It should also be noted that there are a number of churches that call themselves "Orthodox" and use various Western rites but who are not in communion with or related to the mainstream [[Orthodox Church]].
The [[Orthodox Church of France]] was once cared for by St. [[John Maximovitch]] and later by the [[Church of Romania]]—also uses a Western Rite liturgy based on ancient Gallican liturgical materials, with some Byzantine supplements. The Orthodox Church of France currently functions as an independent body, and is not
recognized by or in communion with the [[List of autocephalous and autonomous churches|mainstream Orthodox Church]].
In addition, the [[Holy Synod of Milan]], an [[Old Calendarist]] group not in communion with the [[List of autocephalous and autonomous churches|mainstream Orthodox Church]], has a number of communities (under the central direction of the monastery and Archdiocesan center, the [[The Abbey of the Holy Name (West Milford, New Jersey)|Abbey of the Holy Name]]) which worship according to Western rites, including its own version of the [[Sarum Use]]. This recension is different from the version of the Sarum Rite used within ROCOR before 2008.