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Western Rite

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The '''Western Rite''' is refers to those churches that are full and equal members of the Orthodox Church yet follow a strand Western form of Orthodox Christian worship based on . Liturgical diversity, both between and within the liturgical traditions of East and West, was common before the ancient pre-[[Great Schism|Schism]] Orthodox Church of the West. Western Rite Orthodox Christians hold in common the full Orthodox faith with their brethren of the [[Byzantine Rite]], and at present, all of the [[bishop]]s who care for such [[parish]]es are themselves followers of the Byzantine Rite.
==Modern History==
===The Nineteenth Century===
:''Main article: [[Western Rite in the Nineteenth Century]]''
In 1864, 44-year-old [[Joseph Julian Overbeck]], was [[chrismation|chrismated]] into the [[Orthodox Church]]. Overbeck was a former German [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] priest from Germany who had left the priesthood, after becoming disillusioned with papal supremacy, . He became Lutheran and later married, was [[chrismation|chrismated]] into before joining the [[Orthodox Church]]. He then published, in In 1866, he published ''Catholic Orthodoxy and Anglo-Catholicism'' , which contained the groundings for his work for the next twenty years. A year later, be began publishing a periodical, ''Orthodox Catholic Review'', aimed at putting forward Orthodoxy and rejecting Catholicism and Protestantism.
The year 1867 saw Overbeck, with 122 signatures from the Oxford Movement, petition the Church of Russia for the establishment of a Western Rite church in full communion with the Eastern Rite. A seven-member synodal commission was then formed, and invited Overbeck to attend. The idea was approved, and Overbeck set about submitting a draft of the proposed Western liturgy. The base of Overbeck's submission was , which added an epiclesis and the Trisagion hymn to the so-called "Tridentine " [[Mass]]" of 1570, which added in an epiclesis and the Trisagion hymn. This rite was submitted in 1871, and was examined and approved by the commission. Overbeck focused his efforts on the Old Catholic movement, who had rejected Papal Infallibility. He continued to engage in polemics with Catholics, Anglicans, and Orthodox converts using the Byzantine riteRite.
In 1876, Overbeck issued an appeal to the various Holy Synods, travelling traveling to Constantinople in 1879. There he met the Ecumenical Patriarch, who authorised authorized him to deliver sermons and apologeticscreate apologetical material. In 1881, he had some success was had when the Ecumenical Patriarchate agreed that the West had a right to a Western church and rite.
However, it went no furtherhis successes did not establish the Western Rite. Overbeck's marriage after his Catholic ordination was a canonical impediment to his ordination the Orthodox priesthood, ; the Holy Synod of Greece vetoed his scheme amongst the Orthodox Churches, pressuring Constantinople to retract its previous endorsement; the ''Orthodox Catholic Review'' ended its run, ; and by 1892 , he admitted failure due to the Church of Greece of the time. Overbeck reposed in 1905. One Western Rite parish briefly entered communion with the Orthodox Church in the Nineteenth Century. In 1890, a Swiss Old Catholic parish in Wisconsin pastored by Fr. Joseph Rene Vilatte approached Bp. Vladimir (Sokolovsky) about being received into Orthodoxy. Bp. Vladimir received them on May 9, 1891; however, Fr. Vilatte got ordained as an archbishop by the Syrian Orthodox ("Jacobite") church on May 29, 1892, and eventually led his parish back into Old Catholicism.
===The Twentieth Century===
[[Image:Fon-du-Lac Circus.jpg|right|thumb|300px|Episcopalian Consecration of Reginald Weller as co-adjutor bishop of Fond-du-Lac, 1900.]]
:''Main article: [[Western Rite in the Twentieth Century]]''
The Western Rite continued. In 1890, a Swiss Old Catholic parish in Wisconsin, pastored by Fr Joseph Rene Vilatte, was received by Bp. Vladimir (Sokolovsky); however, Fr. Vilatte soon led the church into the Syrian Orthodox ("Jacobite") church, then back into Old Catholicism. In 1911, Arnold Harris Mathew, an Old Catholic bishop, entered into union with the Patriarchate of Antioch, but parted ways left the Church soon after. In 1926, the six-parish ''Polish Catholic National Church'' was received into the Polish Orthodox Church. It celebrated the Liturgy of St. Gregory, and flourished as Orthodox until wiped out by the Nazis. [] []
St. Tikhon's involvement in the Western Rite has been one more enduring. While he was Bishop bishop of the Russian mission in America, some Episcopalians were interested in the possibility of joining Orthodoxy while retaining some form of the Anglican liturgicsliturgy. St. Tikhon, sending sent the 1892 Book of Common Prayer to the Holy Synod, asked asking about the possibility, as well as the circumstances under which they would permit this. According to Fr. Edward Hughes, St. Raphael of Brooklyn composed the letter of inquiry. In 1904, the Holy Synod admitted its possibility, including edits necessary for its use in an Orthodox manner. It concluded that such edits "can be carried out only on the spot, in America," and found it "desirable to send the 'Observations' themselves to the Right Rev. Tikhon, the American Bishop." Between communications, the Episcopalians who had petitioned withdrew. Thus, St. Tikhon could not receive any Episcopalians before returning to Russia in 1907. However, his involvement lay the groundwork for the reception and liturgics approved liturgy of some parishes in the [[Western Rite Vicariate]] [] and later the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia|Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia (ROCOR)]].
There has been a significant [[Orthodox Church of France|Western Rite movement in France]], the largest remaining group thereof being the ''Union des Associations Cultuelles Orthodoxes de Rite Occidental'' (UACORO - the Union of Western Rite Orthodox Worship Associations).
====The United States====
The Antiochian Archdiocese received has presided over the most stable and successful group of Western Rite parishes, . The Archdiocese received the [[Society of Clerks Secular of St. Basil]], in 1961. Upon reception, they the SSB became the [[Antiochian Western Rite Vicariate]], and their leader, [[Alexander Turner]], becoming an Orthodox priest and the Vicar-General of the Vicariate until 1971. At his repose, Fr . Paul W.S. Schneirla became Vicar-General. On January 1, 2009, Fr. Schneirla retired, and Fr. Edward Hughes became Vicar-General of the Western Rite.
Besides the parishes that were in the former Society, other parishes have been received into the Western Rite Vicariate of the Antiochian Archdiocese, especially because of the theological and practical devolution of the The Episcopal Church U.S.A(TEC). Added to this, several Western Rite missions have been founded, some growing into full parish status.
The Church of Russia received a New York Old Catholic community in 1962 as Mount Royal Monastery, which later moved from Woodstock, New York, to St. Nicholas Cathedral in New York City under Archbishop John (Wendland) of the Russian Exarchate of North America. In 1975, this community was received by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, under Archbishop Nikon (Rklitzsky) of ROCOR and was again relocated. In 1993, after the retirement of the Abbot, Dom Augustine (Whitfield) of Mount Royal, the prior of Mount Royal, Fr . James (Deschene) was blessed to found Christ the Saviour Monastery ("Christminster" colloquially) in Rhode Island, under Bishop [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion of Manhattan]] (since transferred). As of 2007 , Christminster relocated to Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Its present abbot is Dom [[James (Deschene)|James Deschene]].
In 1995, the Church of Antioch also established a British Deanery to absorb converts from the Church of England. Not all of these parishes are Western Rite.
Western Rite Orthodoxy, in [[Orthodoxy in Australasia|Australia and New Zealand]], has arisen mostly from Anglican and Continuing Anglican communities. Archbishop [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion (Kapral) of Sydney]], of ROCOR, received some communities under his omophorion; while others have been received by Bishop [[Gibran (Ramlawey) of Australia and New Zealand|Gibran]] and Metropolitan Archbishop [[Paul (Saliba) of Australia and New Zealand|Paul]], both under the Church of Antioch.
Other small groups following the Western Rite have been received, but usually have either had little impact, or have declared their independence soon after their reception.
Some The [[Oriental Orthodox]] churches also have some Western Rite parishes are also in the Oriental Orthodox churches. The Syrian patriarchate of Antioch consecrated Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvarez as Archbishop of Ceylon, Goa , and India in 1889, authorizing a Roman rite diocese under him; in 1891, the Syrians consecrated the aforementioned Joseph René Vilatte as archbishop for the American Old Catholics.
North American Western Rite parishes generally follow one (or sometimes both) of two types of traditional Western liturgical traditions(and sometimes both). The majority celebrate the [[Liturgy of St. Tikhon of Moscow]], which is commonly accepted to be an adaptation of the [[Eucharist|Communion]] service from the 1928 Anglican ''Book of Common Prayer'' and ''The Anglican Missal in the American Edition,.'' as their Sunday liturgy.[] Until 1977, all Western Rite Vicariate parishes celebrated only the [[Liturgy of St. Gregory the Great]], which is a modified form of the [ so-called "Tridentine version of the " Mass of Rome, familiar to Roman Catholics before the liturgical reforms of Vatican II in the 1960s]. Many parishes within the Western Rite Vicariate continue to celebrate the Gregorian liturgy. However, Since most WRV AWRV parishes celebrate more than one weekly liturgy, and many of the Tikhonite parishes that celebrate the Liturgy of St. Tikhon on Sunday celebrate the Gregorian liturgy Liturgy of St. Gregory on weekdays. The complete Roman rite of Benediction is also authorized.
The Western Rite liturgy, depending on its type, makes less use of the litanies than the Byzantine Rite. (Pre-schism Western liturgies in fact do take advantage of litanies during the Eucharist). Celebrants wear distinctive Western vestments, and the faithful follow pious devotional customs particular to their tradition, as well.
The development of the current use within the [[Western Rite Vicariate]] is of particular note:
By far the largest group of these Western Orthodox parishes is represented by the [[Western Rite Vicariate]] of the [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America]]. Other Antiochian Western Rite parishes exist in the [[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand]].  The [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] (ROCOR) also has a small number of Western Rite parishes in addition to three monasteries, one located in Canada, on in Tasmania, and one in Florida. Missions and parishes of the ROCOR Western Rite use either the Rite of St. Gregory in one of varying uses (Sarum, Christminster, Mount Royal, or Overbeck), the Gallican Rite, or "The English Liturgy," an English Use service based upon the Sarum Use but which adapts a few elements of the 1549 ''Book of Common Prayer''. Christminster Monastery in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, is a Western Orthodox Benedictine monastery, which celebrates the Liturgy of St. Gregory. St. Petroc Monastery in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia, celebrates the [[Sarum Rite]]. St. Petroc has a number of dependencies that follow its liturgical usage, as found in the ''Saint Colman Prayer Book''.  Dom Augustine (Whitfield), the [[abbot]] of the Monastery of Mount Royal from 1963 until retirement, once remarked to St. [[John Maximovitch]] that it was difficult to promote Western Rite Orthodoxy, whereupon the saint replied: "Never, never, never let anyone tell you that, in order to be Orthodox, you must also be eastern. The West was Orthodox for a thousand years, and her venerable liturgy is far older than any of her heresies." []
The In 2008, Metropolitan [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside RussiaHilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion]] (of ROCOR) also has a small number of [ -Rite parishes -Orthodox-News.html blessed] Hieromonk David (Pierce) to assist Dom Augustine Whitfield "in addition to two monasteriesthe continuation of the work of Mt. Royal" at Hieromonk David's monastery, Holyrood, one located in Tasmania and another in CanadaFlorida. This blessing includes the celebration of the Mt. The formerRoyal recension of liturgy, the "Holyrood/St. Petroc Monastery' Sarum on High Feasts, uses the " and [[Sarum occasional celebration]] liturgy in English. Missions and Parishes of the ROCOR Western Rite use either the Byzantine Rite of St. Gregory Some have stated on rare occasions he uses propers once used in one the Eastern Archdiocese of varying uses (Sarum, Christminster, Mount Royal, or Overbeck), the Gallican rite, or "The English Liturgy[[Holy Synod of Milan]]," an English Use service based upon the 1549 Anglican ''Book although no quotation of Common Prayer'' but incorporating certain elements of the Sarum Usehis to this effect has been produced.
Dom Augustin (Whitfield)In late 2008, the [[abbot]] Metropolitan Hilarion also gave a former hieromonk of the Monastery of Mount Royal from 1963 until retirementMilan Synod, once remarked to St. Father [[John MaximovitchAidan (Keller)]] that it was difficult , a blessing to promote Western use his own translation of the ''Old Sarum Rite Orthodoxy, whereupon the saint replied: "Never, never, never let anyone tell you thatMissal'' for his personal prayers, while he serves a Byzantine parish in order to be Orthodox, you must also be easternROCOR. The West was Orthodox for a thousand years, and her venerable His liturgy is far older than any had previously been blessed by the Western Archdiocese of her heresiesthe Milan Synod." []
It should also be noted that there are a number of groups who follow various Western rites, so-called, and may call themselves Orthodox but are not part of or in communion with the historic [[Orthodox Church]].
The [[Orthodox Church of France]] was once cared for by St. [[John Maximovitch]] and later by the [[Church of Romania]]—also uses a Western Rite liturgy based on ancient Gallican liturgical materials, with some Byzantine supplements. The Orthodox Church of France currently functions as an independent body, and is not recognized by or in communion with the [[List of autocephalous and autonomous churches|mainstream Orthodox Church]].
In addition, the [[Holy Synod of Milan]], an [[Old Calendarist]] group outside of not in communion with the [[List of autocephalous and autonomous churches|mainstream Orthodox Church]], has a number of communities (under the central direction of the monastery and Archdiocesan center, the [[The Abbey of the Holy Name (West Milford, New Jersey)|Abbey of the Holy Name]]) which worship according to Western rites, including a restored pre-schism its own version of the [[Sarum Use]] (which differed slightly different from the single version of the [[Sarum Rite]] used within ROCOR before 2008; currently there are three different versions of the Sarum Rite in use in ROCOR.)
In 2008, a former hieromonk of the Milan Synod, Father [[Aidan (Keller)]], was blessed by Metropolitan [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion]], [[ROCOR]] First Hierarch, to use his own translations of the pre-schism [[Sarum Use]], found in the ''Old Sarum Rite Missal'' as previously blessed and used by the Western Archdiocese of the Milan Synod. Additionally, the uses of the Eastern Archdiocese of the [[Holy Synod of Milan]] appear to have been blessed by Metropolitan [[Hilarion (Kapral) of New York|Hilarion of New York]] for use in ROCOR from October 2008.
:''Main article: [[Western Rite Criticism]]''
The Western Rite in the Orthodox Church is not without its critics. Objections are made in regards to desire for liturgical uniformity within Orthodoxy and fears that the Western Rite vicariates or similar Western Rite practices have produced a para-ecclesiastic organization would produce division within the Church. Some question the sincerity of Western Rite parishes converts, just as all or mostly-convert groupssome question the conversions of those within the Byzantine Rite. Finally, some complain about a lack of organic liturgical continuity for the , or will not attend a Western Rite troubles some Orthodox Christians[[Eucharist]]Whether the Western Rite will survive in the However, no Orthodox Church and be accepted by parish may deny the majority who follow Eucharist to visiting faithful of the Byzantine canonical Western Rite remains yet to be seen. In the meantime, regardless of their feelings about the Byzantine Rite bishops who oversee concept of Western Rite parishes—and many who oversee Orthodoxy. There have been no Western Rite parishes—continue to declare their Western flocks to be Orthodox Christians and regard them as fully in communion with schisms within the rest episcopacy of the Orthodox Churchregarding the issue of Western Rite parishes.
On Whether the other hand, some Byzantine Western Rite will grow in its acceptance by Orthodox Christians do not recognize who follow the Orthodoxy of those in the Western Byzantine Rite (despite their being under remains to be seen. In the jurisdiction of Byzantine Rite bishops with whom they themselves are in communion)meantime, and will not attend the [[Eucharist]] at Orthodox bishops who oversee Western Rite parishes, declaring them to be "Roman Catholics," "[[schism]]atics," or "reverse [[Uniates]]." However, —and many who oversee no Orthodox parish may deny the Eucharist to visiting faithful of the canonical Western Rite, regardless of parishes—continue to declare their feelings about the concept of Western Rite Orthodoxy. There have been no schisms within flocks to be true Orthodox Christians and regard them as fully in communion with the episcopacy rest of the Orthodox Church regarding the issue of Western Rite parishes.
==See also==
*[ Text of the Divine Liturgy according to Saint Germanus of Paris]]
*[ Text of the Liturgy of Saint Gregory]
*[ Text of the Liturgy of Saint Tikhon], though not in its authorized form.
*[ Text of the Sarum Rite Liturgy] as corrected for use within [[ROCOR]] by His Grace Archbishop Hilarion
*[ Text of the English Liturgy]*[ Text of the Divine Liturgy according to Saint Germanus of Paris]]
*[ Office and Prayers of the Oblates of St. Benedict] (PDF) - Western Rite oblates.
*[ Liturgical Texts Project] (PDF) - Compilation of numerous liturgical texts.
* ''[ Children of the Promise: An Introduction to Western Rite Orthodoxy]'', by Fr. Michael Keiser. ISBN 9781418475826
* ''[ Offering the Lamb: Reflections on the Western Rite Mass in the Orthodox Church]'', by Fr. Michael Keiser. ISBN 9781425970819
===Introduction and History===<!--
*[ Video] of Dom James Deschene celebrating Midnight Mass for Christmas 2009 at the Oratory of our Lady of Glastonbury, the chapel attached to Christminster Monastery.
*[ Video] on the Western Rite from St. Paul Orthodox Church, Houston, Texas
* [ Occidentalis] - maintained by Subdn. Benjamin Andersen (WRV), this blog is a source for this OrthodoxWiki entry. (permission required)
* [ Western Orthodoxy] - Breaking news and views on the Western Rite.
* [ Oremus - Roman Rite in the Orthodox Church]* [ Western Rite Critic]
* [ Western Rite Orthodoxy]: Discussion of Western Rite Orthodoxy, focusing the [[Western Rite Vicariate]] (Antiochian). Most active participants are members of the Antiochian WRV.
* [ The Ely Forum]: "Dedicated to the theological and liturgical heritage of The Church in the British Isles, the ancient Patriarchates of the Undivided Church and the restoration of our genuine heritage of Orthodox Christianity in the West. A place of sane, sensible, lively, discussion between Christian gentlemen." Founded by Fr. Michael of St. Petroc Monastery (ROCOR).
* [ Occidentalis]: Dedicated to exploring genuine pre-schism Western Orthodoxy; moderated promoting the ''Old Sarum Rite Missal'', written by Hieromonk Aidan (Keller) of the ROCORgroup's moderator.
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