→Late Byzantine era (843-1453)
*1237 Golden Horde (Mongols) begin subjugation of Russia.
*1240 Mongols sack Kiev. Prince Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes.
*1258 Michael Paleologus seizes the throne of the Nicaean Empire, founding the last Roman (Byzantine) dynasty. He begins the reconquest of the Greek peninusla from the Latins.
*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch.
*1336 Meteora in Greece is established as a center of Orthodox [[monasticism]].
*1341-1351 Three sessions of the [[Ninth Ecumenical Council]] held in Constantinople, affirming the [[hesychasm|hesychastic]] theology of St. [[Gregory Palamas]] and condemning the rationalistic philosophy of [[Barlaam of Calabria]].