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Photius the Great

162 bytes added, 14:42, February 26, 2007
more proofing
Several months after his exile, a few Ignatius' supporters came together in the Church of Saint Irene and plotted to restore Ignatius to the patriarchate. They made an appeal to Pope Nicholas trying to discrediting his rival Ignatius' appointment. This was signed by only six metropolitans and fifteen bishops. There were several [[monk]]s in this camp that set out for Rome, even though Ignatius had voluntarily resigned. They were received by [[Pope Nicholas I]], who was eager to assert his power over the Eastern church. Pope Nicholas had previously been successful in bringing the Western church under his absolute control, and he now sought the same power over the East.
{{cleanup}}Photios <--!Confusing- didn't say that Photius had been reinstated as patriarch- isn't he still exiled?-->Photius convened a council in the Church of the Holy Apostles in 859. The intent was to stop the controversy about his appointment. This council found that Ignatios Ignatius had not been elected by a [[synod]] and therefore his election to the patriarchate was illegal. He had been appointed by Empress Theodora. Unfortunately the Caesar Barda was vengeful against the opposition and imposed an exile on Ignatios Ignatius to the island of Mytiline and persecuted some of his folowersfollowers. Photios Photius strongly objected to this action.
Pope Nicholas felt that the appointment needed the consent of Rome and objected to the fact that Photiuos Photius was a layperson even though there was precedence for this in both the Western and Eastern churchchurches. He also demanded that the Byzantines give back to Rome the territory territories of Calbria Calabria and Sicily.
In 861, with approval of PhotiosPhotius, Emperor Michael convened a general council in the Church of the Holy Apostles , known as the First-Second Synod. The Pope pope was invited , and he was glad to send his delgatesdelegates. He sent them with the instruction to investigagte investigate the election of Photios Photius in relation to the [[canons ]] and and to demand that Illyricum and south southern Italy be given to Rome. This synod ratified the actions of the seventh [[Seventh Ecumenical Council ]] condemning Iconoclasmiconoclasm. Also Photios , Photius was affirmed as the lawful and canonical patriarch. The western delgation delegation accepted the legality of Photios Photius' appointment. Ignatios Ignatius appeared before the synod and was deposed.
When the delgates delegates returned to Rome and that Nicholas found that his demands for territorial rights were not considered , he became angry and excommunicated his delegates. He convened a council in Rome in 863 after in which he deposed and excommunicated Photios Photius on the basis that his appointment was uncanonical. He chose to recognize Ignatios Ignatius as the legitimate patriarch.
The conflict between Rome and Constantinople reached a climax. Phtios Photius not only was defending the autonomy of the Eastern church , but also vital interests of the empire. He had With the full support of Emperor Michael III and , he sent a letter to the Pope pope demanding that he withdraw his decision against PhotiosPhotius. In 867, an ecumenical a council was held with over one-a thousand attendiingclergymen attending. This council excommunicated Nicholas, condemned the pope's claims of primacy, his interference in Bulgaria, and the innovative addition of the [[filioque ]] clause to the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|creed]]. The letters of both Nicholas and Photios Photius were read at this council. The situation was additionally complicated by the question of [[Papacy|papal]] authority over the entire Church and by disputed jurisdiction over newly-converted [[Bulgaria]]. It pronounced that the Latin interference in the affairs of the Byzantine Church was unlawful. The German Emperor Louis II was asked to intervene and depose Pope Nicholas, but he died that same year.
{{cleanup}}There were two Emperors in the East at the time Michaal II and Basil I. Michael plotted to kill Basil but Basil found out about the plot and murdered Michael. Photios refused to accept the murder of Basil and refused him communion on a great feat day. This angered Basil so he held him in prison in a monastery. He then reinstated Ignatios in 867.
This state of affairs changed with the murder of Photios' patron [[Bardas]] in 866 and of the emperor Michael in 867, by his colleague [[Basil I the Macedonian|Basil the Macedonian]], who now usurped the throne. Photios was deposed as [[patriarch]], not so much because he was a protegé of Bardas and Michael, but because Basil I was seeking an alliance with the Pope and the western emperor. Photios was removed from his office and banished about the end of September 867, and Ignatios was reinstated on [[November 23]]. During his second patriarchate, Ignatios followed a policy not very different from that of Photios. This perhaps helped improve relations between the two, and in c. 876 Photios was suddenly recalled to Constantinople and entrusted with the education of the emperor's children and became an advisor to Ignatios. On the death of Ignatios in October 877, Photios, after the requisite show of reluctance, and being recommended by Ignatios prior to his death, was restored to the patriarchal throne.

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