→Late Byzantine era (843-1453)
*1189 Third Crusade is led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, King Philip Augustus II of France, and Emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
*1204 Crusaders of the Fourth Crusade [[Sacking of Constantinople|sack Constantinople]], laying waste to the city and stealing many holy [[relics]] and other items; [[Great Schism]] generally regarded as having been completed by this act.
*1268 Egyptian Mamelukes capture Antioch.
*1336 Meteora in Greece is established as a center of Orthodox [[monasticism]].