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Timeline of Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic relations

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==Apostolic and Ante-Nicene Era==
*ca. 37-53 Episcopacy of [[Apostle Peter]] in Antioch.
*50 Apostolic Council of Jerusalem overrules St. Peter's Judaizing.
*64 Martyrdom of Peter in Rome.
*67 Election of [[Linus of Rome|Linus]], first bishop of Rome.
*800 Usurpation of Western Roman Empire by Charlemagne.
*809 Pope [[Leo III of Rome|Leo III]] forbids addition of Filioque to Creed and has original Creed in both Greek and Latin inscribed on silver tablets displayed in Rome.
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870|Council in Constantinople]] deposes St. [[Photius the Great]].
*870 Gradual collapse of the [[w:Great Moravia|Moravian]] mission beginning with the death of Prince [[Rastislav of Moravia|Rostislav of Moravia]], who is captured and deposed by his nephew, [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]], who favours more the Latin liturgy and Bavarian clergy represented by the Frankish Bp. Wiching of Nitra (consecrated in 880 as the first Bp. of Nitria);<ref group="note">In Moravia, as in Bulgaria, the Greek mission clashed with German missionaries at work in the same area. Traces of the Slavonic mission lingered on in Moravia for two centuries more, but were eventually eradicated; and Christianity in its western form, with Latin culture and the Latin language (and the filioque), became universal. The attempt to found a Slavonic national Church in Moravia came to nothing. After its collapse in Moravia, the work of the Slavic apostles was saved for the Slavs and Europe by Bulgaria when its ruler Boris, in his endeavor to establish a national church, protected and encouraged the Slavic missionaries who sought refuge in his land. Thus, the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was preserved and further cultivated in [[Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid|Ochrid]] and [[w:Preslav|Preslav]], two great and dissimilar centers which created a rich literature and culture Byzantine in inspiration, yet Slavic in language and ideology. Therefore other countries, where the brothers had not themselves preached, benefited from their work, most notably [[Church of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]], and [[Church of Russia|Russia]].</ref>
*874 The [[w:Great Moravia|Great Moravian]] king [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]] subjugated the [[w:Vistulans|Vistulan]] tribe of [[w:Lesser Poland|Lesser Poland]], resulting in the Christianization of Little Poland in the Orthodox Cyrillo-Methodian style, (as opposed to the Western Bohemian style), as early as the end of 9th century, before the conversion of Polish King [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]] in 966;<ref group="note">Antoni Mironowicz. ''[ The Orthodox Church in Poland].'' 2010.</ref>
*879-880 [[Eighth Ecumenical Council|Council in Constantinople]] (endorsed by papacy) reinstates St. Photius and anathematizes any changes to Nicene Creed, including the [[Filioque]].<ref group="note">"The Council of 879-880 in Constantinople, under the Ecumenical Patriarch, Archbishop of Constantinople and New Rome, Saint [[Photios the Great]], Equal to the Apostles, which condemned as heretical the teaching of the [[Filioque]], and is considered by the consciousness of the Church to be the '''8th Ecumenical Council''', because in it were representatives of all the Patriarchates, including the then Orthodox Pope of Rome, [[John VIII of Rome|John the 8th]], and because the decisions of this council were universally accepted.":* <small>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 4.</small></ref>
*962 Founding of Holy Roman Empire.
*966 [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]], the first historical ruler of Poland, accepts Baptism, after marrying the Christian princess [[w:Dobrawa of Bohemia|Dobrawa]] in 965, who as a Czech, had strong Orthodox connections.<ref group="note">Their palace was in Ostrov Tumski, where the royal couple worshipped in a chapel before Christianity became the official religion. It is the foundations of this chapel, marking the beginning of Christian life in Poland, which archaeologists think that they have now uncovered. Its pre-Romanesque structure shows the Orthodox architectural style of Western Europe before the schism. We should recall that in southern Poland, along the Moravian border which had been ruled by [[Rastislav of Moravia|St Rostislav]], Slav Orthodox missionaries had begun their task of spiritual enlightenment well before Mieszko’s marriage to Dobrawa. This discovery will surely lead the spiritually sensitive in Poland to realise that '''the origins of Poland's Christian faith are in Orthodoxy, and not in late eleventh-century Roman Catholicism. This was imported from Germany, and only developed to any great extent in Poland in the twelfth century.''' (''Orthodox England. [ Orthodox Europe: Poland uncovers its original Orthodoxy].'')</ref>
*996 After the repose of Pope John XV (985-996), the Frankish King Otto III installs his cousin Bruno of Carinthia as Pope Gregory V (996–999), the first German (non-Roman) Pope, marking the point at which the Roman papacy is converted to a Frankish organization.<ref>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved 2013-02-15.</ref><ref group="note">"At this point, the once Roman papacy converts to a Frankish organization and becomes a simple pawn of the autocracy. Due to the Frankish control of the papacy, the rulings of the [[Eighth Ecumenical Council]] of 879 (of which [[John VIII of Rome|Pope John VIII]] had participated) are uncanonically rejected. This allows the [[filioque]] to be introduced into the [[Church of Rome]], as well as the papal claims of world domination (heretical views condemned by the Eighth Ecumenical Council). The new Frankish papacy also begins to reject the title of "Ecumenical Patriarch" for the Archbishop of Constantinople (New Rome), an historic title bestowed upon the latter as early as 7th century. A Roman Orthodox party in the West rejects the new Frankish Germanic pope and elects a truly Roman and Orthodox Pope, [[John XVI of Rome|John XVI]]."<br>
:* <small>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved 2013-02-15.</small></ref>
*1009 Patr. [[Sergius II of Constantinople]] removes name of [[Sergius IV of Rome|Pope Sergius IV]] from the [[diptychs]] of Constantinople, because the pope had written a letter to the patriarch including the [[Filioque]].<ref>Rev. Andrew J. Barakos. ''[ The Great Schism].'' Assumption Greek Orthodox Church, Scottsdale, Arizona. Retrieved: 2013-02-15.</ref><ref group="note">"From 1009, the [[w:Franks|Franks]] controlled the succession to the papal throne and Latin orthodoxy dropped its resistance to the innovations devised at the court of of Charlemagne, making it official doctrine."<br>
:* <small>[[Christos Yannaras]]. ''Orthodoxy and the West: Hellenic Self-Identity in the Modern Age.'' Transl. Peter Chamberas and Norman Russell. Brookline: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2006. p.18.</small></ref>
*1014 First use of ''Filioque'' by Pope of Rome, at coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.
*1022 At a Council of Pavia, Pope [[w:Pope Benedict VIII|Benedict VIII]] officially reaffirmed the celibacy of the clergy (first documented at the Synod of Elvira in Spain, ca. 306 AD), banning marriages and concubines for priests.<ref>Fr. Alphonse De Valk ([[w:Congregation of St. Basil|C.S.B.]]). ''"Priestly celibacy."'' '''Catholic Insight'''. Vol. 5, Number 3, Apr. 1997, pp.20-24.</ref><ref group="note">Clerical celibacy was officially reaffirmed once again by [[w:Pope Innocent II|Pope Innocent II]] in 1139 at the [[w:Second Council of the Lateran|Second Lateran Council]], and finally at the end of 1563 at the Council of Trent.</ref>
*ca. 1078-80 Council of Burgos reorganizes national Church of Spain as Roman Archbishopric, replaces use of Mozarabic rite with Roman. Sentences Bishops who refuse to recognize decrees to imprisonment.
*1095-1272 [[Crusades]] promise salvation to warriors from the West.
*1098 Abp. [[w:Anselm of Canterbury|Anselm of Canterbury]] completes ''[[w:Cur Deus Homo|Cur Deus Homo]]'', marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East; Pope [[w:Pope Urban II|Urban II]] called the [[w:Council of Bari|Council of Bari]], attended by more than 180 Roman Catholic bishops, including noted theologian Anselm of Canterbury (the founder of rationalistic Western Scholasticism) who defended the ''[[filioque]]'' clause, with the result that the Roman Catholic-dominated council affirmed the ''filoque'' and anathematized those who were opposed to it. <ref>Rev. A. H. Hore. ''[ Eighteen centuries of the Orthodox Greek Church].'' London: James Parker & Co. 1899. pp. 413-414.</ref><ref>[[w:Claude Fleury|Claude Fleury]]. ''"Histoire Ecclesiastique".'' t. XIII, p. 625.</ref>
*1139 [[w:Pope Innocent II|Pope Innocent II]] declared all priestly marriages annulled and declared clerical [[celibacy]] the rule for all Roman Catholic priests from that day forward ([[w:Second Council of the Lateran|Second Lateran Council]], canons 6 and 7).
*1170 Council of Constantinople, attended by many Eastern and Western Bishops, on the reunion of the Eastern and Latin Churches, without effect.<ref name=MCCLINTOCKandSTRONG491>Rev. John McClintock (D.D.),and James Strong (S.T.D.). ''Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature.'' Vol. II - C, D. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1868. p. 491.</ref><ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 4.</ref>
*1180 Last formal reception of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar, in Antioch.
*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]] (formerly [[Monothelitism|Monothelite]] heretics) submit to Rome.
*1379 Beginning of Western "Great Schism," during which there are eventually 3 rival popes.
*1341-1351 [[Ninth Ecumenical Council|Councils in Constantinople]] vindicate [[Gregory Palamas|Palamite]] theology of hesychasm against [[Barlaam of Calabria|Barlaamist]] philosophy.
*1409 [[w:Council of Pisa|Council of Pisa]] is convened and presided over by [[w:Gui de Maillesec|Cardinal de Malesset]], [[w:Roman Catholic Suburbicarian Diocese of Palestrina|Bishop of Palestrina]], and attended by 4 Latin patriarchs, 22 cardinals, 80 bishops and hundreds of lower clergy, whereby both reigning Popes Gregory XII of Rome and Benedict XIII of Avignon were deposed as heretics, being a recognition of the fact that Patriarchs and Popes were subordinate to the Councils of the Church.<ref>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved: 25 February 2015.</ref><ref>Rev. A. H. Hore. ''[ Eighteen centuries of the Orthodox Greek Church].'' London: James Parker & Co. 1899. p. 464.</ref>
*1414-1418 Council of Constance ends Western "Great Schism;" this council emphasized the [[w:Conciliarism|Conciliar Movement]] over the authority of the pope.
*1415 The 13th Session of the [[w:Council of Constance|Council of Constance]] (June 15, 1415) decreed that the administering of the [[w:Communion under both kinds|Eucharist in Both Kinds]] to the [[Laity]] was to be forbidden, and that the [[Laity]] should receive the [[Eucharist]] under one kind only, that of the Bread, even though the Council itself noted that: ''"[[Christ]] instituted and administered to his disciples this venerable sacrament under both kinds of bread and wine; and that it was received by the faithful in the primitive church under both kinds."''<ref>Prof. Archibald Bower (Esq.) and Rev. Samuel Hanson Cox (D.D.). ''[ The History of the Popes: From the Foundation of the See of Rome to A.D. 1758, Volume 3].'' Philadelphia: Griffith & Simon, 1845. pp.188-190.</ref><ref>Papal Encyclicals Online. [ Council of Constance 1414-18: SESSION 13 - 15 June 1415].</ref><ref group="note">The Council also stated that no priest, under pain of excommunication, may communicate the people under the forms of both bread and wine:<br>
*1439 [[Council of Florence]] fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy and confesses Purgatory as dogma; St. [[Mark of Ephesus]] courageously defended Orthodoxy at the Council of Florence, being the only Eastern bishop to refuse to sign the decrees of the council, regarded as a '''Pillar of Orthodoxy''' by the Church.<ref group="note">Saints [[Photius the Great]], [[Mark of Ephesus]], and [[Gregory Palamas]], have been called the '''Three Pillars of Orthodoxy'''.</ref>
*1444 Catholic priest Lorenzo Valla proves ''Donation of Constantine'' a forgery.
*1450 Council of Constantinople convoked by Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]] declined to accept the resolutions passed by the [[Council of Florence]] which were in favor of the union of the Greek and Latin churches.<ref name=MCCLINTOCKandSTRONG491/><ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/>
*1452 Unification of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] and [[Greek Orthodox]] Churches in the [[cathedral]] of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] on [[December 12]], five months before the city fell, on the West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed by the former Metropolitan of Kiev [[w:Isidore of Kiev|Isidore]] (who had participated in the [[Council of Florence]] and was now a cardinal in the Roman Catholic church) who read the solemn promulgation of union and celebrated the union liturgy, including the name of the [[pope]], arousing the greatest agitation among the population of the city.<ref>[[w:George Ostrogorsky|Georgije Ostrogorski]]. ''[ History of the Byzantine State].'' Rutgers University Press, 1969. p.568.</ref><ref name="Hinson">E. Glenn Hinson. ''[ The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity up to 1300].'' Mercer University Press, 1995. p.443.</ref><ref group="note">Although some of the Greek party, especially [[w:Basilios Bessarion|Bessarion, Metropolitan of Nicaea]], and [[w:Isidore of Kiev|Isidore]], former Metropolitan of Kiev and all all Rus', showed real concern for unity, they could not rally support for it in the East. The Patriarchates of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]], [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], and [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]] and the churches of [[Church of Russia|Russia]], [[Church of Romania|Romania]], and [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]] all rejected it immediately. In Byzantium only a small minority accepted it. Emperors John VIII and and [[Constantine XI Palaiologos|Constantine IX]] (1448-1453) proved unable to force their will on the Church. Most Byzantines felt betrayed. (E. Glenn Hinson. ''[ The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity up to 1300].'' Mercer University Press, 1995. p.443.)</ref>
*1576 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the '[[w:Greek_Pontifical_College#Collegio_Greco|Greek College]]') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.
*1582 Institution of [[Gregorian Calendar]].
*1583 Arrival of the first Jesuits in Constantinople and constant proselytization by the Roman Catholic Church in the Ottoman Empire.<ref name=VRASIDAS158>Vrasidas Karalis. "Greek Christianity After 1453." In: Ken Parry (Ed.). ''The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity.'' Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007. p. 158.</ref><ref group="note">Orthodox dioceses were divided between Roman Catholic Venetian rulers and the Ottoman sultanate. Whereas under the latter they enjoyed relative freedom of religious expression, this was not the case in the Venetian-ruled areas. There all Orthodox bishops and metropolitans were replaced by Latin representatives of the pope.</ref>*1595-1596 Pope [[w:Pope Clement VIII|Clement VIII]] declared in his Constitution ''Magnus Dominus'' (23 Dec. 1595), which announced the [[Union of Brest-Litovsk|Union of Brest]], that Orthodox [[Chrismation|Chrism]] was not valid and had to be repeated by a Roman Catholic bishop and that all Orthodox clergy had to accept the union;<ref group="note">The document shows that membership in the Church of God was seen as essentially conditioned by communion with the Pope of Rome. Those who do not belong to the Roman-Catholic Church cannot be saved because they are not members of the Church of God as such. Membership in the Roman Catholic Church was thus thought of as the only possible way of attaining salvation.:* <small>Wacław Hryniewicz. ''[ The Challenge of Our Hope: Christian Faith in Dialogue].'' Volume 32 of Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change. CRVP, 2007. p. 227.</small></ref> [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]] and creation of the [[Unia ]] (Eastern/Byzantine/Greek Catholics); <ref group="note">"The origins of the [[Unia]] are found in the Lateran Council of 1215 and in the Bull of “Pope” Innocent IV. Officially, however, two Jesuits, [[w:Antonio Possevino|Antonio Possevino]] (1533-1611) and [[w:Piotr Skarga|Peter Skarga]] (1536-1612), created the Unia in Poland. These two monks put Unia in practice in Poland. They did this in order to [[Latinization|Latinize]] the Orthodox of Poland and Northwestern Russia. The King of Poland, Sigismund III, whom the two Jesuits had raised, helped them in this.":* <small>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 31.</small></ref> after initially having supported rapproachement with Rome, Bp. [[Hedeon (Balaban) of Lviv]] opposed the Union of Brest until his death; in Italy, the Greek language was forbidden in the liturgy and the [[w:Greek Pontifical College of Saint Athanasius|College of St Athanasius]] (formally established in Rome in 1577) became one of the main centres of anti-Orthodox propaganda;<ref name=VRASISAS>Vrasidas Karalis. "Greek Christianity After 1453." In: Ken Parry (Ed.). The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2007.pp. 158, 160-161.</ref> Pope [[w:Pope Clement VIII|Clement VIII]] also replaced all Orthodox bishops with his own people, a policy that alienated local Orthodox populations, who yearned for the religious tolerance enjoyed by Ottoman subjects.<ref name=VRASISAS/>
*1597 Death of Nicephorus, the [[Protosyngellos]] of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who had supported the Orthodox synod at Brest (against the Uniate synod), and was sentenced to prison by the high court of Poland on charges of espionage.
*1611 [[w:Gallicanism|Gallican]] French theologian [ Edmund Richer] (1559-1631), author of ''De ecclesiastica et politica potestate,'' held the view that [[w:Conciliarism|ecclesiastical councils]], not the papacy, was the method by which doctrinal truth was established, but his work was censured at the Council of Aix-en-Provence in 1612; this ‘richérisme’ strongly influenced 18th century Jansenism.
*1671 French Roman Catholic nun [[w:Marguerite Marie Alacoque|Margaret Mary Alacoque]] promoted devotion to the Cult of the [[w:Sacred Heart|Sacred Heart]] of Jesus in its modern form.<ref group="note">Marguerite Marie Alacoque was briefly preceeded in establishing the devotion to the Sacred Hearts by her contemporary Fr. [[w:Jean Eudes|Jean Eudes]] (canonized in 1925), a French missionary who was founder of the [[w:Congregation of Jesus and Mary|Congregation of Jesus and Mary]], of the [[w:Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge|Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge]], and author of the Propers for Mass and Divine Office of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. The feast of the [[w:Immaculate Heart of Mary|Holy Heart of Mary]] was celebrated for the first time in 1648, and that of the [[w:Sacred Heart|Sacred Heart of Jesus]] in 1672.</ref>
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).
*1722 Council in Constantinople, in which Athanasios of Antioch (+1724) and Chrysanthos of Jerusalem (1707-1731) participated, decided for the re-baptism of the Latins.<ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/><ref>Fr. George Dragas. ''[ The Manner of Reception of Roman Catholic Converts into the Orthodox Church].'' Myriobiblos Library. Retrieved: 2014-05-09.</ref>
*1724 [[Melkite]] [[Schism]], in which many [[Church of Antioch|Antiochian Orthodox]] become Greek Catholics; Old Catholic Schism: on October 15, 1724 Roman Catholic Bp. Dominique (Varlet) of Baghdad consecrated the first dissident bishop of Utrecht, Bp. Cornelius van Steenhoven (elected in 1723), as the [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Holland]], (or [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Utrecht]]) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the Old Catholic Churches.<ref group="note">The Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands headquartered at the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands was [[w:Ultrajectine|Ultrajectine]] in tradition, rejecting papal infallibility and holding to the belief that only the Church in Ecumenical Council may speak infallibly; it was Roman Catholic in liturgy and belief, but refused to submit to Papal abuses.</ref>
*1740 [[w:Pope Benedict XIV|Pope Benedict XIV]] (Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini) promulgated the encyclical ''Pastoralis Romani Pontificis'' on March 30, in which he enforced and declared that he, his predecessors, and all his successors hold Papal Infallibility, and that [[Ecumenical Councils|ecumenical councils]] should be discouraged, as they can undermine one of the principle pillars of the papacy - infallibility.
*1755 [[Synod of Constantinople (1755)|Synod of Constantinople]] declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.
*1763 The [[w:Jansenism|Jansenist]] Provincial Council of Utrecht, seed of the future [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic]] movements, affirmed every Roman Catholic dogma and pronounced the Orthodox Faith to be schismatic and false, signalling not so much a rapprochement with Orthodoxy, but rather a refusal to drift yet further from her, as much of the Roman fold was doing.
*ca.1830 [[w:Slavophile|Slavophile movement]] co-founded by [[Alexei Stepanovich Khomiakov|Alexei Khomiakov]] and [[w:Ivan Kireyevsky|Ivan Kireyevsky]] in Russia, drawing on the works of Greek patristics, Russian poets and literary critics to reinforce Orthodox Christian values and Slavic cultural traditions, denouncing "westernizations" by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, and stressing Russian mysticism over Western rationalism.<ref group="note">For a discussion of Khomyakov see:<br>
:Joseph L. Wieczynski. ''Khomyakov's Critique of Western Christianity.'' '''Church History'''. Vol.38, No.3, Sep., 1969. pp.291-299.</ref>
*1838 [[Council of Constantinople (1838)|Council of Constantinople]] held, attended by Patriarchs Gregory VI of Constantinople and Athanasius V of Jerusalem, whose main theme was the [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Unia]], and the extermination of Latin dogmas and usages, in particular [[Absolution Certificates]].<ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/><ref>Sergei Govorun. ''[ Indulgences in the history of the Greek Church].'' Transl. by Bishop Tikhon of San Francisco & the West. 25/11/2004.</ref>
*1842 Russian diplomat [[w:Ivan Gagarin|Ivan Sergeyevich Gagarin]] converted to the Roman Catholic Church and joined the Jesuit Order, becoming dedicated to union between the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.<ref group="note">Despite the failure of his unionist activity, Gagarin exerted important influence on such contemporary and later Roman Catholic and Russian thinkers as [[w:Pope Pius IX|Pope Pius IX]], [[w:Aleksey Khomyakov|Alexei Khomiakov]] and [[w:Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)|Vladimir Solovev]].</ref>
*1847 Restoration of [[w:Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem|Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem]] by Pope Pius IX; [[w:1847 Agreement between the Holy See and Russia|1847 Agreement between the Holy See and Russia]].
*1889 Roman Catholic priest Fr. [[Julius of Goa|Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares]] (Julius of Goa) and hundreds of Goan Catholic families (approximately 5000 Roman Catholics) left the [[w:Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman|Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman]] and joined the [[Church of India|Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church]] as the ''[[Brahmavar (Goan) Orthodox Church|Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon, Goa and India]],'' with Fr. Antonio being ordained as the first (Latin-Rite) Oriental-Orthodox Metropolitan of Goa-Ceylon (1889-1923).<ref group="note">Fr. [[w:Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares|Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares]] (Mar Julius I) was consecrated in 1889 by St. [[w:Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala|Gregorios of Parumala]], Metr. Athanasius Paulos of Aluva, and Malankara Metr. [[w:Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II|Dionysius Joseph II]]; this church maintained relations with the Syrian Orthodox Patr. of Antioch Mar [[w:Ignatius Peter IV|Ignatius Peter III]], and was permitted to continue its Latin or Western rite liturgical practices.</ref>
*1894 ''[[w:Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae|Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae]]'' (''on the Reunion of Christendom''), an Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII promulgated on [[June 20]], called for the reunion of Eastern and Western churches into the "Unity of the Faith", while also condemning Freemasonry; criticized by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VII in 1895; Pope Leo XIII issues ''[[w:Orientalium Dignitas|Orientalium Dignitas]],'' a papal encyclical concerning the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] including a prohibition aganist [[Latinization|Latinizing]] influences among Eastern Catholics.
*1895 Council of Constantinople, convened and presided over by Patriarch [[Anthimus VII (Tsatsos) of Constantinople|Anthimus VII]], and attended by 13 bishops, condemns all the [[w:Levantines (Latin Christians)|Franco-Latin]] [[Heresy|heresies]], including the new false dogma of the so-called [[Immaculate Conception]] of the Virgin Mary by St. Anne, and the blasphemous teaching that the pope is supposedly [[Papal Infallibility|infallible]] and undeposable.<ref name=PIRAEUSandDRYINOUPOLIS4/><ref>Stavros L. K. Markou. ''[ An Orthodox Christian Historical Timeline].'' Retrieved 2013-02-05.</ref>
*1908 English Roman Catholic priest and Byzantine scholar Dr. [[w:Adrian Fortescue (priest)|Adrian Fortescue]] writes ''[ The Orthodox Eastern Church],'' written to teach Roman Catholics and people in the West about the [[Orthodox Church]].
*1914 Martyrdom of Fr. [[Maxim Sandovich]], Protomartyr of the [[w:Lemkos|Lemko]] people.
==Era of Dialogue==
*1964 Mutual lifting of excommunications by Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras I]] and Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]].
*1965 The [[w:North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation|North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] is founded, meeting twice yearly; the office of ''[[w:Latin Patriarch of Constantinople|Latin Patriarch of Constantinople]]'' is officially abolished; Professor John Karmiris wrote about the Vatican’s plan to promote the union of the Orthodox and [[w:Papist|Papist]], stating: ''"Pope [[Paul VI]] and his circle of Papist theologians worked out a well-researched and broad program of Rome-centered [[Ecumenism]], in agreement with Latin [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology|Ecclesiology]]."''<ref name=PIRAEISandDRYINOUPOLIS35>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 35.:* citing: {{el icon}} ΙΩΑΝΝΗΣ ΚΑΡΜΙΡΗΣ, ''Ὀρθοδοξία καί Ρωμαιοκαθολικισμός,'' vol. ΙΙ, Ἀθήναι 1965, p. 170.</ref><ref group="note">"Fr. [[John S. Romanides|John Romanidis]], of blessed memory, revealed that a Papist “bishop” had confided to him that, according to the Vatican’s plan, the union would not happen from the top, that is to say, from the bishops, the theologians and the dialogues, but rather from the so-called grassroots [[ecumenism]], that is to say, through the mutual association between the two sides and the gradual implementation of sacramental intercommunion (intercommunio), which is already being put into effect by Rome and the Orthodox Ecumenists.":* <small>{{el icon}} ΑΡΧΙΜ. ΓΕΩΡΓΙΟΣ ΚΑΨΑΝΗΣ, ''Ἡ κρίσις Θεολογίας καί Οἰκουμενισμοῦ ἐν Η.Π.Α.'', Ἀθήναι 1968, pp. 17-20.</ref>
*1966 Translation of the sacred [[relics]] of the Holy [[Apostle Titus]] of Crete, from Venice (which took them in 1669), back to the Greek Orthodox [[Archdiocese of Crete]].<ref>[ Ἀνακομιδὴ Τιμίων Λειψάνων Ἁγίου Ἀποστόλου Τίτου]. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.</ref>
*1966-67 Pope Paul VI continued John XXIII's policy of dialogue with Soviet leaders in order to reduce persecutions against local Christians ([[w:Ostpolitik|Ostpolitik]] policy), receiving Foreign Minister [[w:Andrei Gromyko|Andrei Gromyko]] and USSR President [[w:Nikolai Podgorny|Nikolai Podgorny]]; however while the Soviet officials considered themselves calling on the pope as the head of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City State]], the Vatican announced the visit as made to the Holy Father as supreme pastor of the [[w:Holy See|Holy See]].<ref>Francis X. Murphy. ''Vatican Politics: Structure and Function.'' '''World Politics'''. Vol.26, No.4 (July 1974). p.554.</ref>
*1968 Visit The Pope removed from the Calendar of Saints the Great-Martyr St. [[George the Trophy-bearer]], as well as erasing thirty other Saints with him, including Saint [[Nicholas of Myra|Nicholas]], Saint [[Christopher of Lycia|Christopher]], Saint [[Barbara of Heliopolis|Barbara]], and Saint [[Catherine of Alexandria|Catherine]], being some of the chief Saints of [[Orthodox Church|Orthodoxy]].<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 11.</ref> visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives, who give Patr. [[Nicholas VI of Alexandria|Nicholas VI]] a part of the relics of [[Apostle Mark|St Mark]] from Venice, on behalf of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]]; the [[w:Centro Pro Unione|Centro Pro Unione]] center is founded by the [[w:Society of the Atonement|Society of the Atonement]] (Graymoor Friars and Sisters) as an ecumenical research and action center. ;
*1969 The new Roman Missal ''Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani'' or ''[[w:General Instruction of the Roman Missal|General Instruction of the Roman Missal]] (GIRM)'' is issued, indicating a preference for the liturgical orientation in which the priest celebrates the Liturgy "[[w:Versus populum|Versus Populum]]" ("towards the people"), rather than "[[w:Ad orientem|Ad Orientem]]" ("towards the east"), becoming the new pattern worldwide in Roman Catholic parishes.<ref group="note">According to Fr. Uwe Michael Lang:<br>
:<small>"The most important directive is found in paragraph 262 of the ''Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani,'' the General Instruction of the new Roman Missal, issued in 1969. That says, 'It is better for the main altar to be constructed away from the wall so that one can easily walk around the altar and celebrate facing the people (''versus populum'').' The General Instruction of the Missal issued in 2002 retained this text unaltered except for the addition of the subordinate clause, 'which is desirable wherever possible'. This was taken in many quarters as a hardening of the 1969 text to mean that there was now a general obligation to set up altars facing the people 'wherever possible'. This interpretation, however, was rejected by the [[w:Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments|Congregation for Divine Worship]] on 25 September 2000, when it declared that the word '' 'expedit' '' ('is desirable') did not imply an obligation but only made a suggestion."</small><br>
:<small>"...The liturgical renewal in our own century took up this alleged model and developed from it a new idea for the form of the liturgy. The Eucharist - so it was said - had to be celebrated ''versus populum'' (toward the people). The altar - as can be seen in the normative model of St. Peter's - had to be positioned in such a way that priest and people looked at each other and formed together the circle of the celebrating community. This alone - so it was said - was compatible with the meaning of the Christian liturgy, with the requirement of active participation. This alone conformed to the primordial model of the Last Supper. These arguments seemed in the end so persuasive that after the Council [Vatican II] (which says nothing about "turning toward the people") new altars were set up everywhere, and today celebration ''versus populum'' really does look like the characteristic fruit of Vatican II's liturgical renewal."</small><br>
(Pope [[Benedict XVI]]. ''[ The Spirit of the Liturgy].'' Transl. John Saward. Ignatius Press, 2000. p.77.)</ref>
*1974 The Venerable [[Justin Popovich|Justin Popović]] wrote ''"The Orthodox Church and Ecumenism"'', noting that: ''"Ecumenism is a common name for the false Christianities of the false churches of Western Europe. Within it is found the heart of European Humanism with [[w:Papist|Papism]] as its head. All of these false Christianities and false churches are nothing other than one heresy next to the other. Their common evangelical name is pan-heresy."''<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 29.</ref>
*1978 Through the efforts of Metr. [[Panteleimon (Chrysofakis) of Thessalonica]], the sacred relics St. [[David of Thessalonica]] were triumphantly returned to Thessaloniki from Milan, Italy, after having been taken by Crusaders in 1236 AD.
*1979 [[w:Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church|Joint Commission of Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches for Theological Dialogue]] established.
*2004 Return of relics of Ss. [[John Chrysostom]] and [[Gregory the Theologian]] to Constantinople from Rome (after having been stolen by Crusaders); the [ Orientale Lumen EuroEast I] conference is held in Istanbul, May 10-13, 2004;<ref group="note">This was the 11th of a series of Orientale Lumen Conferences, since they began in 1997. ''Orientale Lumen EuroEast I'' was jointly announced by the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople]], the [[w:Pontifical Oriental Institute|Pontifical Oriental Institute]], the [ Catholic and Orthodox Society of St. John Chrysostom], and [ Eastern Christian Publications]. The thematic focus of the 80 participants of [;col1 Orientale Lumen Euro-East I] was ''"Liturgy as the Foundation of Dialogue."'' The meeting transpired over the anniversary of the founding of Constantinople on May 11,330 A.D.</ref> the [ Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group] is established at Paderborn (Germany), composed of 26 theologians, 13 Orthodox and 13 Roman Catholics, attempting to go through Church history chronologically to understand and analyze the development of the interrelationship between [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology|primacy and synodality]] in terms of both theology and [[praxis]].<ref group="note">Since its foundation in 2004, the [ Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group] has held annual meetings at: Paderborn (2004), Athens (2005), Chevetogne (2006), Belgrade (2007), Vienna (2008), Kiev (2009), and Magdeburg (2010).</ref>
*2005 Major controversy in Ukraine involving the almost exclusively western Ukraine-based [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Greek Catholic Church moving its administrative centre on from Lviv to Kiev, constructing a large cathedral there, and its plans to establish a patriarchate, criticized by the Orthodox [[Church of Ukraine]] and other Orthodox; in his first major policy statement as pope, Pope [[Benedict XVI]] issued [ an instruction] barring actively [[Homosexuality|gay]] priests from seminaries, the only exception being for those with a "transitory problem" that had been overcome at least three years prior to ordination to the diaconate.<ref>CONGREGATION FOR CATHOLIC EDUCATION. ''[ Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders].'' Rome, 4 November 2005, Memorial of St Charles Borromeo, Patron of Seminaries. Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski (Prefect).</ref><ref>IAN FISHER and LAURIE GOODSTEIN. ''[ New Vatican Rule Said to Bar Gays as New Priests].'' NY Times. September 22, 2005.</ref><ref>Peter Gould. ''[ Vatican fuels gay clergy debate].'' BBC News. Monday, 28 November 2005, 18:33 GMT.</ref><ref>''[ Less gay behavior in seminaries, Vatican says].'' MSNBC (Associated Press). 1/15/2009 2:26:40 PM ET.</ref><ref>PAUL VITELLO. ''[ Prospective Catholic Priests Face Sexuality Hurdles].'' NY Times. May 30, 2010.</ref>
*2006 Pope Benedict XVI drops title ''Patriarch of the West'';<ref>''"[ Communiqué concernant la suppression du titre «Patriarche d’Occident» dans l'Annuaire pontifical 2006]".'' Retrieved 2010-09-26.</ref><ref group="note">From 1863 until 2005, the ''Annuario Pontificio'' included also the title "Patriarch of the West". This title was first used by [[w:Pope Theodore I|Pope Theodore I]] in 642, and was only used occasionally. Indeed, it did not begin to appear in the pontifical yearbook until 1863. On 22 March 2006, the Vatican released a statement explaining this omission on the grounds of expressing a "historical and theological reality" and of "being useful to ecumenical dialogue". The title Patriarch of the West symbolized the pope's special relationship with, and jurisdiction over, the Latin Church—and the omission of the title neither symbolizes in any way a change in this relationship, nor distorts the relationship between the Holy See and the Eastern Churches, as solemnly proclaimed by the Second Vatican Council.</ref> Pope Benedict XVI visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from the common Assembly of the twenty Sacred Monasteries of [[Mount Athos]];<ref>''[ The Official Statement from Mt. Athos on the Pope's Visit to the Phanar].'' [[Karyes (Athos)|Karyae]], 30 December 2006.</ref> in Ephesus, during the 2006 visit of [[Benedict XVI]] to Turkey and to the [[Phanar]], he supported the [[Unia]], stating ''"according to him the best way to unity in the Church is that of [[Unia]]."''<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. p. 34.</ref> Abp. [[Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens]] visits Vatican, the first head of the [[Church of Greece]] to visit the Vatican, reciprocating the Pope's visit to Greece in 2001, and signing a ''[ Joint Declaration on the importance of the Christian roots of Europe]'' and protecting fundamental human rights; the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox]] and [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] Churches confronted [[w:Secular humanism|Secular Humanism]] at the conference ''"[ Giving a Soul to Europe]"'' (Vienna, May 3-5, 2006),<ref group="note">The conference was organized jointly by the [[w:Pontifical Council for Culture|Pontifical Council for Culture]] and the [ Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate].</ref> discussing the challenges facing Christianity, specifically materialism, consumerism, agnosticism, secularism and relativism, all based on liberal humanist ideology, constituting a real threat to Christianity today;<ref group="note">From the perspective of the Church [[w:Secular humanism|Secular Humanism]] is defined as a religious philosophical worldview based on [[atheism]], [[w:Naturalism (philosophy)|naturalism]], [[evolution]], and [[w:Moral relativism|ethical relativism]], attempting to function as a civilized society with the total exclusion of [[God]] and His moral principles. At the conference Bishop [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Vienna|Hilarion Alfeyev]] called in most resolute terms for '''an institutionalized Orthodox-Catholic alliance''', without which, he said, it would not be possible to defend traditional values in Europe: ''"What we are witnessing is the final attack of militant secularism on the remains of Christian civilization in Europe."'' Note that at its 50th anniversary World Humanist Congress in 2002, the [[w:International Humanist and Ethical Union|International Humanist and Ethical Union]] (IHEU) published its ''"[[w:Amsterdam Declaration|Amsterdam Declaration]]",'' the defining statement of worldwide secular Humanism, embracing Humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, Ethical Culture, freethought and similar organisations worldwide.</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] met with Bp. Agathangelos of Fanarion and Greek Orthodox Seminarians from the [[Apostoliki Diakonia]] theology college in Greece who were visiting Rome, urging them to confront the challenges that threaten the faith by working to unify all Christians.*2007 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy, 10th plenary, led by co-presidents Cardinal [[w:Walter Kasper|Walter Kasper]] and Metr. [[John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon]], agreeing upon a joint document consisting of 46 articles providing an ecclesiastical road map in discussing union ("[ Ravenna Document]");<ref>Ruth Gledhill, Religion Correspondent and Paul Bompard in Rome. ''[ Vatican joins historic talks to end 950-year rift with Orthodox church].'' [[w:The Sunday Times|The Sunday Times]]. November 16, 2007.</ref><ref>Ian Fisher. ''[ Vatican City: Catholic-Orthodox Accord on Papal Primacy].'' [[w:The New York Times|NY Times]]. November 15, 2007. A10.</ref> Russian delegation walks out of Ravenna talks in protest of presence of Estonian delegation ([[Church of Constantinople|EP]]); the Vatican issued a 16-page document prepared by the ''[[w:Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith|Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith]]'', restating its belief that the Catholic Church is the only true church of Jesus Christ, also stating that although Orthodox churches are true churches, they are defective because they do not recognize the [[w:Papal supremacy|primacy of the Pope]];<ref>''[ Catholic Church only true church, Vatican says].'' CBC News. Tuesday, July 10, 2007.</ref> [ Orientale Lumen EuroEast II] conference, May, 2007 in Istanbul; the Vatican formally [ reconsiders doctrine of Limbo];<ref>''[ Catholic Church sees 'hope' for unbaptized babies].'' CBC News. Friday, April 20, 2007 | 4:16 PM ET.</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] issues the Apostolic Letter ''[[w:Summorum Pontificum|Summorum Pontificum]],'' <ref>[ Latin text on the Holy See's website]. Published officially in ''[[w:Acta Apostolicae Sedis|Acta Apostolicae Sedis]]'' XCIX (2007), 777-781. Available also with an [ English translation in a parallel column].</ref> granting greater freedom to use the [[w:Tridentine Mass|Tridentine Mass]] in its 1962 form and for administering most of the [[sacraments]] in the form that they had before the liturgical reforms following the Second Vatican Council, being well received by supporters of the Tridentine Mass and Traditionalists.
*2009 Led by three senior archbishops, a group of Orthodox clergy in Greece published a manifesto, ''[ A Confession of Faith Against Ecumenism],'' pledging to resist all ecumenical ties with Roman Catholics and Protestants, amongst its signatories including six metropolitans,<ref group="note">Metr. [[Panteleimon (Lampadarios) of Antinoe]]; Metr. Seraphim (Stergioulis) of [[Metropolis of Kythira|Kythira]]; Metr. Kosmas (Papachristos) of [[Metropolis of Aitolia and Akarnania|Aitolia and Akarnania]]; Metr. [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus]]; Metr. Dr. [ Artemije (Radosavljevic)] of Raska and Prizren, Kosovo and Metohia; Bp. [[George (Schaefer) of Mayfield]], Abbott of the [[Hermitage of the Holy Cross (Wayne, West Virginia)]].</ref> as well as 49 archimandrites, 22 hieromonks, and 30 nuns and abbesses, as well as many other priests and church elders; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Paphos, Cyprus, 11th plenary, studying the theme ''"The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium;"'' first-ever Russian Orthodox church is consecrated in Rome; Russia and the Holy See upgraded their diplomatic relations to full ambassadorial relations in 2009, following improvements in the working relationship between the Holy See and the Orthodox Patriarchate of Moscow;<ref>''[ Russia and the Vatican establish full diplomatic ties].'' BBC News. 20:59 GMT, Thursday, 3 December 2009.</ref> at the invitation of Cardinal Walter Kasper, Abp. [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk]] visited Pope [[Benedict XVI]] and several officials of the Roman Curia who have key roles in the Roman Catholic ecumenical dialogue;<ref>''[ Archbishop Hilarion shares with Pope his concern about Orthodox dioceses in Ukraine destroyed by the Uniates].'' Interfax-Religion. 21 September 2009, 13:19.</ref> the [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] issues ''"[ A Common Response]"'' to the Ravenna Document of 2007, identifying a number of criticisms.
*2010 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew]] firmly addressed the opponents of the Orthodox theological dialogues in the ''[ Patriarchal and Synodal Encyclical on the Sunday of Orthodoxy],'' signed by 12 Bishops in addition to the Ecumenical Patriarch;<ref group="note">"...These dialogues, together with every effort for peaceful and fraternal relations of the Orthodox Church with other Christians, are unfortunately challenged today in an unacceptably fanatical way – at least by the standards of a genuinely Orthodox ethos – by certain circles that exclusively claim for themselves the title of zealot and defender of Orthodoxy. As if all the Patriarchs and Sacred Synods of the Orthodox Churches throughout the world, who unanimously decided on and continue to support these dialogues, were not Orthodox. Yet, these opponents of every effort for the restoration of unity among Christians raise themselves above Episcopal Synods of the Church to the dangerous point of creating schisms within the Church...moreover, union is not decided by theological commissions but by Church Synods...Beloved children in the Lord, Orthodoxy has no need of either fanaticism or bigotry to protect itself. Whoever believes that Orthodoxy has the truth does not fear dialogue, because truth has never been endangered by dialogue..." (''[ Patriarchal and Synodal Encyclical on the Sunday of Orthodoxy],'' February 21, 2010.)</ref> first ever visit by a pope to Cyprus, as Pope Benedict went on a sensitive three-day day visit to the divided island; Cardinal Walter Kasper stated that there can be no full integration of eastern and western Europe without ecumenical dialogue and the contribution of the eastern European Orthodox churches; at the ''“[ Orthodox Constructions of the West]”'' conference at Fordham University (June 28-30), keynote speaker Fr. Robert F. Taft, (S.J) delivered the address ''"Perceptions and Realities in Orthodox-Catholic Relations Today,"'' calling on Catholic and Orthodox Churches to Restore Communion;<ref group="note">Eastern-rite Jesuit scholar Rev. Robert Taft made a similar appeal for union when he delivered the annual Kelly Lecture at the University of Toronto's St. Michael's College in 2000. (''Jesuit slams Catholic-Orthodox rift.'' [[w:Times-Colonist|Victoria Times Colonist]]. December 16, 2000. A12.)</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] proclaims the [[w:Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation|Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation]]; [ Orientale Lumen EuroEast III] conference, July 5-8, 2010 in Istanbul; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Vienna, Austria, 12th plenary, studying the theme ''"The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium;"'' [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] meets in Washington DC, issuing two statements: ''[ Steps Towards A Reunited Church: A Sketch Of An Orthodox-Catholic Vision For The Future].,''<ref>The [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]]. ''[ Steps Towards A Reunited Church: A Sketch Of An Orthodox-Catholic Vision For The Future].'' Georgetown University, Washington, DC. October 2, 2010.</ref> and ''[ Celebrating Easter/Pascha Together].''<ref>The [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]]. ''[ Celebrating Easter/Pascha Together].'' Georgetown University, Washington, DC. October 1, 2010.</ref> Croatian Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar gives cherished relic of St. [[Simeon the God-receiver|Simeon]] to the [[Church of Jerusalem|Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem]];<ref group="note">The mummified body of St. [[Simeon the God-receiver|Simeon]] was taken from Jerusalem to Constantinople in the 13th century, and was apparently destined for Venice when a storm on the Adriatic Sea forced the ship off course toward what is now Croatia. The saint’s remains have been venerated in Zadar since that time. In 2007, during a pilgrimage to the [[Holy Land]], Archbishop Ivan Prendja of Zadar met with the Greek Orthodox Patriarch [[Theophilus III (Giannopoulos) of Jerusalem|Theophilus III of Jerusalem]], and agreed to provide a relic of St. Simeon to be venerated in an Orthodox monastery dedicated to the saint. Archbishop Prendja died in January of this year, but his successor, Archbishop Zelimir Puljic, carried out his promise in a ceremony in Zadak, turning over the relic to representatives of the Orthodox patriarchate. (''[ Croatian archdiocese gives cherished relic to Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem].'' October 13, 2010).</ref> over half a million Guatemalan Indians of the "Orthodox Catholic Church of Guatemala" (OCCG), a branch of the "[[w:Orthodox-Catholic Church of America|Orthodox-Catholic Church of America]]" (OCCA), are received in their entirety into the Ecumenical Patriarchate's [[Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Mexico, Central America, Columbia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean Islands|Holy Metropolis of Mexico (Central America)]];<ref>''[ PRESS RELEASE].'' '''General Secretariat for Pan-Orthodox Ministries'''. FROM THE OFFICE OF THE HOLY METROPOLIS, Mexico City, April 7th 2010.</ref><ref group="note">In announcing this exciting development, His Eminence Metropolitan [[Athenagoras (Aneste) of Mexico]] expressed his great pleasure in welcoming the OCCG which was received in its entirety, including their former clergy, seminarians, lay ministers, catechists and affiliated membership into the canonical family of the [[Orthodox Church]], under the guidance of [[Protosyngellos|Archiepiscopal Vicar]] [[Archimandrite]] Dr. [[Andrew (Vujisić) of Tralles]]. Following their official reception, the leaders of OCCG, Messrs. [[Andrew Girón]] and [[Michael Castellanos]] traveled to Mexico City where on the weekend of March 19-21, they were ordained to the Holy Priesthood, receiving the title of [[Archimandrite]]. The OCCG has an approximate membership of 527,000 faithful and catechumens, overwhelmingly indigenous, with 334 churches in Guatemala and southern Mexico, with 12 (formerly OCCG) clergymen and 14 seminarians, who are assisted in their pastoral ministry by 250 lay ministers and 380 catechists.</ref> renowned Swiss theologian and Patristics scholar Hieromonk [[Gabriel Bunge]] ([[w:Order of Saint Benedict|O.S.B.]]) is received into the [[Orthodox Church]].
*2011 The [[w:United States Conference of Catholic Bishops|United States Conference of Catholic Bishops]] (USCCB) releases a revised edition of the ''[[w:New American Bible Revised Edition|New American Bible]]'' which further departs from the authority of the [[Septuagint]], in favour of the later Masoretic text, most controversially in [[Isaiah|Isaias]] 7:14, revising the NAB from ''"the virgin shall be with child"'' to ''"a young woman shall be with child"'', essentially serving to undermine the doctrines of the Perpetual Virginity of the [[Theotokos]], and the Virginal Conception of [[Christ]].;<ref>Alexandra Silver. ''[ Controversial Bible Revision: About That 'Virgin' Thing...].'' TIME NewsFeed. 2011-03-04.</ref><ref group="note">This single act assists, what appears to conscientious Orthodox Christians, as the further Protestantization of the Roman Church by ''progressive'' bishops and theologians.</ref> official introduction of the new English-language translation of the Roman Missal in most English-speaking countries, on the first Sunday of Advent (November 27, 2011), representing a translation that more faithfully tracks the original Latin.<ref>Sharon Otterman. ‘’[ New Translation of Catholic Mass Makes Its Debut].’’ NY Times. Sunday November 27, 2011.</ref><ref group="note">The [ International Commission for English in the Liturgy] prepared a new English translation of the Roman Missal, the completed form of which received the [ approval of the Holy See in April 2010]. Some of the revisions are:<br>:* The [[Nicene Creed]] now starts with ''“I believe in one God”'' instead of ''“We believe in one God.”''<br>:* Jesus is now ''“consubstantial with the Father”'' rather than ''“one in Being with the Father.”'' <br>:* Communion begins with the words, ''“Lord, I am not worthy that you should enter under my roof,”'' instead of ''“Lord, I am not worthy to receive you.”''<br>:* The response ''“And also with you,”'' is now rendered ''“And with your spirit.”''</ref>*2012 The Assembly of Catholic Ordinaries of the Holy Land (ACOHL) issues a directive stating that within two years (by 2015) all Eastern Catholics and the [[w:Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem|Latin Patriarchate in the Holy Land]] will officially adopt the Greek Orthodox Julian calendar date for the celebration of [[Pascha]].<ref>Christophe Lafontaine. ''[ Latin Patriarchate will celebrate Easter 2013 according to the Julian Calendar].'' Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. Oct 23, 2012.</ref><ref>Judith Sudilovsky. ''[ Tale of two Easters: Holy Land Catholics, Orthodox to celebrate as one].'' Catholic News Service. Feb-7-2013.</ref><ref group="note">For Easter 2015 and the following years, a decree formulated by the ACOHL will be submitted to the Holy See for approval. This decree is to state that all the Catholic Churches of the Holy Land will permanently adopt the Julian calendar for the celebration of Easter with the consequential adjustment of the liturgical calendar for the beginning of Lent and the feast of Pentecost. Meanwhile, the Bishops of the Catholic Churches of the Holy Land have the option of starting the implementation in 2013. This is the case with the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem.</ref>*2014 Metropolitans [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus]] and [[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis]], of the [[Church of Greece]], write a ''[ lengthy epistle]'' sent to to [[Pope]] Francis on April 10, 2014, concerning his past, the abysmal State of Papism, and a plea to return to Holy Orthodoxy.<ref>[[Andrew (Trempelas) of Dryinoupolis|Andrew of Dryinoupolis, Pogoniani and Konitsa]], and, [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus|Seraphim of Piraeus and Faliro]]. ''[ A Letter to Pope Francis Concerning His Past, the Abysmal State of Papism, and a Plea to Return to Holy Orthodoxy].'' HOLY AUTOCEPHALOUS ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH OF GREECE (THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF DRYINOUPOLIS, POGONIANI AND KONITSA, and, THE HOLY METROPOLIS OF PIRAEUS AND FALIRO). April 10, 2014. 87 pp.</ref><ref>{{el icon}} ὁ Δρυϊνουπόλεως, Πωγωνιανῆς καί Κονίτσης ΑΝΔΡΕΑΣ, καί ὁ Πειραιῶς ΣΕΡΑΦΕΙΜ. ''[ Επιστολή προς τον Πάπα].'' ΑΥΤΟΚΕΦΑΛΟΣ ΟΡΘΟΔΟΞΟΣ ΚΑΘΟΛΙΚΗ ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ - (ΙΕΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ ΔΡΥΪΝΟΥΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΠΩΓΩΝΙΑΝΗΣ & ΚΟΝΙΤΣΗΣ καί ΙΕΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙΣ ΠΕΙΡΑΙΩΣ). Tῇ 10ῃ Ἀπριλίου 2014. 121 pp.</ref>
==See also==
[[ro:Relaţiile dintre Biserica Ortodoxă şi Romano-Catolicism (cronologie)]]

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