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Hagiography

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Corrected Greek expression
[[fr:Hagiographie]]'''Hagiography''' is the study writing of [[saint]]s' lives. It comes from the Greek words ''άγιος;'' and ''γραφή'' = "holy writing" or "writing about the holy (ones)."
*A ''hagiographyHagiography'' refers literally to writings on the subject of such holy persons; and specifically, the [[biography]] biographies of persons publicly [[ecclesiastic]]al and [[secularGlorification|glorified]] leaders, [[canonize]]d (canonized) by the [[Christian Church]].
*''Hagiology'', by contrast, is the study of saints collectively, without focusing on the life of an individual saint.
 
==Hagiography as a form of biography==
Hagiography is unlike other forms of biography in that it does not necessarily attempt to give a full, historical account of the life of an individual saint. Rather, the purpose of hagiography is [[soteriology|soteriological]]—that is, the life of the saint is written so that it might have a salvific effect on those who encounter it.
 
As such, hagiography often fails to include details which are standard for most biographical works, such as birthdate, childhood, career, and so forth. Rather, the details included are those which pertain to the saint's life as an [[icon]] of Christ, as one who points us to the abundant life available from our Lord.
 
The secondary purpose of hagiography is to glorify persons in whom Christ has powerfully worked. Therefore, one often can notice a dearth of mention of the saint's sins in this life. Sometimes, those sins are mentioned (as with St. [[Mary of Egypt]] or the Prophet King [[David]]) so that their great repentance can be demonstrated, but other times, hagiography includes no mention of the saint's sins at all. This character of the genre should not be understood as propaganda—after all, it is axiomatic that only Christ is without sin—but rather that such details are not germane to the purpose of hagiography.
==Development of hagiography==
Hagiography comprised an important literary genre in the early millennia of the Church, providing informational history as well as inspirational stories and legends. A hagiographic account of an individual saint is often referred to as a ''vita'' or ''life''.
 
The genre of lives of the [[saint]]s first came into being in the [[Roman Empire]] as collections of traditional accounts of Christian [[martyr]]s, called [[martyrologies]]. In the 4th century, there were 3 main types of catalogues of lives of the saints:
 
*''Menaion'', an annual calendar catalogue (in Greek, μηναίον ''menaios'' means "month") (biographies of the saints to be read at [[sermon]]s)
*''Synaxarion'', or a short version of lives of the saints, arranged by dates
*''Paterikon'' (in Greek, πατήρ ''pater'' means "father"), or biography of the specific saints, chosen by the catalogue compiler
Hagiography comprised an In Western Europe hagiography was one of the more important [[literature|literary]] [[genre]] areas in the early millennia study of history during the [[Christianity|Christian]] [[church]], providing informational [[history]] as well as inspirational stories and [[legend]]sMiddle Ages. A The ''Golden Legend'' of Jacob de Voragine compiled a great deal of mediæval hagiographic account of an individual saint can comprise material, with a [[vita]]strong emphasis on miracle tales.
The [[genre]] of lives of In the [[saint]]s first came into being in 10th century, the work of St. [[Roman EmpireSimeon Metaphrastes]] as —an Orthodox [[legendmonk]]s about who had been a secretary of state—marked a major development and codification of the genre. His ''Menologion'' (catalogue of lives of the saints), compiled at the request of Emperor [[ChristianConstantine VII Porphyrogenitus]] [[martyr]]s while Simeon was still a civil servant, became the standard for all of the Western and were called [[martyrologies]]Eastern hagiographers. In Over the [[4th century]]years, there were 3 main types hagiography as a genre absorbed a number of narrative plots and poetic images (often of pre-Christian origin, such as dragon fighting etc.), mediaeval [[catalogparable]]s of , short stories and anecdotes. Simeon's contribution was to collect these saints' lives from written and oral traditions, copying directly from some sources and reworking others, then arranging them in order of the saints: ' feast days.
*[[annual]] [[calendar]] catalog, or ''menaion'' (The genre of lives of the saints was brought to Russia by the South Slavs together with writing and also in [[translations from the Greek]]language. In the 11th century, "menaios" means "month") (biographies the Russians began to compile the original life stories of the first Russian saints to be read at [[sermon]]s); *''synaxarion''. In the 16th century, or a short [[version]] Metropolitan Macarius expanded the list of lives the Russian saints and supervised the compilation of their life stories. They would all be compiled in the saints, arranged by dates; *so called ''Velikiye chet'paterikonyi-minei'' catalogue (in GreekВеликие Четьи-Минеи, or "pater" means "fatherGrand monthly readings"), or biography consisting of 12 volumes in accordance with each month of the specific saints, chosen by the catalog compileryear.
In [[Western Europe]] hagiography was ==Usefulness== Even though some of the writings seem to contain embellishments, as one may assume when reading of the more important areas in the study life of history during the [[Middle Ages]]St. The ''[[Golden Legend]]'' Nicholas of [[Jacob de VoragineMyra]] compiled a great deal , they are still quite useful. In the words of mediæval hagiographic material, with a strong emphasis on Fr. [[miracleThomas Hopko]] tales. :
The [[Bollandists|Bollandist]] tradition continues :''They may be used very fruitfully for the discovery of the meaning of the studyChristian faith and life. In these "lives" the Christian vision of God, academic assemblyman, appraisal and publication the world stands out very clearly. Because these volumes were written down in times quite different from our own, it is necessary to read them carefully to distinguish the essential points from the artificial and sometimes even fanciful embellishments which are often contained in them. In the Middle Ages, for instance, it was customary to pattern the lives of materials relating saints after literary works of previous times and even to dress up the [[personal life|lives]] of Christian the lesser known saints after the manner of earlier saintsof the same type. It also was the custom to add many elements, particularly supernatural and miraculous events of the most extraordinary sort, to confirm the true holiness of the saint, to gain strength for his spiritual goodness and truth, and to foster imitation of his virtues in the lives of the hearers and readers. (See ''[[Acta Sanctorum]]''In many cases the miraculous is added to stress the ethical righteousness and innocence of the saint in the face of his detractors.)
In the [[10th century]]:''Generally speaking, a [[Byzantine]] [[monk]] [[Simeon Metaphrastes]] was the first one it does not take much effort to change distinguish the genre sound kernel of truth in the lives of the saints into something different, giving it a moralizing from the additions made in the spirit of piety and enthusiasm of the later periods; and [[panegyric]]al characterthe effort should be made to see the essential truth which the lives contain. His catalog Also, the fact that elements of a miraculous nature were added to the lives of saints during medieval times for the saints became purposes of edification, entertainment, and even amusement should not lead to the [[standard]] for conclusion that all things miraculous in the lives of the [[Western]] and [[Eastern]] [[hagiographer]]ssaints are invented for literary or moralizing purposes. Again, who would create relative biographies and images a careful reading of the lives of the ideal saints by gradually departing from will almost always reveal what is authentic and true in the real facts realm of their livesthe miraculous. Over Also, the years, point has been rightly made that men can learn almost as much about the genre real meaning of lives Christianity from the legends of the saints had absorbed a number produced within the tradition of narrative plots and poetic images (often, of pre-Christian origin, such the Church as from the authentic lives themselves.'' <sup>[[dragon]] fighting etchttp://www.oca.org/OCchapter.), [[mediaeval]] [[parableasp?ID=7]]s, short stories and [[anecdote]]s. </sup>
The genre of lives of the saints was brought to ==Sources==*''Article adapted from [[RussiaWikipedia:Hagiography]] ''*''The Orthodox Faith'' Written by the [[South Slavs]] together with [[writing]] and also in [[translation]]s from the [[Greek language]]V. Rev. In the Thomas Hopko ([[11th century]], the [[Russians]] began to compile the original life stories of the first Russian "saints", ehttp://www.goca. [[Boris and Gleb]], [[Theodosius Pechersky]] etcorg/OCchapter. In the [[16th century]asp?ID=7 OCA web site], [[Metropolitan Macarius]] expanded the list of the Russian "saints" and supervised the compiling process of their life stories. They would all be compiled in the so called ''Velikiye chet’yi-minei'' catalog (&#1042;&#1077;&#1083;&#1080;&#1082;&#1080;&#1077; &#1063;&#1077;&#1090;&#1100;&#1080;-&#1052;&#1080;&#1085;&#1077;&#1080;, or Grand monthly readings), consisting of 12 [[volume]]s in accordance with each month of the year.
The genre of ==External links==*[http://www.chrysostompress.org/lives -of -the -saints was often used as an ecclesiastic and [[political]] [[propaganda]]. Today, The Great Collection of the works in this genre represent a valuable historical source and reflection Lives of different social ideas, world outlook and [[aestheticthe Saints]] [[concept]]s English translation of the pastwork by Saint Demetrius of Rostov from Chrysostom Press*[http://www.holyapostlesconvent.org/hac-products.shtml Great Synaxaristes - Lives of Saints] English translation from Greek from Holy Apostles Convent and Dormition Skete
* ''Article adapted from [[Wikipedia:Hagiography|Wikipedia]]
== External links ==[[Category:Saints]]
*[http[ro://www.kbr.be/~socboll/ Societ&eacute; des BollandistesHagiografie]]
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