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==Orthodoxy and Islam==
The rise of Islam presented a major challenge to Orthodoxy. Beginning in the seventh century, major portions of the Orthodox heartlands (in Syria and Egypt) fell under Muslim rule. By the fifteenth century, most traditionally Orthodox lands were controlled either by Muslim or Roman Catholic rulers, with the exception of northeastern Russia (the Grand Principality of Moscow) and the Ethiopian highlands. The Orthodox generally accepted rule by non-Orthodox governments, provided that freedom of worship was guaranteed. In Ottoman lands, governed under the ''[[w:Millet (Ottoman Empire)|millet]]'' system (by which people were grouped by religion rather than nationality), Orthodox bishops also served as ''Ethnarchs'' (political rulers of their communities).<ref>Dr. Catharine Cookson, (J.D., Ph.D., 1952-2004). [http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&id=R0PrjC1Ar7gC&dq=encyclopedia+or+religious+freedom&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=8wJLZH8mcI&sig=CpzOJuISIQXQRgEowBQe-iz1QO8&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom]. Published by Taylor & Francis, 2003. pp.313.</ref>
==Further Reading== * Alvin J. Schmidt. ''The Great Divide: The Failure of Islam and the Triumph of the West.'' Regina Orthodox Press, 2004. ISBN 9781928653196 * Dr. N.L. Geiser and Abdul Saleeb. ''Answering Islam: The Crescent in Light of the Cross''. 2nd edition. Baker Publishing, 2002. ISBN 9780801064302 * Bat Ye'or. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=C2GgHl9Rls0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22Decline+of +Eastern+Christianity+under+Islam%22&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude: Seventh-Twentieth Century]''. Translated by Miriam Kochan. Published by Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1996. 522pp. ISBN 9780838636886 * Fr. (Dr.) Theodore Pulcini. ''Face to Face: A Guide for Orthodox Christians Encountering Muslims''. Light and Life Pub Co. * George Weigel. ''Faith, Reason, and the War Against Jihadism: A Call to Action. '' Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 9780385523783 * Nahed Mahmoud Metwalli. ''Islam Encounters Christ: A Fanatical Muslim's Encounter with Christ in the Coptic Orthodox Church.'' Transl. by Gamal Scharoubim. Light & Life Pub Co., 2002. ISBN 9781880971758 * Philip H. Lochhaas. ''How to Respond to Muslims .'' Concordia Publishing House, 1995. ISBN 9780570046776 * Serge Trifkovic. ''Defeating Jihad''. Regina Orthodox Press, 2006. 480pp. ISBN 192865326X * The Orthodox Christian-Muslim Symposium. ''Orthodox Christians and Muslims''. Edited by Fr. N.M. Vaporis. Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Brookline, Massachusetts, 1986. ISBN 0917651340
* Michael Coren. [http://network.nationalpost.com/np/blogs/fullcomment/archive/2008/10/23/michael-coren-the-jihad-on-egypt-s-christians.aspx Michael Coren: The Jihad on Egypt's Christians]. The National Post, Canada, October 23, 2008.
* Directions to Orthodoxy. [http://directionstoorthodoxy.org/mod/news/view.php?article_id=232 Eritrea Imposes New Controls on Orthodox Church]. 26 Dec, 2006.