist of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, dated [[April 4]], 1973, it was confirmed that the records of the Patriarchate show that Morgan was baptized and renamed "Raphael". (Manolis, Paul G. ''Raphael (Robert) Morgan: The First Black Orthodox Priest in America''. '''Theologia: Epistēmonikon Periodikon Ekdidomenon Kata Trimēnian'''. (En Athenais: Vraveion Akadēmias Athēnōn), 1981, vol.52, no.3, pp.467.)</ref> According to the contemporary [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] periodical ''L'Echo d' Orient'', which sarcastically described Morgan's Baptism of triple immerson, the Metropolitan conducted the sacraments of Baptism and Ordination in the English language, following which Fr. Raphael chanted the [[Divine Liturgy]] in English.<ref>''Une Conquete du Patriarcat Oecumenique.'' ''' ''Echos d'Orient'' '''. Vol. XI. No.68, 1908, pp.55-56.</ref>
Fr. Raphael was sent back to America with vestments, a [[cross]], and 20 pounds sterling for his traveling expenses. He was allowed to hear [[Confession|confessions]], but denied [[Chrism|Holy Chrism]] and an [[antimension]], presumably to attach his missionary ministry to the Philadelphia church. The minutes of the Holy Synod from [[October 2]], 1907, made it clear in fact that Fr. Raphael was to be under the jurisdiction of Rev. Petrides of Philadelphia, until such time as he had been trained in liturgics and was able to establish a separate Orthodox parish.<ref>Manolis, Paul G. ''Raphael (Robert) Morgan: The First Black Orthodox Priest in America''. '''Theologia: Epistēmonikon Periodikon Ekdidomenon Kata Trimēnian'''. (En Athenais: Vraveion Akadēmias Athēnōn), 1981, vol.52, no.3, pp.468.</ref>
===Return to America===
Ellis Island records indicate the arrival in New York from Naples, Italy, of the priest, Raffaele Morgan, in December 1907.<ref>Lumsden, Joy. ''[http://jamaicanhistorymonth2007.moonfruit.com/#/father-raphael/4520858082 Robert Josias Morgan, aka Father Raphael].'' '''Jamaican History Month 2007.''' February 16, 2007.</ref> Once home, Fr. Raphael baptized his wife and children in the Orthodox Church. This is noted in the minutes of the Holy Synod of [[February 9]], 1908, which acknowledges receipt of a communication from Fr. Raphael.
The last mention of Fr. Raphael in Patriarchal records is in the minutes of the Holy Synod of [[November 4]], 1908, which cite a letter from Fr. Raphael recommending an Anglican priest of Philadelphia, named "A.C.V. Cartier",<ref>A.C.V. Cartier is listed on a list of Afro-American Priests as follows: ''"1895: Rev. A.C.V. Cartier, Denver Col."'' (Bragg, Rev. George F. (D.D.). ''Afro-American Clergy List. Priests''. In: '''[http://www.archive.org/details/afroamericanchur00bragiala Afro-American Church Work and Workers].''' Baltimore, Md.: Church Advocate Print, 1904. p.32.)</ref> as a candidate for conversion to Orthodoxy and ordination as a priest. Cartier was rector of the [http://www.aecst.org/home.htm African Episcopal Church of St. Thomas], in Philadelphia, from 1906-12. According to the letter, Cartier was also black and desired as an Orthodox priest to undertake missionary work among his fellow blacks. This Because the jurisdiction over the Greek Church of the [[diaspora]] had been ceded by the Ecumenical Patriarchate to the [[Church of Greece]] in 1908, the request was forwarded there. However according to Greek-American historian Paul G. Manolis, a search of the Archives of the Holy Synod of the Church of Greece did not turn up any correspondence with Fr. Raphael. His letter about A.C.V. Cartier is the only indication we have from Church records of Fr. Raphael's his missionary efforts among his people.<ref>Manolis, Paul G. ''Raphael (Robert) Morgan: The First Black Orthodox Priest in America''. '''Theologia: Epistēmonikon Periodikon Ekdidomenon Kata Trimēnian'''. (En Athenais: Vraveion Akadēmias Athēnōn), 1981, vol.52, no.3, pp.470-71.</ref>
In 1909, his wife filed for divorce, on the alleged charges of cruelty and failure to support their children. She left with their son Cyril to Delaware County, where she remarried.
===Monastic tonsureTonsure===In 1911 Fr. Raphael sailed to Cyprus, presumably to be tonsured a [[hieromonk]]. Possibly somewhere around this time, he founded the ''Order of the Cross of Golgotha'' (O.C.G.). However, Fr. Oliver Herbel ([[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|AOC]]) has suggested that in 1911 Fr. Raphael was [[Tonsure|tonsured]] in Athens.<ref>Fr. Oliver Herbel ([[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|AOC]]). ''[http://www.ocanews.org/Herbeljurisdiction4.22.09.html Jurisdictional Disunity and the Russian Mission].'' '''Orthodox Christians for Accountability'''. [[April 22]], 2009.</ref>As is noted above however, the Archives of the Holy Synod of the [[Church of Greece]] contained no information about Fr. Raphael.
===Lecture Tour in Jamaica===
Near the end of 1913, Fr. Raphael visited his homeland of Jamaica, staying for several month until sometime the next year. While there, he met a group of Syrians, who were complaining of a lack of Orthodox church on the island. Fr . Raphael did his best to contact the Syrian-American diocese of the Russian church, writing to St [[Raphael of Brooklyn]], but as most of their descendants are now communicants in the Episcopal Church, this presumably came to no avail. In December, a Russian warship came to port, and he concelebrated the [[Divine Liturgy ]] with the sailors, their chaplain, and his new-found Syrians.
The main work of his visit, however, was a lecture circuit that he ran throughout Jamaica. Citing a lack of Orthodox churches, Fr Raphael would speak at churches of various denomination. The topics would usually cover his travels, the Holy Land, and Holy Orthodoxy. At some point, he even made it to his hometown of Chapelton, to whom he remarked of his name change, "I will always be Robert to you".
 
The ''Jamaica Times'' article of April 26, 1913, wrote that Fr. Raphael was headquartered at Philadelphia where he wanted to build a chapel for his missionary efforts, that he had recently visited Europe to collect funds to this end, and had the intention of extending his work to the West Indies.<ref>''The Jamaica Times''. ''[http://www.joyousjam.com/fatherraphael/id1.html Only Negro Who is a Greek Priest].'' April 26, 1913.</ref>
===Last Known Records===
In 1916 Fr. Raphael was still in Philadelphia, appearing to have having made the Philadelphia Greek parish his base of operations.<ref>* Namee, Matthew. ''[http://orthodoxhistory.org/?p=244 The First Black Orthodox Priest in America].'' '''OrthodoxHistory.org''' (The Society for Orthodox Christian History in the Americas). July 15, 2009.</ref> The last documentation of Fr. Raphael comes from a letter to the ''Daily Gleaner'' on [[October 4]], 1916. Representing a group of about a dozen other like-minded Jamaican-Americans, he wrote in to protest the lectures of Black Nationalist Marcus Garvey. Fr. Raphael signed the letter as ''"Father Rapahel, O.C.G., Priest-Apostolic, the Greek-Orthodox Catholic Church."''<ref>The full text of the signed letter is printed in:<br>Robert A. Hill, Marcus Garvey, Universal Negro Improvement Association. ''Letter Denouncing Marcus Garvey.'' In: '''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=CKJrUKdSZwkC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: 1826-August 1919].''' University of California Press, 1983. pp.196-197.</ref> Garvey's views on Jamaica, they felt, were damaging to both the reputation of their homeland and its people. Garvey's response came ten days later, in which he called the letter a conspiratorial fabrication meant to undermine the success and favour he had gained while in Jamaica and in the United States.
Little is known of Fr. Raphael's life after this point, except from some interviews conducted in the 1970s between Greek-American historian Paul G. Manolis and surviving members of the [http://evangelismos.us/default.aspx Greek Community of the Annunciation] in Philadelphia, who recalled the black priest who was evidently a part of their community for a period of time. One elderly woman, Grammatike Kritikos Sherwin, remembered that Fr Raphael's daughter left to attend Oxford; another parishioner, Kyriacos Biniaris, recalls that Morgan, whose hand "he kissed many times", spoke broken Greek and served with Fr. Petrides reciting the liturgy mostly in English; whilst another, a George Liacouras, recalled that after serving in Philadelphia for some years, Fr. Raphael left for Jerusalem, never to return.<ref>Manolis, Paul G. ''Raphael (Robert) Morgan: The First Black Orthodox Priest in America''. '''Theologia: Epistēmonikon Periodikon Ekdidomenon Kata Trimēnian'''. (En Athenais: Vraveion Akadēmias Athēnōn), 1981, vol.52, no.3, pp.469.</ref> The [[Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America]] has no record either of Fr. Raphael Morgan, nor of Fr. Demetrios Petrides, as the first records for the Philadelphia community in the archives only began in 1918.
==Influence==
* Hill, Robert A., Marcus Garvey, Universal Negro Improvement Association. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=CKJrUKdSZwkC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers: 1826-August 1919].'' University of California Press, 1983. ISBN 9780520044562
* Mather, Frank Lincoln. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=RFZ2AAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s Who's who of the Colored Race: A General Biographical Dictionary of Men and Women of African Descent].'' University of Michigan. Gale Research Co., 1915.
* ''The Daily Gleaner''. ''[http://www.joyousjam.com/fatherraphael/id10.html West Africa]''. October 9, 1901. p.7.
* ''The Jamaica Times''. ''[http://www.joyousjam.com/fatherraphael/id1.html Only Negro Who is a Greek Priest].'' April 26, 1913.
* ''Une Conquete du Patriarcat Oecumenique.'' ''' ''Echos d'Orient'' '''. Vol. XI. No.68, 1908, pp.55-56.
:(''Publication of the Roman Catholic Uniate Assumptionist Fathers, located in Chalcedon'')
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