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Psalter

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Order of Kathisma Readings (based on The Typicon, Chapter 17)
{{OldTestament}}
The '''Psalter''' (also known as the '''Psalms''', or '''Psalms of David'') ' is the [[Old Testament]] book that contains hymns and poems traditionally ascribed to the [[David|Holy Prophet and King David]], ancestor of our [[Jesus Christ|Lord Jesus Christ]]. Virtually every aspect of worship—praise, thanksgiving, penitence, intercession—is covered in the Psalter.
== The Psalter in Orthodox worship ==
=== Order of Kathisma Readings (based on ''The Typicon'', Chapter 17) ===
*'''''Outside of Great Lent'''''
:Outside Great Lent From the kathismata are appointed to be read according to Sunday after Pascha, which is called Thomas Sunday, until the following cycleapodosis (leave-taking) of the Exaltation of the Precious and Life-giving Cross, we recite the Psalter thusly:<br><br>
<center>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"
!Day!!OrthrosMatins!!Vespers
|-
!Su
|}
</center>
Notes:
 
On Thomas Sunday at Matins, the 17th kathisma is not said, since the Polyeleos (Psalms 134 & 135) is sung. On other Sundays, when the Polyeleos is not sung, at Matins we also say the 17th kathisma, with its troparia. But if a Sunday should coincide with a feast of the Lord, or of the Theotokos, or of a commemorated saint, after the two kathismata is the Polyeleos and, after the megalynarion, having not sung "Glory.., both now..." or "Alleluia", we sing the troparia "The assembly of angels..." and after the litany, the sessional hymn of the feast, or of the saint.
 
On Sunday at Vespers throughout the whole year the Psalter is never sung, except, if a feast should occur, then we sing "Blessed is the man...", the first antiphon.
 
At the Midnight Office, on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday throughout the whole year, we say the 17th kathisma, "Blessed are the blameless in the way...", but on Saturday at the Midnight Office, we always say the 9th kathisma, "Unto Thee, O God, belongeth praise in Zion".
 
<br>
:After the apodosis of the feast of the Exaltation of the Precious and Life-giving Cross, from the 22nd day of the month of September, until the 20th day of the month of December, we undertake to say the Psalter as here set forth:<br><br>
<center>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"
!Day!!Matins!!Vespers
|-
!Su
|II, III|| -
|-
!M
|IV, V, VI||XVIII
|-
!Tu
|VII, VIII, IX||XVIII
|-
!W
|X, XI, XII||XVIII
|-
!Th
|XIII, XIV, XV||XVIII
|-
!F
|XIX, XX||XVIII
|-
!Sa
|XVI, XVII||I
|-
|}
</center>
Notes:
 
If a feast should coincide with a day on which three kathismata are appointed at Matins, then we say the first two kathismata at Matins, and the third follows at Vespers.
 
As generally in the rubrics, from the 22nd day of September, three kathismata are appointed at Matins. Even if the day before or after the 20th should be a Sunday, without exception from Monday we begin the recitation of three kathismata.
 
<br>
:From the 20th day of the month of December until the 14th day of the month of January, which is the apodosis of the feast of Holy Theophany, we again recite the Psalter as on Thomas Sunday, with two kathismata at Matins and the third in order at Vespers.
 
:From the 15th day of January, until the Saturday before the Sunday of the Prodigal Son, we again recite the Psalter with three kathismata at Matins, and at Vespers the 18th kathisma.
 
:But on the two Sundays, Meatfare and Cheesefare, we say two kathismata at Matins, and at Vespers a third in sequence, because the brethren have little rest. But on the Sunday of the Prodigal, and on Meatfare and Cheesefare, at Matins, after the psalms "O praise ye the Name of the Lord", and "O give thanks unto the Lord", we also sing Psalm 136, "By the waters of Babylon," with the beautiful "Alleluia", followed by the troparia, "The assembly of angels," and the hypakoe of the tone.
 
:Let it be known how, from Cheesefare Sunday, even until the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, the Polyeleos is celebrated: it is sung only at vigils of feasts of the Lord. But after the apodosis of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, even until Cheesefare Sunday, except during forefeasts and afterfeasts of the Nativity of Christ and Theophany, in cathedrals and other large churches, on Sundays at Matins the Polyeleos is sung, and likewise in larger monastic communities.
:<br>
 
<br>
*'''''During Great Lent'''''
:During the weekdays of Great Lent, kathisma readings are added to the services of the [[Hours]] so that the entire Psalter is read through twice each week. The cycle of appointed kathismata readings for Great Lent are as follows:<br><br>
 
During the First, Second, Third, Fourth and Sixth Weeks of Great Lent:
 
<center>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"
!Day!!OrthrosMatins!!First Hour!!Third Hour!!Sixth Hour!!Ninth Hour!!Vespers
|-
!Su
|}
</center>
<br>
During the Fifth Week of Great Lent:
 
<center>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"
!Day!!Matins!!First Hour!!Third Hour!!Sixth Hour!!Ninth Hour!!Vespers
|-
!Su
|II, III||-||-||-||-||-
|-
!M
|IV, V, VI||-||VII||VIII||IX||X
|-
!Tu
|XI, XII, XIII||XIV||XV||XVI||XVIII||XIX
|-
!W
|XX, I, II||III||IV||V||VI||VII
|-
!Th
|VIII||-||IX||X||XI||XII
|-
!F
|XIII, XIV, XV||-||XIX||XX||-||XVIII
|-
!Sa
|XVI, XVII||-||-||-||-||I
|-
|}
</center>
<br>
When the feast of the Annunciation falls on the Thursday of the Fifth Week of Great Lent, the Great Canon is sung on the Tuesday of that week and the Psalter is read as follows:
 
<center>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"
!Day!!Matins!!First Hour!!Third Hour!!Sixth Hour!!Ninth Hour!!Vespers
|-
!Su
|II, III, XVII||-||-||-||-||-
|-
!M
|IV, V, VI||VII||VIII||IX||X||XI
|-
!Tu
|XII||-||XIII||XIV||XV||XVI
|-
!W
|XIX, XX, I||II||III||IV||V||-
|-
!Th
|VI, VII, VIII*||IX||X||XI||XII||-
|-
!F
|XIII, XIV, XV||-||XIX||XX||-||XVIII
|-
!Sa
|XVI, XVII||-||-||-||-||I
|-
|}
*On Thursday, the feast of the Annunciation, the polyeleos (Ps. 44) is chanted at the third kathisma of Matins.
</center>
<br>
During Holy Week:
 
<center>
{| border="1" cellpadding="2"
!Day!!Matins!!First Hour!!Third Hour!!Sixth Hour!!Ninth Hour!!Vespers
|-
!Su
|II, III||-||-||-||-||-
|-
!M
|IV, V, VI||-||VII||VIII||-||XVIII
|-
!Tu
|IX, X, XI||-||XII||XIII||-||XVIII
|-
!W
|XIV, XV, XVI||-|XIX||XX||-||XVIII
|-
!Th
|-||-||-||-||-||-
|-
!F
|-||-||-||-||-||-
|-
!Sa
|-||-||-||-||-||-
|-
|}
</center>
After Wednesday of Holy Week, we lay aside the Psalter until the eve of Thomas Sunday at Vespers.
<br>
*''The Psalter of the Prophet and King David with the Nine Biblical Odes'', compiled by Michael Asser, ed. by St. Gregory Palamas Monastery, Center For Traditionalist Orthodox Studies, Etna, CA, 2008 (ISBN 978-0-911165-68-5). Septuagint translation using the King James Version as a template.
*''The Orthodox Psalter: The Psalterion According to the Seventy, With the Nine Odes, and Patristic Commentary'', translated by Holy Apostles Convent, Buena Vista, CO, 2011 (ISBN 978-0-944359-35-8). Available as a pocket edition and a full-size edition with patristic commentary.
*''The Psalms of David: Translated from the Septuagint Greek'', translated by Donald Sheehan, Wipf & Stock, Eugene, OR, 2013 (ISBN 13: 978-1-62032-5100)
=== Liturgical Editions: Contemporary English===
*''Kathisma Psalter with Canticles'', [[Holy Myrrhbearers Monastery(Otego, New York)|Holy Myrrhbearers Monastery]], Otego, NY. *''The Psalter'', [[New Skete (Cambridge, New York)|New Skete]], Cambridge, NY, 1984.(ISBN 978-0960792450)*''The PsalterAccording to the Seventy''(Greek-English), translated by Fr. Peter Chamberas, Holy Cross Press, Brookline, MA, 2019. *''The Holy Psalter of Prophet and King David'', arranged and edited by Archimandrite Roman Braga, HDM Press ([[Monastery of the Dormition of the Mother of God Orthodox Monastery, (Rives Junction, Michigan)|Holy Dormition Monastery]] ), MI, 2012.  
=== Scholarly Editions===
*''A Comparative Psalter'', John Kohlenberger, ed., Oxford, 2006. (ISBN 978-0195297607). This contains the Masoretic Text with translation in the Revised Standard Version, and the Septuagint with translation in the New English Translation of the Septuagint.
==Sources==
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