Since there are at least sixty-five Baptist bodies with no structured ecclesiology, it's hard to precisely define their doctrines. Nevertheless, there are some points common to all Baptists. For example, most adherents place strong emphasis on the independence of the individual person ("individual soul liberty"), independence of
the each church, affirmation of the believer's baptism, and distinctively American concepts such as freedom of religion and separation of church and state.
Orthodoxy disagrees with Baptists on:
Baptists firmly believe in sola Scriptura (Scripture alone). Properly understood, this is the concept of Scripture as a unified whole, utilizing literary
critism called "historical Biblical scholarship," which was pioneered in the late 19th century, while rejecting the previous two millennia of commentaries by the [[Holy Fathers]].
Orthodoxy, however, knows [[Holy Tradition]] to hold and interpret the [[Holy Scripture|Bible]] within itself.
Like all Protestants, Baptists reject the [[Deuterocanon|deuterocanonical]] books of the [[Old Testament]], considering them to be less than divinely inspired. Biblical inerrancy is yet another common heresy among fundamentalist Baptists.
Baptism, commonly referred to as believer's baptism among Baptists, is an ordinance that according to Baptist doctrine plays no role in salvation. That is, the act of baptism does not actually save a person or cleanse him from all his sins. Instead, it is merely an outward observance, properly performed only after salvation, which occurs when a person professes Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. This completely opposes Orthodoxy, which regards baptism as a real supernatural transformation, through which the believer dies and rises again with [[Jesus Christ|Christ]] in a very real manner.
Through Anabaptist influence, Baptists reject the practice of pedobaptism, or infant baptism, because they believe parents cannot make a decision of salvation for an infant. Related to this doctrine is the disputed concept of an "age of accountability" when God determines that a mentally capable person is accountable for their sins and eligible for baptism. In contrast, reason and mental capacity are not essential factors in either Orthodox baptism or [[Eucharist|Holy Communion]]. This "tradition" arose from the legalistic, overly rationalistic theology of the [[Roman Catholic Church]], which puts the rational intellect above all else, whereas Orthodoxy places the noetic faculty above all.