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[[File:Tikhon of Moscow.jpg|thumb|St. Tikhon of Moscow, wearing the patriarchal white koukoulion]]]
The '''Koukoulion''' ([[w:Church Slavonic language|Slavonic]]: ''Kukol'') is a traditional headdress worn by [[monks]] of the [[Great Schema]] in the Orthodox Church.
[[Image:Adrian of Ondrusov.jpg|thumb|left|[[Icon]] of St. Adrian of Ondrusov, wearing the black koukoulion. The lapets can be seen on his shoulders.]]
From the 17th century, following the reforms of [[Nikon of Moscow|Patriarch Nikon]], the upper vesture worn by monks of the [[Great Schema]] (''skhimonakh'') is in the form of a pointed hood with two long [[w:lappet|lappet]]s which cover the back and breast. It is black in color, and embroidered with crosses, six-winged [[seraphim]], and the text of the [[Trisagion]]. It is worn above the [[mandyas]] (monastic mantle), and is the same for both monks and [[nun]]s. In the context of monastic vows, it is called the ''koukoulion of kindliness'', and the ''helmet of salvation''. The koukoulion replaces the [[klobuk]] which is worn by the monastics of lower ranks.
The [[Patriarch of Moscow and all Russia]] wears a white koukoulion with a "Zion", a stiffened point topped by a cross. He wears this [[w:ex officio|ex officio]], whether or not he has been [[tonsure]]d into the Great Schema. Koukoulia are also worn by the [[primate]]s of certain other Orthodox churches, for example the [[Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia]].