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Western Rite

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The '''Western Rite''' is a minority liturgical tradition within the Orthodox Church. Western Rite Orthodox Christians hold the full Orthodox faith in common with their brethren of the [[Byzantine Rite]] but celebrate Western forms of liturgy. Liturgical diversity, both between and within the East and West, was common before the [[Great Schism]], yet not as diverse as like in today's time. At present, all of the [[bishop]]s who care for such [[parish]]es are themselves followers of the Byzantine Rite.
==Modern History==
In 1876, Overbeck issued an appeal to the various Holy Synods, traveling to Constantinople in 1879. There he met the Ecumenical Patriarch, who authorized him to deliver sermons and create apologetical material. In 1881, he had some success when the Ecumenical Patriarchate agreed that the West had a right to a Western church and rite.
However, his successes did not establish the Western Rite. Overbeck's marriage after his Catholic ordination was a canonical impediment to his ordination to the Orthodox priesthood; the Holy Synod of Greece vetoed his scheme amongst Orthodox Churches, pressuring Constantinople to retract its previous endorsement; the ''Orthodox Catholic Review'' ended its run; and by 1892, he admitted failure. Overbeck reposed in 1905.
One Western Rite parish briefly entered communion with the Orthodox Church in the Nineteenth Century. In 1890, a Swiss Old Catholic parish in Wisconsin pastored by Fr. Joseph Rene Vilatte approached Bp. Vladimir (Sokolovsky) about being received into Orthodoxy. Bp. Bishop Vladimir received them on May 9, 1891; however, Fr. Vilatte got ordained as an archbishop was consecrated to the episcopacy by hierarchs of the Syrian Orthodox [[Church of Antioch ("Jacobite"Syriac) church |Syriac Orthodox Church]] in India, among them Metropolitan [[Julius of Goa|Alvares Mar Yulios]] of Goa, on 29 May 29, 1892, and . He eventually led his parish back into Old Catholicism.
===The Twentieth Century===
[[Image:Fon-du-Lac CircusAlexander_Turner.jpg|right|thumb|300px|Episcopalian Consecration of Reginald Weller as co-adjutor bishop of Fond-du-Lac, 1900Former Antiochian Western Rite Vicar General Fr. Alexander Turner celebrating Mass.]]
:''Main article: [[Western Rite in the Twentieth Century]]''
In 1911, Arnold Harris Mathew, an Old Catholic bishop, entered into union with the Patriarchate of Antioch but left the Church soon after. In 1926, the six-parish ''Polish Catholic National Church'' was received into the Polish Orthodox Church. It celebrated the Liturgy of St. Gregory, and flourished as Orthodox until wiped out by the Nazis. [] []
In 1995, the Church of Antioch also established a British Deanery to absorb converts from the Church of England. Not all of these parishes are Western Rite.
Western Rite Orthodoxy, in [[Orthodoxy in Australasia|Australia and New Zealand]], has arisen mostly from Anglican and Continuing Anglican communities. Archbishop Metropolitan [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion (Kapral) of Sydney]] of ROCOR received some communities under his omophorionomophor; while others have been received by Bishop [[Gibran (Ramlawey) of Australia and New Zealand|Gibran]] and Metropolitan Archbishop [[Paul (Saliba) of Australia and New Zealand|Paul]], both under the Church of Antioch.
Other small groups following the Western Rite have been received, but usually have either had little impact, or have declared their independence soon after their reception.
==Liturgy in the Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate==
North American Western Rite parishes in the Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate generally follow one of two types of traditional Western liturgical traditions (and sometimes both). The majority celebrate the [[Liturgy of St. Tikhon of Moscow]], which is commonly accepted to be an adaptation of the [[Eucharist|Communion]] service from the 1928 Anglican ''Book of Common Prayer'' and ''The Anglican Missal in the American Edition.''[] Until 1977, all Western Rite Vicariate parishes celebrated only the [[Liturgy of St. Gregory the Great]], which is a modified form of the [ so-called "Tridentine" Mass](that is, the Mass as revised and authorized by the Roman Catholic Council of Trent). Many parishes within the Western Rite Vicariate continue to celebrate the Gregorian liturgy. Since most AWRV parishes celebrate more than one weekly liturgy, many of the parishes that celebrate the Liturgy of St. Tikhon on Sunday celebrate the Liturgy of St. Gregory on weekdays.
The Western Rite liturgy, depending on its type, makes less use of the litanies than the Byzantine Rite. Celebrants wear distinctive Western vestments, and the faithful follow pious devotional customs particular to their tradition, as well.
By far the largest group of Western Orthodox parishes is represented by the [[Western Rite Vicariate]] of the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]. Other Antiochian Western Rite parishes exist in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand]].
The [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] (ROCOR) also has a small number of Western Rite parishes in addition to three monasteries: one located in Canada, one in Tasmania, and one in Florida. Missions and parishes of the ROCOR Western Rite use either the Rite of St. Gregory in one of varying uses (Sarum, Christminster, Mount Royal, or Overbeck), the Gallican Rite, or "The English Liturgy," an English Use service based upon the Sarum Use but which adapts a few elements of the 1549 ''Book of Common Prayer''. Christminster Monastery in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, is a Western Orthodox [[Rule of St. Benedict|Benedictine ]] monastery, which celebrates the Liturgy of St. Gregory. St. Petroc Monastery in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, celebrates the [[Sarum Use]]. St. Petroc has a number of dependencies that follow its liturgical usage, as found in the ''Saint Colman Prayer Book''.
Dom Augustine (Whitfield), the [[abbot]] of the Monastery of Mount Royal from 1963 until retirement, once remarked to St. [[John Maximovitch]] that it was difficult to promote Western Rite Orthodoxy, whereupon the saint replied: "Never, never, never let anyone tell you that, in order to be Orthodox, you must also be eastern. The West was Orthodox for a thousand years, and her venerable liturgy is far older than any of her heresies." []
[[Image:Confeitor.jpg|left|thumb|Hieromonk Aidan (Keller, ROCOR) celebrating a Sarum liturgy.]]
In 2008, Metropolitan [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion]] of ROCOR [ blessed] Hieromonk David (Pierce) to assist Dom Augustine Whitfield "in the continuation of the work of Mt. Royal" at Hieromonk David's monastery, Holyrood, in Florida. Hieromonk David utilizes the propers used in ordinary compiled by Mount Royal monastery, and is preparing for publication of the Eastern Archdiocese books of the [[Holy Synod of Milan]]Mount Royal use.
In late 2008, Metropolitan Hilarion recieved in received a hieromonk of the Milan Synod, Father Aidan (Keller), and blessed the publication of an a new edition of his seminal work, ''Old Sarum Rite Missal'' for his personal prayers, while he serves a Byzantine parish in ROCOR. His liturgy had previously been blessed by the Western Archdiocese of the [[Milan Synod]].
Western rite communities can also be found which are notor, or are no longer, in communion with the mainstream [[Orthodox Church]].
The [[Orthodox Church of France]] was once cared for by St. [[John Maximovitch]] and later by the [[Church of Romania]]—also uses a Western Rite liturgy based on ancient Gallican liturgical materials, with some Byzantine supplements. The Orthodox Church of France currently functions as an independent body, and is not in communion with the [[List of autocephalous and autonomous churches|mainstream Orthodox Church]].
==See also==
* [[Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate]]
* [[Sarum Rite]]
* [[Gallican Rite]]
* [[Christ the Savior Monastery (Providence, Rhode Island)|Christ the Savior Monastery]], Canada
* [[Vestments]]
* [ St. Columba of Iona Orthodox Monastery (USA, Massachusetts)]
==External links==
* [ Orthodox Western Rite Central Resource on WordPress]
* [ Western Orthodoxy]
* [ The Unofficial Western Rite Orthodoxy Website]
* [ Christ the Savior Monastery ROCOR Rhode Island]
* [ Worldwide directory of canonical Western Rite Orthodox communities]
* [http://memberswww.coxstgregoryoc.netorg/frnicholaslinks/parishes.htm western-rite-parish-directory/ Antiochian Western Rite Parishes] (North America, with links to parish sites)* [ ROCOR Western-rite Communities] (ROCOR Western-rite Communities homepage with Links to parishes)
*[http://memberswww.aolstgregoryoc.comorg/FrNicholasarticle/the-divine-liturgy.htm -according-to-the-rite-of-saint-gregory/ Text of the Liturgy of Saint Gregory]
*[ Text of the Liturgy of Saint Tikhon], though not in its authorized form.
*[ Text of the Sarum Rite Liturgy] as corrected for use within [[ROCOR]] by His Grace Archbishop Hilarion
*[ Office and Prayers of the Oblates of St. Benedict] (PDF) - Western Rite oblates.
*[ Liturgical Texts Project] (PDF) - Compilation of numerous liturgical texts.
*[ The Ordinary and Canon of the Mass], according to the Rite of St. Gregory of Great, revised 2012 translation blessed for use by Metropolitan Philip of the Antiochian Archdiocese of North America.
*[ The Order of the Divine Liturgy According to the Restored Ancient Roman Rite of St. Gregory the Great], authorized by the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia]].
*[ The Liturgy of the English Church], approved for Orthodox usage by the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia]].
*[ The Ordinary of the Sarum Liturgy], approved for Orthodox usage by the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia]].
*[ The Canonical Mass of the English Orthodox], by Dr. Raymond Winch, Third Edition. An academic reconstruction of the pre-schism English usage of the ancient Roman Rite.
* ''[ Children of the Promise: An Introduction to Western Rite Orthodoxy]'', by Fr. Michael Keiser. ISBN 9781418475826
* ''[ Offering the Lamb: Reflections on the Western Rite Mass in the Orthodox Church]'', by Fr. Michael Keiser. ISBN 9781425970819
* ''[ Liturgies of the Western Church]'', by Prof. Dr. Bard Thompson. ISBN 9780800614287
* ''[ The Ancient Liturgies of the Gallican Church]'', by Rev. J. M. Neale, 1855. ''(In Latin with some English notes)''
===Introduction and History===<!--

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