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Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Jerusalem)

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[[Image:Holy Sepulchre exterior.jpg|right|thumb|400px|Exterior of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre]]
The '''Church of the Holy Sepulchre''', <ref>"Sepulchre" or "sepulcher" means "burial vault." From the Latin "sepulchrum." Based on "sepultus," meaning "to bury the dead."</ref> called '''Church of the Resurrection''' (''Anastasis'') by Eastern Christians, is a large Christian church within the Old City of Jerusalem. The ground the church rests on is venerated by many Christians as [[Golgotha]], <ref>"Golgotha" in [[Aramaic]], based on the Hebrew word "Golgoleth" which means "skull," refers to a hill where the burial site of Jesus&mdash;the Church of Holy Sepulchre, in the Christian sector of the old city of Jerusalem. As in Matthew 27:33: "And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull." The meaning of the name may be either due to the practice of burying the skull. It can also refer to a rock that looks like a skull.</ref> the Hill of Calvary <ref> "Calvary" ([[w:Calvaria (skull)|calvaria]]) comes from the Latin for "skull" and is the name of the hill where Jesus was crucified and buried. Luke 23:33: "And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him..."</ref> where the [[New Testament]] records that Jesus Christ was crucified. It also contains the place where Jesus was buried (the sepulchre). The church has been an important [[pilgrimage]] destination since the 4th century, and the portions of it administered by the Orthodox are in the care of the [[Church of Jerusalem]]. The Church commemorates the founding of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on [[September 13]]. 
==History==
The initial building was founded by [[Constantine the Great]] in 335, after he had removed a pagan temple on the site that was possibly the Temple of Aphrodite built by Hadrian. Constantine had sent his mother St. [[Helen]] to find the site; during excavations she is said to have discovered the [[True Cross]]. The church was built around the excavated hill of the Crucifixion, and was actually three connected churches built over the three different holy sites, including a great basilica (the ''[[Martyrium]]'' visited by the nun [[Egeria]] in the 380s), an enclosed colonnaded atrium (the ''Triportico'') built around the traditional Rock of Calvary, and a rotunda, called the ''Anastasis'' ("Resurrection"), which contained the remains of the cave that St. Helen and St. [[Makarios Macarius I of Jerusalem|Macarius]], [[Patriarch of Jerusalem]], had identified with the burial site of Jesus. The surrounding rock was cut away, and the Tomb was encased in a structure called the ''Edicule'' (from the Latin ''aediculum'', small building) in the center of the rotunda. The dome of the rotunda was completed by the end of the 4th century.
This building was damaged by fire in 614 when the Persians under [[w:KhosrauII|Khosrau II]] invaded Jerusalem and captured the Cross. In 630, Emperor [[Heraclius]], who had captured the Cross from the Persians, marched triumphantly into Jerusalem and restored the True Cross to the rebuilt Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
[[Image:Holy Sepulchre iconostasis.jpg|left|thumb|300px|The iconostasis in the Orthodox [[katholikon]]]]
Under the Muslims it remained a Christian church, unlike many other churches, which suffered destruction or conversion into mosques. The early Muslim rulers protected the city's Christian sites, prohibiting their destruction and their use as living quarters, but after a riot in 966, where the doors and roof were burnt, the original building was completely destroyed on [[October 18]], 1009, by the "mad" Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacked out the church's foundations down to bedrock. The east and west walls and the roof of the Edicule were destroyed or damaged (contemporary accounts vary), but the north and south walls were likely protected by rubble from further damage.
However, after a peace treaty between the Byzantine emperor [[w:Romanos III|Romanos III]] and the caliphate, the church is was gradually rebuilt between 1024 and 1048. In 1048, a series of small chapels was erected on the site by [[Constantine IX Monomachos]] under stringent conditions imposed by the caliphate. The rebuilt sites were taken by the knights of the [[First Crusade]] on [[July 15]], 1099. Crusader chief Godfrey of Bouillon, who became the first "king of Jerusalem," decided not to use the title "king" during his lifetime, and declared himself ''Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri'', "Protector (or Defender) of the Holy Sepulchre." The chronicler William of Tyre reports reported on the reconstruction. The Crusaders began to renovate the church in a Romanesque style and added a bell tower. These renovations , which unified the holy sites , were completed during the reign of Queen Melisende 50 years later in 1149. The church was also the site of the kingdom's scriptorium. The church was an inspiration for churches in Europe like Santa Gerusalemme in Bologna and the "Round Church" of Cambridge, England.
After defeating the crusadorscrusaders, [[w:Saladin|Saladin]] brings brought down the Cross and turns turned the church into a mosque (from 1187-to 1190). After an agreement with the Byzantine emperor [[W:Isaac II Angelos|Isaac II Angelos]], Saladin gives gave the church back to the christiansChristians; by 1390 a number of new repairs are were made to the church.
Until the [[w:Fall of Constantinople|fall of Constantinople]] in 1453, the orthodox patriarchs Orthodox Patriarchs kept the keys of the church. This law, by Patriarch Dorotheos, was renewed by Sultan [[w:Suleiman the magnificent|Suleiman]] in 1517. With the new law of Suleiman, they keys were given to a Muslim family in 1545. During this period the canopy of the Holy Sepulchre is was also repaired.
In 1545 Patriarch Germanos adds added a small dome to the church , and the Franciscan monks renovated it further in 1555, as it had been neglected despite increased numbers of pilgrims. During 1719-1720 the church is reparied was repaired further by the orthodox Orthodox and also the Catholics.
In 1808, the Armenians set the church on fire, which severely damaged the structure, causing the dome of the Rotunda rotunda to collapse and smashing the Ediculeedicule's exterior decoration. The Rotunda rotunda and the Ediculeedicule's exterior were rebuilt in 1809 and 1810 by collections of the orthodox Orthodox people world wide and worldwide, especially from by the Greek architect [[W:Komnenos|Komnenos]] Mitilineos.
In 1834 and 1836, two earthquakes damage damaged the church. The repairs from this damage begin began in 1867-1869 after a great delay , but the temple dome is finally renovated through the assistance of the Russians, the French and the Turkish. The 1808 fire did not reach the interior of the Ediculeedicule, and the marble decoration of the Tomb tomb dates mainly to the 1555 restoration. The current dome dates from 1870.
In more recent times, the small dome was destroyed in 1927 from by an earthquake and registering 6.3 on the situation was disappointingRichter scale. In 1931-33 the church was rebuilt through the financial assistance of the Greek State. In 1948 the big dome of the Church is hit was damaged and is repaired within the same year. By 1958, after an agreement of between the three churches of Kerusalem Jerusalem (the Greeks, the Armenians , and the Catholics), extensive modern renovations beginbegan, including a rebuilding of the big dome (1978-1985) and a redecoration of the big dome (1994-1997). In 1995 the exterior of the dome of the Katholikon is katholikon was repaired with copper , and restoration works continue until this to the present time.
Several Christian communions cooperate (sometimes acrimoniously) in the administration and maintenance of the church and its grounds, under a fiat of ''status quo'' that was issued by the Sublime Porte in 1852, to end the violent local bickering. The three, first appointed when Crusaders held Jerusalem, are the [[Orthodox Church|Orthodox]], the [[Church of Armenia|Armenian Apostolic]] and [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] churchesChurches. These remain the primary custodians of the church. In the 19th century, the [[Church of Alexandria (Coptic)|Coptic Orthodox]], the [[Church of Ethiopia|Ethiopian Orthodox]] and the [[Church of Antioch (Jacobite)|Syrian Orthodox]] acquired lesser responsibilities, which include shrines and other structures within and around the building. An agreement regulates times and places of worship for each communion. For centuries, two neutral neighbour neighboring Muslim families appointed by Saladin, the Nuseibeh and Joudeh families, were the custodians of the key to the single door.
When a fire broke out in 1840, dozens of pilgrims were trampled to death. On June 20, 1999, all the Christian communions who share control agreed in a decision to install a new exit door in the church.
==The Brotherhood Layout of the Church of the Holy SepulchreResurrection==The Patriarch Church of the Holy Sepulchre is located in the Christian quarters of Jerusalem leads the old city, on the west side. The church can be approached through a gate from the St. Helena alley. *'''Exterior Courtyard''Brotherhood ' - Through the gate of the St. Helena alley there is a large open courtyard outside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. On the north side of this yard are two main doors; the left door is the '''. This "brotherhoodHoly Entrance" constitutes all metropolitans'', archbishops, bishops, archimandrites, priestswhich leads into the church, monks and deacons belonging to the patriarchateright entrance has been permanently blocked. The purpose On either side of the courtyard are a few small chapels. During Holy Week this group is the location where pilgrims gather to guide orthodox Christians see the Patriarchate of Jerusalem, and other jurisdictions, hold a traditional ceremony of the washing of the feet, in honour of Christ's washing the feet of his apostles and disciples before his crucifixion. *'''The Holy Land and advocate Entrance''' is the main door into the Church of the Orthodox faithHoly Sepulchre. Within There is a tiny secondary door built into this main door; the keys for the door are kept by a Muslim family, established in 1520 AD by the brotherhoodSultan Suleiman. A ritual ceremony has been handed down, there is another subgroup called involving the opening and closing of the "guards"church every day since then. The guards doors are a specific group surrounded by three marble columns on either side. In 1549, the left marble column was torn when the Holy Light came through it instead of monks coming from the Holy Tomb of Christ inside the church; that year, Sultan Murat had forbidden Patriarch Sofronios IV to go into the church to celebrate the ceremony of the Resurrection, at the request of the Armenian patriarch. Sofronios, the clergy, and all the faithful stood outside the main doors and prayed and chanted the service&mdash;the Armenian patriarch left embarrassed and the sultan issued a ''[[Monastery firman]]'' that recognised the authority of Stthe Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Constantine  *'''The Holy Anointing''':''Then took they the body of Jesus, and Helen wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury'' (Jerusalem[[Gospel of John|John]] 19:39-40, ''see also'' [[Gospel of Matthew|Matthew]] 27:57-59)|Monastery . :Immediately upon entering, the church opens up to the southern hall. On the floor lies the '''Stone of Stthe Anointing''' or '''Unction'''. Constantine According to tradition, this is the spot where the church commemorates the preparation of the body of Christ for burial by [[Joseph of Arimathea]] and Helen[[Nicodemus the Righteous|Nicodemus]], after he was removed from the cross. Christ's body was anointed with myrrh and aloes and wrapped in a clean linen cloth for the burial according to the Jewish tradition of those days.  :The slab is made from limestone marble and dates to 1808, replacing the previous 12th century slab when it was destroyed. The ownership of the slab is shared between the four main Christian churches. Over the marble slab hang large opulent lamps that have been donated by the Armenians, Greeks, Copts, and Latins. These monks are given On the specific role outside wall of guarding the '''Chapel Catholicon''', behind the stone, is a large mosaic depicting the anointing of Christ for burial. *'''Latin calvary''':''... and he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the SepulchreHebrew Golgotha''(John 19:17). ''... and when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him ...'' ([[Gospel of Luke|Luke]] 23:33). :To the right of the ''Stone of the Anointing'' are a series of steep stairs that lead up to the second floor&mdash;the Tomb tip of Golgotha. The first room is the place where Christ) and defending was nailed to the faithcross. There will always be at least one guardian within This chapel is a Catholic Franciscan altar dedicated to the Nailing of the Cross (Station 11 of the ''Via Dolorosa''). *The '''Rock of Golgotha'Chapel '' ("Greek Calvary"):''... and they crucified him ...'' (Matthew 27:35) :Adjacent to this chapel is the second room&mdash;the Greek Orthodox Calvary&mdash;the spot where Christ was crucified and covers the actual Rock of Golgotha. For the other Christian Churches this is also known as Station 12 of the Angel''Via Dolorosa''. They ensure respectable The entire rock can be seen through the glass covering on either side of the altar, and appropriate conduct beneath the altar is shown by a small opening that allows [[pilgrim]]s to touch the rock. *The '''chapel of [[Adam]]''' is located immediately beneath Golgotha. This is a small area of worship that used to be known as the "Area of the Skull" and also the chapel of "Melchizedek." In accordance with tradition, the name of 'skull' and 'Adam' is derived from the fact that this is the spot where they found the skull and relics of Adam. The theology of the Orthodox Church believes that this location is not a coincidence since the purpose of the crucifixion is directly connected to the story of Adam and his expulsion from Eden. Having found the bones of Adam underneath Golgotha symbolises the cleansing of the bones of the man who committed the first sin by the blood of Christ dripping down from the cross. *The '''Chapel of the Crowning of the Thorns''' or "Derision" (Greek) is located at the Tomb base of Golgotha, immediately to the right. There is a small fragment of the column, brought from the Prison of Christ, where the soldiers put on Christ a purple robe and a crown of thorns (cf. John 19:2).  *The order '''Chapel of St. Helen''', also known to the Armenians as the Armenian Chapel of St. Gregory, is considered located at the base of the 29 stairs near the ''Crowning of the Thorns''. Inside the chapel is her throne and the pilgrim of the good thief; an large area has been preserved that has the original mosaic from the church. *The '''Chapel of St. Vartan''' (Armenian) can be accessed through a continuation door on the original north side of the Chapel of St. Helen. In the 1970s, this area was discovered and excavated and the findings include remnants of walls built by Hadrian in the second century. One of these walls has a stone etched with a merchant ship and an inscription "DOMINE IVIMVS"Significantwhich translates " groupLord, established well we shall go." It is estimated that this stone dates from before the completion of the Byantine church, ca. 330 AD. This chapel is locked and not normally available to the public. *The '''Chapel of the Finding of the Cross''', according to tradition, is the area where St. Helendiscovered the True Cross during the course of the Church's visit excavations around 330 AD. She discovered three crosses. To discern which of the three crosses belonged to Christ, and which belonged to the thieves, a sick man was brought to touch each one in 326turn. He was miraculously healed by only one and this is the one that has since been distributed to all Christian Patriarchates across the world.
==Current configuration of the Holy Sepulchre==[[Image:Tomb of Christ.jpg|right|thumb|350px|*The Tomb '''Chapel of [[Jesus Christ]]]]In the center Division of the Holy Sepulchre Church, underneath the largest dome Robe''' (recently renovatedArmenian), lays the Holy Sepulchre itself. This temple is used by all the [[Orthodox Church|Greeks]], [[Roman Catholic Church|Latins]] and [[Oriental Orthodox|Oriental Orthodox]]. It is a red granite edifice, with a large number of giant candlesticks in the front of it. The Armenians, the Latins and the Greeks all serve Liturgy or Mass daily inside the Holy Sepulchre. It is used for the Holy Saturday ceremony of the [[Holy Fire]], which is celebrated by the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem. To its rear, within an ironwork cage-like structure, lies the altar used by the Coptic Orthodox. Past that, inside a rear, very rough hewned chapel, the [[Church of Antioch (Jacobite)|Syriac Orthodox]] celebrate their [[liturgy|liturgies]] on Sundays. To the right of the sepulchre is the Roman Catholic area, which consists of a large square chapel and another private chapel for the Franciscan monks. Immediately in the front of the Sepulchre is what would be the main area of the church for the congregation, which has been walled off and used by the Orthodox. It features a large [[iconostasis]], and two thrones for the superior and the [[Patriarch]]. Past that, there is the entrance area, which features the stone of annointing which Jesus' dead body is believed to have been prepared for burial upon. Up the stairs to the right of that area, is the most lavishly decorated part of the church, the chapel where Jesus is believed to have been crucified. This area is run by the Orthodox, while the Roman Catholics have an altar to the side. Additionally, there is a subterranean chapel which is run by the Armenians, which commemorates the finding of the [[True Cross]]. :John 19:24
In the 19th century, a number *The '''Chapel of scholars disputed the identification Division of the church with the actual site of JesusRobe'''s crucifixion and burial. They reasoned that is the Church was inside location at which the city walls, while early accounts soldiers parted His raiment amongst themselves and casted lots for his vesture (''e.gcf.'', [[Epistle to the Hebrews|Hebrews]] 13John 19:1224) described these events as outside the city walls. On the morning after his arrival in Jerusalem, Charles George Gordon selected a rock-cut tomb in a cultivated area outside the walls as a more likely site for the burial of Jesus. This site is usually referred to as the Garden Tomb to distinguish it from the Holy Sepulchre.
However, the city walls had been expanded by Herod Agrippa in 41-44 and only then enclosed the site *The '''Chapel of the Holy SepulchreSt. To quote Longinus'''' (Greek) is dedicated to Longinus the Israeli scholar Dan BahatCenturion ([[October 16]]), former City Archaeologist of Jerusalem::"We may not be absolutely certain that a Roman soldier who served in Judea under the site command of the Holy Sepulchre Church is the site of Jesus' burial, but we have no other site that can lay a claim nearly as weightygovernor, and we really have no reason to reject headed the authenticity group of the sitesoldiers escorting Christ to Golgotha (cf." (1986Matthew 27:54).
==Layout of the Church of the Resurrection=====Exterior Courtyard===Each year, during the Holy Week services, the Patriarchate of Jerusalem and its Bishops hold a traditional ceremony of the washing of the feet, in honour of Christ washing the feet of his apostles before his crucifixion.===*The Holy Entrance==='''The Holy EntrancePrison of Christ''' is the door into the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. There is a secondary door built into this main door, which is sealed. They keys for the door are kept by a Muslim family, established in 1520 AD by the Sultan Suleiman. A ritual ceremony has been handed down, involving the opening and closing of the church every day since then. The doors are surrounded by 3 marble columns either side. In 1549, the left marble column was torn when the Holy Light came through it instead of coming from the Tomb of small dark area where those crucifying Christ inside the church; that year, sultan Murat had forbiden Partiarch Sofronios IV to go into the church to celebrate the ceremony of the Resurrection, at the request of the Armenian patriarch. Sofronion, the clergy and all the faithful stood outside the main doors and prayed and chanted the service - the Armenian patriarch left embarrassed and the sultan issued a firman that recognised the authority of the Greek Orthodox patriarchate of Jerusalemput him temporarily before crucifying him.
===*The Holy Annointing==='''Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene'''[Matthew 27: 57-59] ''... and [John 19Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Jesus beheld where he was laid'' (Mark 15:39-40]47).
Immediately upon entering :On the Church north side of the Resurrection lies the Rotunda, there is a small Franciscan chapel called "'''Stone of the Unction'Mi mou aptou''" ("Touch me not") dedicated to St. This is the spot which commemorates the preparation of the body of Christ for burial by [[Joseph of Arimathea]] and [[NicodemusMary Magdalene]]. In accordance with the tradition, after he was removed from Mary of Magdala accompanied Jesus on his way to the cross. Christ's body was annointed with myrrh and aloes burial and wrapped in a clean linen cloth for the burial. The current slab, circular marble plaque that is made from limestone marble at this spot marks the location where she and dates Mary beheld where he was laid but also the spot where Christ appeared to 1808, replacing the previous 12th century slab when it was destroyedMary Magdalene after his resurrection (cf. The ownership of the slab is shared between the four main Christian churchesJohn 20:11-17). Over This chapel belongs to the marble slab hang large opulent lamps that have been donated by the Armenians, Greeks, Copts Catholic Church and Latins. On the outside wall of the Catholiconis named "''Mi mou aptou'', behind the stone, is a large mosaic depicting the annointing " in honour of Christ for burial's words.
===Latin calvary===To the right of the Stone of the Unction are a series of steep stairs that lead up to the Golgotha. The first room, is the place where Christ was nailed to the Cross. This chapel is a Catholic Franciscan altar dedicated to the Nailing of the Cross (Station 11 of the Via Dolorosa).===Rock of Golgotha ("Greek Calvary")===Adjacent to this chapel, is the second room of Golgotha. The Greek Orthodox Calvary is the spot where Christ was crucified and covers the actual Rock of Golgotha. For the other Christian churches this is also known as Station 12 of the Via Dolorosa. The entire rock, can be seen through the glass covering on either side of the altar, and beneath the altar is a small opening that allows a [[pilgrim]]s to touch the rock.===The chapel of [[Adam]]===The chapel of Adam is located immediately beneath Golgotha. This is a small area of worship that used to be known as the "Area of the Skull" and also the chapel of "Melchizedek". In accordance with tradition, the name of 'skull' and 'Adam' is derived from the fact that this is the spot where they found the skull and relics of Adam. The theology of the Orthodox church believes that this location is not a coincidence since the purpose of the crucifixion is directly connected to the story of Adam and his expulsion from Eden. Having found the bones of Adam underneath Golgotha symbolises the cleansing of the bones of the man who committed the first sin by the blood of Christ dripping down from the cross.===Chapel of the Crowning of the Thorns "Derision" (Greek)===*The Chapel of the '''Crowning of the ThornsSyrian chapel''', or Derision, is located at on the base east end of Golgotha, immediately to the right. There is a small fragment Church of the column, brought from the Prison of Sepulchre. This area was used for burials in Christ, where the soldiers put on Christ a purple robe and a crown of thorns's time. [John 19:2]
===Chapel of St. Helen===* The '''Chapel of St. Helen"Catholicon"''', also known as is the Armenian Chapel main Orthodox church facing the Tomb of StChrist. Gregory, It is located at a large rectangular building with a basilica dome. In the base middle of the 29 stairs near church is the "navel of the earth" which symbolises the ''Crowning spiritual centre of the Thorns''Earth (cf. [[Book of Ezekiel|Ezekiel]] 38:12). Inside The church has two Patriarchal thrones: the chapel left throne is her throne and for the pilgrim Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and the good thief; an large area has been preserved that has throne on the original mosaic from right is for the churchOrthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem.
===Chapel of St. Vartan (Armenian)===*The Chapel of St. Vartan can be accessed through a door small '''Coptic chapel''' is located on the north west side of the Chapel of St. Helen. In the 1970s, this area was discovered and excavated and the findings include remnants of walls built by Hadrian in the 2nd century. One of these walls has a stone etched with a merchant ship and an inscription "DOMINE IVIMVSedicule" which translates "Lord we shall go". It is estimated that this stone dates from before the completion of the Byantium church, ca. 330 AD. This chapel is locked and not normally available to the public.===Chapel of the Finding of the Cross===According to the tradition of the church, this is the area where St. Helen discovered the True Cross during the course of the Churches excavations around 330AD. She discovered three crosses. To discern which of the three crosses belonged to Christ, and which belonged to the thieves, with a sick man was brought separate entrance to touch each one in turn. He was miraculously healed by only one and this is the one that has since been distributed to all Christian Patriarchates across the world.===Chapel of the Division of the Robe (Armenian)===The '''Chapel of the Division of the Robe''' is the location where the soldiers parted His raiment amongst themselves and casted lots for His vesturechapel. [John 19:24]
===Chapel of St. Longinus (Greek)===*The '''Chapel of St. Longinusthe Angel''' is dedicated immediately outside the Tomb of Christ; the first room inside the "edicule." According to Longinus ([[October 16]]) tradition, the altar that is in this room contains a stone which is part of a larger stone that was rolled away from Christ's tomb on the day of the Centurion, resurrection. On this stone is an imprint of a Roman soldier who served in Judea under hand; it is believed to be the command imprint of one of the Governor, angels who sat on the stone and headed announced the group resurrection. There is always a Greek monk in this room who "guards" the Tomb of soldiers escorting Christ to Golgothaand who symbolically represents this angel. (Matthew 27:54)
===Prison of ChristThe Holy Sepulchre chapel==='''[[Image:Tomb of Christ.jpg|right|thumb|350px|The Prison Tomb of [[Jesus Christ]]]]In the center of the Holy Sepulchre Church, underneath the largest dome (recently renovated), lies the Holy Sepulchre itself, the "Heart" of the Sepulchre. This temple is used by all the [[Orthodox Church|Greeks]] (Orthodox), [[Roman Catholic Church|Latins]] and [[Oriental Orthodox|Oriental Orthodox]]. It is a red granite edifice, with a large number of giant candlesticks in the front of it. The Armenians, the Latins, and the Greeks all serve Liturgy or Mass daily inside the Holy Sepulchre. It is used for the Holy Saturday ceremony of the [[Holy Fire]], which is celebrated by the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem. To its rear, within an ironwork cage-like structure, lies the altar used by the Coptic Orthodox. Past that, inside a rear, very rough-hewn chapel, the [[Church of Antioch (Jacobite)|Syriac Orthodox]] celebrate their [[liturgy|Liturgies]] on Sundays. To the right of the sepulchre is the Roman Catholic area, which consists of a large square chapel and another private chapel for the Franciscan monks. Immediately in the front of the Sepulchre is what would be the main area of the church for the congregation, which has been walled off and used by the Orthodox. It features a large [[iconostasis]], and two thrones for the superior and the [[Patriarch]]. Past that, there is the entrance area, which features the stone of anointing which Jesus''' dead body is a small dark believed to have been prepared for burial upon. Up the stairs to the right of that area , is the most lavishly decorated part of the church, the chapel where those crucifying Christ put Him temporarily before crucifying HimJesus is believed to have been crucified. This area is run by the Orthodox, while the Roman Catholics have an altar to the side. Additionally, there is a subterranean chapel which is run by the Armenians, which commemorates the finding of the [[True Cross]].
===Chapel In the 19th century, a number of scholars disputed the identification of the church with the actual site of StJesus' crucifixion and burial. They reasoned that the church was inside the city walls, while early accounts, e. g., [[Mary MagdaleneBook of Hebrews|Hebrews]]===Also known 13:12, described these events as outside the chapel of "Mi mou aptou" (touch me not)city walls. In accordance with Latin tradition, the circular marble plaque that is at this spot marks On the location where Christ appeared to Mary Magdalene morning after His resurrection (John 20his arrival in Jerusalem, 11Charles George Gordon selected a rock-17)cut tomb in a cultivated area outside the walls as a more likely site for the burial of Jesus. This chapel belongs site is usually referred to as the Garden Tomb to distinguish it from the Catholic church and is named "Mi mou aptou", in hounour of Christ's wordsHoly Sepulchre.
===Syrian chapel===The Syrian chapel is located on However, the east end of city walls had been expanded by Herod Agrippa in 41-44 and only then enclosed the Church site of the Holy Sepulchre. This area was used for burials in Christ's time. To quote the Israeli scholar Dan Bahat, former City Archaeologist of Jerusalem:===The :"Catholicon"==='''The Catholicon''' is We may not be absolutely certain that the main orthodox church facing site of the Tomb of Christ. It Holy Sepulchre Church is a large recangular building with a basilica dome. In the middle site of Jesus' burial, but we have no other site that can lay a claim nearly as weighty, and we really have no reason to reject the church is the "navel authenticity of the earthsite" which symbolises the spiritual centre of the Earth(''Biblical Archaeology Review'', May/June 1986, p.<ref> Exekiel 38:12 </ref>. The church has two Patriarchal thrones, the left throne is for the Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch; and the throne on the right is for the Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem).
===Coptic chapel===
The small Coptic chapel is located on the west side of the "edicule" with a separate entrance to the chapel.
===Chapel of the Angel===
The Chapel of the Angel is immediately outside the Tomb of Christ; the first room inside the "edicule". According to tradition, the altar that is in this room contains a stone and it is believed that it is part of a larger stone that was rolled away from Christ's tomb on the day of the Resurrection. On this stone is an imprint of a hand, it is believed that this imprint is the imprint of one of the Angels who sat on the stone and announced the Resurrection. There is always a Greek monk in this room who "guards" the Tomb of Christ who symbolically represents this Angel(s).
===The Holy Sepulcher chapel===
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==The yearly miracle of the Holy Light==
:''Main article: [[Holy Fire]]''
Each year on the day before [[Pascha]], an awe-inspiring event takes place in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. At noon of the Holy Saturday, the [[Church of Jerusalem|Patriarch of Jerusalem]] with his escort - &mdash;archpriests, priests , and deacons &mdash;and the Armenian Patriarch enter the Holy Sepulchre. After finishing prayers, a miraculous light appears--; the [[Patriarch]] of [[Jerusalem]] lights two candles from it, then exits the sepulchre and lights the candles of the non-Chalcedonian patriarchs outside. Others' candles light spontaneously. For the first several minutes from the fire's appearance, it does not burn to the touch , and many pilgrims immerse their faces and hands in the flame without being harmed.  Known as the Holy Light, or [[Holy Fire]], this miracle has been occurring in this same place since at least the fourth century, if not earlier. In 1579, when the Orthodox patriarch had been shut out of the sepulchre by the Turkish authorities and an Oriental Orthodox patriarch, the holy fire split open a column outside the church to reach the Orthodox patriarch and believers. The split column is still part of the church. Several other incidents (including two 11th century Roman Catholic priests who received God's punishment for attempting to obtain the Holy Fire for themselves) attest to the miracle's antiquity and authenticity.<ref>[http://www.holyfire.org/eng/index.htm Description of the Miracle of Holy Fire that happens every year in Jerusalem]</ref>
Known as There is another version of the Holy Lightstory. After Prince Ibrahim Pasha, Mohammed Ali Pasha's son, or had conquered [[Holy FireJerusalem]]and Syria in the year 1832 A.D., this miracle has been occuring he invited the [[Coptic]] [[Pope]] [[Peter VII (Mankarius) of Alexandria|Peter VII]] to visit Jerusalem and attend to the service of the appearance of the light on Bright Saturday from the Sepulchre of the Lord Christ in Jerusalem as the Greek Orthodox [[Patriarch]]s did every year. The Pope accepted the invitation, and when he arrived, he was received with honor and reverence and he entered Jerusalem with a great procession and a splendid celebration, in which the governor, the rulers and the heads of the different Christian Churches participated. He realized with his wisdom that if he ministered alone in the Holy Sepulchre that would cause animosity between the Copts and the Greeks. The Pope asked the Pasha to relieve him from this same place since at least service, but he asked him to participate with the Greek Patriarch on the condition that he would be their third, for he doubted the authenticity of the light. On Bright Saturday the church of the Holy Sepulchre was crowded with the fourth centuryworshipers, if not earlierand the Pasha ordered the people to evacuate the church to the spacious outer courtyard. When the time to start the service came the two Patriarchs and the Pasha entered the Holy Sepulchre to pray the customary prayers. In 1579the specific time, when the Orthodox patriarch had been shut light burst out of the sepulchre by Sepulchre in a way that terrified the Turkish authorities Pasha, who became dazed and an Oriental Orthodox patriarchconfused, and the holy fire split open a column Pope attended to him until he recovered. The people outside in the courtyard were not deprived from the blessing of the light since one of the pillars of the western gate of the church split and the light appeared to reach them from the pillar. This incident increased the Orthodox patriarch reverence and believers. The split column is still part respect of the churchPope before the Pasha. Several other incidents (including two 11th century Roman Catholic priests who received God's punishment for attempting to obtain His holiness the Pope made many repairs and renovations in the Holy Fire for themselves) attest to church of the miracle's antiquity and authenticityresurrection. <ref>[http://www.holyfirecopticchurch.orgnet/engsynaxarium/indexg_4_6_2006.htm Holyfire.org html#2 The Departure of Pope Peter (engPetros)VII, the One Hundred and Ninth Patriarch]Coptic Orthodox Synaxarium</ref>This is of course the version of the copts who don't admit the orthodox one but it is obviously much later than it.
Another version (probably) ==The Brotherhood of the above story reads as follows. After prince Ibrahim Pasha, Mohammed Ali Pasha's son, had conquered [[Jerusalem]] and Syria year 1832 A.D., he invited the [[Coptic]] [[Pope]] [[Peter VII (Mankarius) Holy Sepulchre==The Patriarch of Alexandria|Peter VII]] to visit Jerusalem and attend to leads the service Brotherhood of the appearance of the light on Bright Saturday from the Holy Sepulchre . This brotherhood consists of the Lord Christ in Jerusalem as the Greek Orthodox [[Patriarch]]s did every year. The Pope accepted the invitationall metropolitans, archbishops, bishops, and when he arrivedarchimandrites, he was received with honor and reverence and he entered Jerusalem with a great procession and a splendid celebrationpriests, in which the governormonks, the rulers and deacons belonging to the heads patriarchate. The purpose of the different Christian denominations participated. He realized with his wisdom that if he minister alone this group is to guide Orthodox Christians in the Holy Sepulcher that would cause animosity between the Copts Land and advocate the GreeksOrthodox faith. The Pope asked Within the Pasha to relieve him from this servicebrotherhood, but he asked him to participate with there is another subgroup called the Greek Patriarch on "guards." The guards are a specific group of monks from the condition that he will be their third, for he doubted the authenticity Holy [[Monastery of the lightSs. On Bright Saturday the church Constantine and Helen (Jerusalem)|Monastery of the Holy Sepulchre was crowded with the worshipers, the Pasha ordered the people to evacuate the church to the spacious outer courtyardSs. When the time to start the service came the two Patriarchs Constantine and the Pasha entered the Holy Sepulcher to pray the customary prayersHelen]]. In These monks are given the specific time, role of guarding the light burst out Chapel of the Sepulcher in a way that terrified Sepulchre (the Pasha, who became in a daze and confusion, tomb of Christ) and defending the Pope attended to him until he recoveredfaith. The people outside in the courtyard were not deprived from the blessing of the light since There will always be at least one of guardian within the pillars Chapel of the western gate of the church split Angel. They ensure that respectable and appropriate conduct is shown by [[pilgrim]]s at the light appeared to them from the pillartomb of Christ. This incident increased the reverence and respect The order is considered a continuation of the Pope original group, established well before the PashaSt. His holiness the Pope made many repairs and renovations Helen's visit in the church of Resurrection. [http://www.copticchurch.net/synaxarium/g_4_6_2006326.html#2 Source: Coptic Orthodox Synaxarium]
==References==
*Bahat, Dan (1986). "Does the Holy Sepulchre church mark the burial of Jesus?", ''Biblical Archaeology Review'' '''12'''(3) (May/June) 26-45.*Biddle, Martin (1999). ''The Tomb of Christ''. Phoenix Mill: Sutton Publishing. (ISBN 0-7509-1926-4)*J. Patrich, ''The Early Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Light of Excavations and Restorations'', Yosam Tsifiir, Eded., Ancient Churches Revealed, Isreal Israel Exploration Society, Jerusalem, 1993. (ISBN 965-221-016-1)<references/>
==External links==
*[http://www.holysepulchrechurchoftheholysepulchre.com/ net Church of the Holy Sepulchrefacts and information for visitors]: Visitor information and detailed history of the building.*[http://www. jerusalemexperience.com/category/jerusalem-church/ Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem]: Floorplan and images (Sacred Destinations Travel Guide)*[http://wwwocafs.trekkeroca.co.il/englishorg/israel-sepFeastSaintsViewer.htm asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=102593 Commemoration of the Founding of the Church of the Resurrection (Holy Sepulchre) at Jerusalem] ([[OCA]]: Photos)*[http://www.historychanneltrekker.co.comil/classroomenglish/unesco/jerusalem/about_sepulchreisrael-sep.html History Channel site]: htm Church of the Holy Sepulchre- Jerusalem Travel Information]*[http://home.infionline.net/~ddisse/egeria.html Itinerarium Egeriae] Egeria's description in the 380s]*[http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/1631/cohs_history.html James E. Lancaster, "A brief history of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre"]*[http://www.holylandphotos.org/browse.asp?s=1,2,6,19,321 Photos of the Church of the Holy SepulchreSepulcher]Holy Land Photos*[http://www.orthodoxphotos.com/Holy_Land/Holy_Sepulchre_Church/index.shtml The Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church Photosor Sacred Tomb] - from Orthodoxphotos.com*[http://ocafswww.ocabiblewalks.orgcom/Sites/FeastSaintsLifeSepulcher.asp?FSID=102593 Commemoration of the Founding of the html BibleWalks: Church of the Resurrection (Holy Sepulchre) ] Photo album'''World headlines'''*[http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=662901 ''Christian fist fight at JerusalemHoly Sepulchre''] 08:29 AEST Mon Nov 10 2008. ninemsn.*[http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/mfaarchive/1990_1999/1999/9/the%20tomb%20of%20christ The Tomb of Christ]. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 5 September, 1999.  [[Category:Churches|Holy Sepulchre]] - [[OCACategory: Churches in Palestine|Holy Sepulchre]] website
[[fr:Église de la Résurrection (Jérusalem)]]
[[ro:Biserica Sfântului Mormânt]]
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