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Orthodoxy and Islam; Further reading section.
Islam has three primary branches of belief, based largely on a historical disagreement over the succession of authority after Muhammad's death. These are known as Sunni, Shi'ite, and Kharijite.
==Orthodoxy and Islam==
The rise of Islam presented a major challenge to Orthodoxy. Beginning in the seventh century, major portions of the Orthodox heartlands (in Syria and Egypt) fell under Muslim rule. By the fifteenth century, most traditionally Orthodox lands were controlled either by Muslim or Roman Catholic rulers, with the exception of northeastern Russia (the Grand Principality of Moscow) and the Ethiopian highlands. The Orthodox generally accepted rule by non-Orthodox governments, provided that freedom of worship was guaranteed. In Ottoman lands, governed under the ''[[w:Millet (Ottoman Empire)|millet]]'' system (by which people were grouped by religion rather than nationality), Orthodox bishops also served as ''Ethnarchs'' (political rulers of their communities).<ref>Dr. Catharine Cookson, (J.D., Ph.D., 1952-2004). [ Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom]. Published by Taylor & Francis, 2003. pp.313.</ref>
==Further Reading==
* Alvin J. Schmidt. ''The Great Divide: The Failure of Islam and the Triumph of the West.'' Regina Orthodox Press, 2004. ISBN 9781928653196 * Dr. N.L. Geiser and Abdul Saleeb. ''Answering Islam: The Crescent in Light of the Cross''. 2nd edition. Baker Publishing, 2002. ISBN 9780801064302* Bat Ye'or. ''[ The Decline of Eastern Christianity Under Islam: From Jihad to Dhimmitude: Seventh-Twentieth Century]''. Translated by Miriam Kochan. Published by Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1996. 522pp. ISBN 9780838636886* Fr. (Dr.) Theodore Pulcini. ''Face to Face: A Guide for Orthodox Christians Encountering Muslims''. Light and Life Pub Co. * George Weigel. ''Faith, Reason, and the War Against Jihadism: A Call to Action.'' Doubleday, 2007. ISBN 9780385523783 * Nahed Mahmoud Metwalli. ''Islam Encounters Christ: A Fanatical Muslim's Encounter with Christ in the Coptic Orthodox Church.'' Transl. by Gamal Scharoubim. Light & Life Pub Co., 2002. ISBN 9781880971758* Philip H. Lochhaas. ''How to Respond to Muslims.'' Concordia Publishing House, 1995. ISBN 9780570046776 * Serge Trifkovic. ''Defeating Jihad''. Regina Orthodox Press, 2006. 480pp. ISBN 192865326X * The Orthodox Christian-Muslim Symposium. ''Orthodox Christians and Muslims''. Edited by Fr. N.M. Vaporis. Holy Cross Orthodox Press, Brookline, Massachusetts, 1986. (ISBN 0917651340)
==Orthodoxy and IslamSee also==
* [[A History of Orthodox Missions Among the Muslims]]
* Saints of the Orthodox Church who converted from Islam: St. [[Serapion of Kozheozero]], St. [[Constantine Hagarit]], St. [[Ahmed the Deftedar]], St. [[Abu of Tbilisi]], St. [[Peter and Stephan of Kazan]].
* [[Zakaria Botros]]
* [[Roman Silantyev]]
* [[Ottoman rule and Eastern Christianity]]
==External Links==
* [ Orthodoxy and Islam] at Orthodox Christian Information Center.
* [ St. John of Damascus' Critique of Islam]. Orthodox Christian Information Center.
* [,1518,437587,00.html "Islam is a Different Culture"]. SPIEGEL ONLINE: Interview with [[w:Walter Kasper|Cardinal Walter Kasper]], September 18, 2006.
* Directions to Orthodoxy. [ Eritrea Imposes New Controls on Orthodox Church]. 26 Dec, 2006.
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* Dr. Catharine Cookson, (J.D., Ph.D., 1952-2004). [ Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom]. Published by Taylor & Francis, 2003. 555 pp.

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