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Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations

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Renaissance and Modern Era: 1595
*1582 Institution of [[Gregorian Calendar]].
*1583 Arrival of the first Jesuits in Constantinople and constant proselytization by the Roman Catholic Church in the Ottoman Empire.<ref name=VRASIDAS158>Vrasidas Karalis. "Greek Christianity After 1453." In: Ken Parry (Ed.). ''The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity.'' Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007. p. 158.</ref><ref group="note">Orthodox dioceses were divided between Roman Catholic Venetian rulers and the Ottoman sultanate. Whereas under the latter they enjoyed relative freedom of religious expression, this was not the case in the Venetian-ruled areas. There all Orthodox bishops and metropolitans were replaced by Latin representatives of the pope.</ref>
*1595-1596 Pope [[w:Pope Clement VIII|Clement VIII]] declared in his Constitution ''Magnus Dominus'' (23 Dec. 1595), which announced the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk|Union of Brest]], that Orthodox [[Chrismation|Chrism]] was not valid and had to be repeated by a Roman Catholic bishop and that all Orthodox clergy had to accept the union;<ref group="note">The document shows that membership in the Church of God was seen as essentially conditioned by communion with the Pope of Rome. Those who do not belong to the Roman-Catholic Church cannot be saved because they are not members of the Church of God as such. Membership in the Roman Catholic Church was thus thought of as the only possible way of attaining salvation.:* <small>Wacław Hryniewicz. ''[ The Challenge of Our Hope: Christian Faith in Dialogue].'' Volume 32 of Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change. CRVP, 2007. p. 227.</small></ref> [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] and creation of the [[Unia]] (Eastern/Byzantine/Greek Catholics);<ref group="note">"The origins of the [[Unia]] are found in the Lateran Council of 1215 and in the Bull of “Pope” Innocent IV. Officially, however, two Jesuits, [[w:Antonio Possevino|Antonio Possevino]] (1533-1611) and [[w:Piotr Skarga|Peter Skarga]] (1536-1612), created the Unia in Poland. These two monks put Unia in practice in Poland. They did this in order to [[Latinization|Latinize]] the Orthodox of Poland and Northwestern Russia. The King of Poland, Sigismund III, whom the two Jesuits had raised, helped them in this.":* <small>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 31.</small></ref> after initially having supported rapproachement with Rome, Bp. [[Hedeon (Balaban) of Lviv]] opposed the Union of Brest until his death; in Italy, the Greek language was forbidden in the liturgy and the [[w:Greek Pontifical College of Saint Athanasius|College of St Athanasius]] (formally established in Rome in 1577) became one of the main centres of anti-Orthodox propaganda;<ref name=VRASISAS>Vrasidas Karalis. "Greek Christianity After 1453." In: Ken Parry (Ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007.pp. 158, 160-161.</ref> Pope [[w:Pope Clement VIII|Clement VIII]] also replaced all Orthodox bishops with his own people, a policy that alienated local Orthodox populations, who yearned for the religious tolerance enjoyed by Ottoman subjects.<ref name=VRASISAS/>
*1597 Death of Nicephorus, the [[Protosyngellos]] of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who had supported the Orthodox synod at Brest (against the Uniate synod), and was sentenced to prison by the high court of Poland on charges of espionage.
*1611 [[w:Gallicanism|Gallican]] French theologian [ Edmund Richer] (1559-1631), author of ''De ecclesiastica et politica potestate,'' held the view that [[w:Conciliarism|ecclesiastical councils]], not the papacy, was the method by which doctrinal truth was established, but his work was censured at the Council of Aix-en-Provence in 1612; this ‘richérisme’ strongly influenced 18th century Jansenism.

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