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Nicholas II of Russia

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'''[[Image:TsStNich.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Icon of Tsar-Martyr Nicholas Romanov''' was the last reigning Tsar II of Russia at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution. Together with his wife, [[Alexandra Romanov(Courtesy Ivanovo Monastery)]] and their children Olga, Tatiana, Marie, Anastasia and Alexis, they are recognized as [[Passion Bearers]] by the Russian Orthodox Church.
==Life & Death==In 1917The right-believing Emperor [[Saint]] '''Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov''' was the last reigning emperor (''tsar'', during цар) of Russia at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution. Together with his wife, [[Alexandra Romanov|Alexandra Fyodoronova]], formerly Alexandra of Hesse-Darmstad, and their children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexey, Nicholas reluctantly abdicated the throneand their servants Doctor [[Evgeni Botkin]], cook [[Ivan Kharitonov]], hoping that doing so might save the nation some violence. He attendant [[Aleksey Trupp]] and his family were exiled to Siberiaattendant [[Anna Demidova]], where they were detained under houseare recognized as [[Passion-arrestbearer]]s by the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]]. After several months, the family was lined up in the basement and shotTheir feast day is on [[July 17]]. The bodies were buried in an unmarked grave[[ROCOR]] officially recognizes them as [[Martyrs]].
==Life and death==
Born on 6 [17] May 1868, the day of the Holy [[Job the Long-suffering|Job]] the Long-Suffering, St Nicholas was the eldest son of Crown Prince Alexander Alexandrovich (the future Emperor Alexander III) and Grand Duchess Maria Feodorvna (the future Empress). He received an excellent education under the supervision of his father, speaking fluently Russian, English, French, German, and Italian, and learning Russian and world history, Russian literature, and the art of warfare.
 
In 1884, St Nicholas met the future Empress St. [[Alexandra Romanov|Alexandra]], then Princess Alice Victoria Helen Louise Beatrix von Hessen-Darmstadt, at the wedding of the latter's sister, Grand Duches-Martyr St [[Elizabeth the New Martyr|Elizabeth Fyodorovna]] with the Emperor's uncle, Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich. Princess Alice was a daughter of Prince Ludwig von Hessen-Darmstadt and Princess Alice and a grand-daughter of Queen Victoria of England. The two became good friends, a friendship that later grew into love. In 1894, St Nicholas received a blessing from his father to wed Princess Alice on the condition that she become Orthodox. On October 20, 1894, Emperor Alexander III died at the imperial palace in Livadia, Crimea. On the next day, Princess Alice was received into the Orthodox faith and given the name Alexandra Feodorovna. The two were married in a low-key ceremony on November 14, 1894.
 
In February 1917, during the February Revolution, Nicholas reluctantly abdicated the throne, hoping that doing so might save the nation some violence. After the Bolshevik (October) revolution, he and his family were exiled to Siberia, where they were detained under house-arrest. On [[July 16]], 1918, the family was lined up in the basement and shot. The bodies were buried in an unmarked grave.
[[Image:P-PCathNIIRM.JPG|right|thumb|200px|The remains of Emperor Nicholas II and his family in the Catherine Side Chapel of the [[Ss Peter and Paul Cathedral (St. Petersburg, Russia)|Ss Peter and Paul Cathedral]] in St. Petersburg, Russia.]]
In 1991, in Yekaterinburg, Sibera, their bodies were exhumed. DNA testing confirmed that they were indeed the Romanovs.
In 1998, with Boris Yeltsin in attendance, most of the Royal Family was finally laid to rest with proper ceremony.However, neither the Russian Orthodox Church nor the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia formally recognized that the remains found near Yekaterinburg were those of the Royal Family.[[Image:Tsar-Martyr.jpg|left|thumb|200px|Photograph of St. Nicholas the Tsar-Martyr.]]
{{stub}}==Glorification==Nicholas and his family were [[Glorification|glorified]] by the [[Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] in 1981 but this was a hotly debated decision. Both within and outside of Russia there were those who claimed that Nicholas' reign was weak and prone to extravagence and indifference to the plight of Russia's needy. On the other hand, there was widespread popular devotion to Tsar Nicholas among those who claimed that he was called of God to lead his people at a difficult time in history and did so to the best of his abilities. The religious devotion and piety of the family is well documented and not seriously contested.
==Canonization==Nicholas and his family were canonized by In 2000, after some 8 years of study, the council of Bishops of the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia]] in 1981 but this was a hotly debated decision. Both within and outside of Russia there were those who claimed that voted unanimously to recognize Nicholas' reign was weak and prone to extravagence and indifference to the plight of Russia's needy. On the other hand, there was widespread popular devotion to Tsar Nicholas among those who claimed that he was called of God to lead his people at a difficult time in history and did so to the best of his abilities. The religious devotion and piety of the family is well documented Alexandra and not seriously contestedtheir five children as saints.
In 2000==Hymns==[[Troparion]] (Tone 1):Most noble and sublime was your life and death, O Sovereigns;<br> :Wise Nicholas and blest Alexandra, we praise you,<br>:Acclaiming your piety, meekness, faith, and humility, after some 8 years <br>:Whereby ye attained to crowns of studyglory in Christ our God, the council <br> :With your five renowned and godly children of Bishops of the blessed fame.<br>:O passion–bearers decked in purple, intercede for us.[[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox ChurchKontakion]] voted unanimously to recognize (Tone 2):Royalty and martyrdom were joined together, O blessed ones,:In your death for righteousness and right belief, O wise Sovereigns,:Nicholasand Alexandra, Alexandra and their with your five children as saints.:Hence, Christ our God counted you worthy of thrones in Heaven;:And with twofold crowns of glory,:You reign forever, adorned with grace divine.
==TroparionExternal links==Most noble and sublime was your life and death, O Sovereigns;<br> *[http://www.serfes.org/royal/index.htm The Royal Martyrs of Russia]wise Nicholas and blest Alexandra, we praise you,<br>*[http://www.tzar.orthodoxy.ru/ Russian site on the Tsar-Martyr]acclaiming your piety, meekness, faith, and humility,<br>whereby ye attained to crowns of glory in Christ our *[http://www.roca.org/OA/14/14c.htm God,<br> 's Anointed Sufferer: Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II]with your five renowned *[http://www.orthodox.net/russiannm/nicholas-ii-tsar-martyr-and godly children of blest fame.<br>Martyrs decked in purple, intercede for us-his-family.html Tsar-Martyr Nicholas II and his Family]
==External Links==
* [http://www.serfes.org/royal/index.htm The Royal Martyrs of Russia]
{{start box}}
{{succession|
before=[[Alexander III]]|
title=Emperor of Russia|
years=1894-1917|
after=''monarchy abolished''}}
{{end box}}
[[Category:Emperors and KingsRulers]]
[[Category:Russian Saints]]
[[Category:Saints]]
[[Category:Modern Saints]]
[[Category:20th-century saints]]

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