→Post-Imperial era (1453-1821)
*1492 Millennian speculation in Moscow. The Church calendar ended in 1492, and many were convinced that it marked the end of the seventh and last millennium in the world's history.
*1503 Council at which controversy arose between St Nil Sorsky and St Joseph of Volokalamsk about monastic landholding. Joseph's party were known as the Possessors and the Trans-Volga hermits as the Nonpossessors.
*1517 Martin Luther nails his ''Ninety-Five Theses'' to the door at Wittenburg, sparking the Protestant Reformation; Ottomans conquer Jerusalem, Antioch and Alexandria, when Joakim the Athenian was Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria.
*1534 King Henry VIII declares himself supreme head of the Church of England.