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Orthodoxy in the Philippines

4,294 bytes added, 02:17, October 3, 2019
Updated info on the Russian Orthodox Diocese of the Philippines with external links.
This article seeks to be a clearinghouse of information and links regarding the history and state of '''[[Orthodox Christianity]] in the Philippines'''. The current Orthodox presence in the Philippines is minimal. However, early in the 20th century a small Russian parish served émigrés in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. The presence of this Russian parish ceased to exist after the Second World War. Another Orthodox parish under the [[jurisdiction]] of the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] was founded in Manila during the early 1990s.
The current Orthodox presence in the Philippines is minimal. However, early in the 20th century a small Russian parish, exclusively for Russian nationals, once existed in Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. The presence of this Russian parish ceased to exist after the Second World War. Another Orthodox parish under the [[jurisdiction]] of the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] was founded in Manila during the early 1990s. == The beginnings Beginnings of Christianity in the Philippines ==
[[Image:Magellan's_Cross.jpg‎|left|thumb|Replica of Magellan's cross planted in Cebu in 1521]]Christianity was first introduced to the Philippines in the 16th century by Spain, when the Philippines became its colony. Until the Philippine Revolution of 1896, it was illegal for any non-[[Roman Catholic]] church to establish itself in the Philippines. The Archbishop of Manila served as both representative of the Spanish Inquisition and, during the absence of the governor-general, the Spanish Crown.
After fighting a bloody revolution against Spain, the Philippines then fought another war for its independence against the United States. However, the Philippines was annexed by the United States in 1898 and remained a colony until 1946. Religious tolerance was then instituted. The new American governor-generals then encouraged the spread of the [[Anglican Communion|Episcopal Church]] through government donations of land.
== Arrival of Orthodoxy in the Philippines ==Orthodoxy arrived ===1600s - Armenian and Greek Orthodox Christians===One source suggests that the Armenians, Greeks and Mecedonians were the first Orthodox Christians on the island. An eighteenth century document written by Murillo Velarde, a Jesuit historian describing their Order’s missionary labors in the Philippines when Syrian and Lebanese merchants , records the presence of Armenian and sailors arrived Greek settlers in the Philippine capital city of Manila after Manila was opened to outside tradeas early as 1618. [http://merlot.umdl.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer;cc=philamer;q1=morenos;rgn=full%20text;idno=afk2830.0001.044;didno=AFK2830.0001. 044;view=image;seq=31;page=root;size=s;frm=frameset;] (Blair & Robertson's The first recorded Orthodox Christian is a Lebanese family in 1802Philippine Islands 1493-1898, Cleveland, Ohio: 1906, Vol. XLIV, p. any of the Lebanese families still reside in the Philippines and have become Filipino citizens27).
An influx of Russian emigrees fleeing In his book ''Historia de Philipinas'' (published in Manila, 1749), the Soviet regime occured during Jesuit historian Velarde wrotes: "I believe that there is no city in the American colonial regimeworld in which so many nationalities come together as here. In 1935, ...There are a Russian [[parish]] was established in Manilaconsiderable number of Armenians, and the [[Patriarch]] of Moscow some Persians; and Tartars, Macedonians, Turks, and All Russia appointed Father Mikhail Yerokhin as vicarGreeks... The Episcopal Church then permitted Fr. Mikhail to use so that he who spends an afternoon on the north transept ''tuley'' or bridge of Manila will see all these nationalities pass by him, behold their cathedral for worship. In 1937costumes, and hear their languages - something which cannot be done in any other city in the first Orthodox church was built entire Spanish monarchy, and was named after the Iberian [[Icon]] of hardly in any other region in all the Mother of Godworld. This also became the first Orthodox [[altar]] "(Cited in the PhilippinesBlair & Robertson's The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, Cleveland, Ohio: 1906, Vol. LaterXLIV, both the Episcopal Cathedral and the Russian Orthodox church in Manila were destroyed during the Second World Warp. 29). [[Imagehttp:John Maximovitch Tubabao//merlot.umdl.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=philamer;cc=philamer;q1=morenos;rgn=full%20text;idno=afk2830.0001.044;didno=AFK2830.jpg|left|thumb|Abp0001. John Maximovitch in Tubabao]044;view=image;seq=33;page=root;size=s;frm=frameset;]
===St. John of Shanghai and San Franciso1930s - Russian Orthodox Christians===[[Image:John Maximovitch Tubabao.jpg|right|thumb|Abp. John Maximovitch in Tubabao]]An influx of Russian émigrés fleeing the Soviet regime occurred during the American colonial regime. In 19491935, 5,500 a Russian Orthodox from China, including then-[[Archbishopparish]] was established in Manila, and the [[John MaximovitchPatriarch]], were relocated of Moscow and All Russia appointed Father Mikhail Yerokhin as vicar. The Episcopal Church then permitted Fr. Mikhail to Tubabao in use the south central Philippines by north transept of their cathedral for worship. In 1937, the International Refugee Organization first Orthodox church was built and with was named after the permission Iveron [[Icon]] of the newly independent Republic Mother of God. This also became the first Orthodox [[altar]] in the Philippines. Abp. John Maximovitch then established a wooden church, orphanageLater, both the Episcopal Cathedral and other buildings the Russian Orthodox church in Tubabao exclusively for Manila were destroyed by American bombing during the Russian refugeesSecond World War.
TubabaoIn 1949, however5, was 500 Russian Orthodox from China, including then-[[Archbishop]] [[John (and still isMaximovitch) an underdeveloped island which is humid]], prone were relocated to typhoonsa former US Army base on [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubabao Tubabao], in the south central Philippines by the International Refugee Organization and at times inaccessible due to with the permission of the newly independent Republic of the ocean conditionsPhilippines. When Under Archbishop John's direction a Russian commented wooden church, orphanage, and other buildings were established on their fear that a typhoon would destroy their camp to local Filipinosthe grounds of the base, they replied that there was nothing to worry about because “your holy man blesses your camp from four directions every night.” There were no typhoons or floods while Abp. John was therefor the Russian refugees.
Arbp. John Maximovitch did not preach the Orthodox faith Tubabao, however, was (and still is) an underdeveloped island which is humid, prone to typhoons, and at times inaccessible due to the native inhabitants of the Philippine islandsocean conditions. No Filipino When a Russian commented on their fear that a typhoon would destroy their camp to local Filipinos, they replied that there was baptized, chrismated, ordained and consecrated during his stay in nothing to worry about because "your holy man blesses your camp from four directions every night." There were no typhoons or floods while the PhilippinesRussian refugees sheltered at Tubabao.
Through the persistent lobbying of Abp. John did not preach the Orthodox faith to the U[https://en.Swikipedia. org/wiki/Waray_language Waray]-speaking inhabitants of Tubabao. No Filipino was baptized, chrismated, ordained or consecrated during the refugees' stay in the Philippines. Abp. John himself was only present for a few months, until the camp was set up and running; during most of the two years the refugees were at Tubabao, he was in America, lobbying the Congressfor their reception into the USA. Through his persistent lobbying, the refugees were allowed to settle in the United States and Australia beginning in 1951.
== Reception = 1990s - Filipino Orthodox Christians===Around the beginning of the first twentieth century, Greek sailors settled in Legaspi city on the island of Luzon. Descendants of these Greek Orthodox Christian sailors now number no more than 10 families, who have kept their Greek surnames and many of whom have become distinguished public figures and intellectuals in the Philippines, including serving as the Greek consulate in Manila. Though they do not speak the Filipino language fluently, they were largely responsible for the re-establishment of an Orthodox presence in the Philippines through their encouragement of Filipino converts to Orthodoxy ==and the Hellenic Orthodox Foundation.
In 1992, a Filipino [[hieromonkImage:Manila_orthodox_cathedral.jpg‎|left|thumb|The Annunciation Orthodox Cathedral in Paranaque, Manila]]One of the first Greek Orthodox to arrive in the Philippine province of Albay was Alexandros Athos Adamopoulos (aka Alexander A. Adamson), Frwho came to Legaspi city in 1928. Vincentius Escarcha (a former Benedictine Abbot Together with his brother and a Roman Catholic priest for more than 20 years cousin he co-founded Adamson University in Bajada1932, Cataingan, Masbate island), together with four nuns and faithful members which is now owned by the Vincentian Fathers of his community, were received into the Orthodox Roman Catholic Church . Adamopoulos was appointed in 1942 by Metropolitan [[Dionysios (Psiahas) of Proussa|Dionysios]] of the [[Greek Orthodox Metropolis government to take charge of New Zealand]] and assisted by [[Sotirios (Trambas) Greek interests in the Philippines. He was later promoted to the rank of Korea|Bishop Sotirios Consul General of Zelon]]Greece.
On January 19In 1989, 1994Adamopoulos saw the need to establish the first true Greek Orthodox church in the Philippines and thus established the Hellenic Orthodox Foundation Inc. Although he died in 1993 before the church was completed, Metropolitan Dionysiusthe Orthodox Cathedral was finished in 1996 and is constructed in true Byzantine style, assisted by Bishop Sotirioswith all the interior furnishings imported from Greece, received by and is home to approximately 520 Filipino Orthodox and 40 expats[[Chrismation|Holy Chrismationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exarchate_of_the_Philippines]] several Filipino Christians in Metro Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. This cathedral was consecrated by His Holiness Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew on March 5, 2000.
In 2004On April 20, the Theotokos Orthodox Church 1990, a Filipino [[hieromonk]], Fr. Vincentius Escarcha (a former Benedictine Abbot and a Roman Catholic priest for more than 20 years in Bajada, Cataingan, Masbate was consecrated island), together with four nuns and faithful members of his community, were received into the Orthodox Church by His Eminence Metropolitan [[Nikitas Dionysios (LuliasPsiahas) of Hong KongProussa|NikitasDionysios]] of Hong Kong the [[Greek Orthodox Metropolis of New Zealand]] and South East Asiaassisted by [[Sotirios (Trambas) of Korea|Bishop Sotirios of Zelon]]. At present On January 19, 1994, Metropolitan Dionysios, assisted by Bishop Sotirios, the nuns of the Theotokos Orthodox Monastery received by [[Chrismation|Holy Chrismation]] several Filipino Christians in Bajada run a kindergarten Manila.
In 1996, the Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and Southeast Asia was created for the needs of the faithful under the [[Church of Constantinople]]. In 2004, the Theotokos Orthodox Church in Bajada, Masbate was consecrated by His Eminence Metropolitan [[Nikitas (Lulias) of Hong Kong|Nikitas]] of Hong Kong and South East Asia. At present, the nuns of the Theotokos Orthodox Monastery in Bajada run a kindergarten.
== Other Jurisdiction Orthodoxy in the Philippines today==In December 2006, Fr[[Image:Filipinorthodox. Chris Gainjpg‎|left|Filipino Orthodox faithful in Paranaque, a deacon from Manila]]Within the Ecumenical Patriarchate's [[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese Metropolitanate of Australia Hong Kong and New ZealandSoutheast Asia]], came to Manila, and, without informing the local hierarchy of the there are currently three Filipino Orthodox Church priests in the Philippines, registered a church bearing the name "Iglesia Orthodoxa ng Pilipinas" (Orthodox Church of the Philippines). Their webpage describes their church as ''the'' Orthodox Church in the Philippines. This church is seeking to receive Filipino clergymen through incardination. They do not provide information regarding the actual number of members. This jurisdictionalong with four nuns, represented by one Abbot Cristofor and based in New Castle, Australia, has no clergy, churchesare administratively under an ecclesiastical vicar from Greece. In these communities, nor parishes anywhere in the Philippines Divine Liturgy and is not in communion with the canonical other Orthodox Church worship services are said in the PhilippinesEnglish, which is under the [[Ecumenical Patriarchate]] of ConstantinopleGreek and Filipino.
==Orthodoxy In 2007 the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Mission in the Philippines Today==[[Imagehttp:Manila_orthodox_cathedral//en.wikipedia.jpg‎|left|thumb|The Annunciation org/wiki/Antiochian_Orthodox_Christian_Mission_in_the_Philippines], was established under the [[Antiochian Orthodox Cathderal in Paranaque, ManilaArchdiocese of Australia and New Zealand]]There are . In 2008, two Filipino denominations were received into the Antiochian church, including 32 communities with some clandestine 6000 believers. These denominations - one ex-protestant, led by Fr Jeptah Aniceto, and cultic groups today one ex-independent, led by Fr Pascualito Monsanto - formed two vicariates, based in Davao and Manila respectively. In 2009 Jeptah Aniceto [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiochian_Orthodox_Christian_Mission_in_the_Philippines left the Philippines that claim Orthodox Church] to be Eastern Orthodox; howeverpursue native religious teaching in Africa, they all lack and now [[apostolic successionhttps://www.facebook.com/BangsaLumad identifies as a Muslim]] and do not adhere to . Many of his followers left the traditions and Antiochian Church; some connected with an [[canon law|canonsOld Calendarist]] of the canonical Orthodox Churchgroup under Bishop Kleopas (Daclan).
One of In 2013, clergy from both ROCOR and the first Greek Orthodox Moscow Patriarchate responded to arrive in requests from Filipino groups for catechism. Two dioceses of the Philippines was Alexandros Athos Adamopoulos[http://www.ifi.ph/ Iglesia Filipina Independiente ("Aglipayans"] entered into a period of catechism, who came to Legaspi city and beginning in 2015 several parishes were received in 1928mass baptisms[http://orthochristian.com/82584. Together with his brother and cousin he co-founded Adamson University in 1932html][http://orthochristian.com/81728.html]. The university In 2017 a hieromonk was and is noted for its curriculum directed towards sent from Russia to reestablish the needs parish of the Philippines in Iveron Icon of the areas of scienceTheotokos, chemical and industrial engineeringoriginally established in 1935 but destroyed by bombing during World War II. Today Adamson University has attained recognition as on of the leading institutions for graduate educationIn February, law2019, arts, sciences, chemistry, computer education, engineering, commerce and architechturea [http://www. The university has a student population of over 22,000patriarchia. Alexandros Adamopoulos (Alexander Aru/db/text/5379588. Adamson) was appointed in 1942 by the Greek government to take charge html Diocese of Greek interests in the Philippines. He ] was later promoted to established within the rank Russian Orthodox [http://www.patriarchia.ru/db/text/5330863.html Patriarchal Exarchate of Consul General Southeast Asia]. [https://philippine-mission.org/about/clergy-of Greece-the-philippine-diocese/ Eight priests] now serve the Russian mission which now numbers approximately thirty parishes and mission communities.
In 1989 Alexander Adamson saw the need to establish the first true Greek There are also some [[Independent Orthodox church churches|independent groups]] in the Philippines and thus established the Hellenic Orthodox Foundation Inc. Although he died in 1993 before the church was completed, that use the term ''Orthodox Cathedral was finished '' in 1996 and is constructed their names but are not in true Byzantine style, communion with all the interior furnishings imported from Greece, and is home to approximately 200 or are recognized by any canonical Orthodox in Metro Manila, the capital city of the Philippines. This cathedral was consecrated by the Ecumenical Patriarch on March 5, 2000church.
At present there are three canonically ordained Filipino Orthodox priests in ==See also==* [[Exarchate of the Philippines. The Divine Liturgy and other Orthodox worship services are said in English and in the Filipino vernacular. The only true Orthodox parish in Manila is under |Exarchate of the Philippines, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and is spiritually administered by an ecclesiastical vicar from Greece.]]* [[Philemon (Castro)]]
==LinksExternal links==
*[http://www.exarchatefacebook.unicom/pages/Orthodox-Church-in-the-Philippines/187805037902231 Affiliate in the Philippines - Orthodox Metropolitanate of Hong Kong and South East Asia]*[http://filorthodoxia.googlepages.cccom/ The Annunciation church.htm History of the Theotokos Cathedral First Filipino Orthodox Community in the Philippines] by Rev. Dr. John Chryssavgis*[http://www.orthodoxnews.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=WorldNews.one&content_id=7354&CFID=29993857&CFTOKEN=90155693 Ecumenical Patriarch Consecrates Annunciation Church in Manila ]*[http://www.orthodox-communities.blogspotcn/news/20000420philippines_en.htm Orthodox Patriarch Visits Fledgling Local Orthodox Church]*[http://www.cs.ust.hk/faculty/dimitris/metro/AUG03.pdf The Theotokos Orthodox Church & Monastery in Masbate] (Information in an issue of The Censer)*[http://www.cs.ust.comhk/faculty/2007dimitris/04metro/orthodox-communities-Phil_major_events.html Major Events of Orthodoxy in-philippinesthe Philippines] *[http://www.cs.ust.hk/faculty/dimitris/metro/Phil_history.html A priest's description of Orthodox Communities missionary work in the Philippines]
*[http://www.rocor.org.au/lives/stjohnsanfranciscoshanghai Life of St. John Maximovitch]
*[http://www2.mfa.gr/www.mfa.gr/Articles/en-US/03042007_KL1949.htm The Greek Community in the Philippines]
*[http://www.hri.org/forum/life/adamson.html Greeks in the Philippines and their contributions to the Filipinos]
*[http://wwwquod.cslib.ustumich.hkedu/facultycgi/dimitrist/metrotext/Phil_historytext-idx?c=philamer;idno=AFK2830.html A priest's description of missionary work in the Philippines]*[http://www20001.mfa044 The Philippine Islands, 1493-1803 by Emma E.gr/wwwBlair & James A.mfa.gr/Articles/en-US/03042007_KL1949Robertson, Volume XLIV, 1906] Online edition from the University of Michigan.htm The Greek Community in the Philippines]*[httphttps://wwwphilippine-mission.cs.ust.hkorg/faculty/dimitris/metro/AUG03.pdf The Theotokos Philippine Mission of the Russian Orthodox Church & Monastery in Masbate]
{{Parishes of South, East, and Southeast Asia}}
{{Parishes of South, East, and Southeast Asia}}
[[Category:Jurisdictions]]
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