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Church of Antioch

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recognition= Traditional |
primate=[[Ignatius IV John X (HazimYazigi) of Antioch|Patriarch Ignatius IVJohn X (Yazigi)]]|
hq=Damascus, Syria|
territory=Syria, Lebanon, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE, parts of Turkey|
The '''Church of Antioch''' is one of the five [[patriarchate]]s (i.e., the [[Pentarchy]]) that constituted the [[One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church|one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church]] before the [[Great Schism|schism]] between Rome and Antioch in 1098 and between Rome and the other patriarchates at around the same general period. Today it is one of the [[autocephaly|autocephalous]] Orthodox churches. In English translations of official documents, the Church of Antioch refers to itself as the '''Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East'''. The literal translation into English of the Arabic name is "Roman" (in Arabic, ''[[Rüm]]'') Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East." However, the literal name "Rüm" does not actually mean Roman but Greek. The Arabs and the Turks refer to the Christians who belong to the Greek Orthodox Church (both Arabs and Greeks) as Rüm because the Byzantine Greek-speaking Orthodox have historically referred to themselves as Romioi.The Arabic word "Rum" derives from the Greek word "Romioi". This is one of the reasons why the Church of Antioch refers to itself as '''Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East'''. The other reason is because it belongs to the family of the Greek Orthodox Churches which are: the [[Church of Constantinople]] (patriarchate), the '''Church of Antioch''' (patriarchate), the [[Church of Jerusalem]] (patriarchate), the [[Church of Alexandria]] (patriarchate), the [[Church of Cyprus]], the [[Church of Sinai]], the [[Church of Greece]], and the [[Church of Albania]].
[[Image:Balamand.jpg|left|thumb|250px|[[Our Lady of Balamand Monastery (Tripoli, Lebanon)|Our Lady of Balamand Monastery]]]]
The Church of Antioch is the continuation of the Christian community founded in Antioch by the [[Apostles]] [[Apostle Peter|Peter]] (who served as its first bishop) and [[Apostle Paul|Paul]], who are its [[patron saint]]s. In terms of hierarchical order of precedence, it currently ranks third among the world's Orthodox churches, behind [[Church of Constantinople|Constantinople]] and [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]].
The seat of the patriarchate was formerly Antioch (Antakya), in what is now Turkey. Now it is in Damascus, Syria, located on the "street called Straight." The current patriarch Patriarch of Antioch is His Beatitude Patriarch , [[Ignatius IV John X (HazimYazigi) of Antioch|[John X (Yazigi)]] and all the East, who was elected on December 17, 2012.
<!-- [[Image:St George Beirut.jpg|right|thumb|450px|The Church of St. George in Beirut]] -->
===The Antiochian school===
During the pre-Nicene period and that of the [[Ecumenical Councils]], Christian theology centered in Antioch tended to emphasize the literal, historical facts of the life of [[Jesus Christ]] over philosophical or allegorical [[hermeneutics|interpretations]] of [[Holy Scripture]], contrasted with the more mystical and figurative theology coming from [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]]. Antiochian theology, though stressing the "earthier" side of interpretation, nevertheless did not neglect the importance of insight into the deeper, spiritual meaning of the Scriptures. These two viewpoints came to be known respectively as the [[Antiochian school]] and the [[Catechetical School of Alexandria|Alexandrian school]], represented by major catechetical institutions at both places.
Major figures associated with the origin of the Antiochian school include [[Lucian of Antioch]] and [[Paul of Samosata]], but its real formation was found with writers such as [[Diodore of Tarsus]], [[John Chrysostom]], [[Theodore of Mopsuestia]], [[Nestorius]], and [[Theodoret of Cyrrhus]]. At times, this difference in emphasis caused conflicts within the Church as the tension between the two approaches came to a head, especially regarding the doctrinal disputes over [[Arianism]] and [[Nestorianism]]. Saints such as [[John Chrysostom]] are somewhat regarded as synthesizers of the Antiochian and Alexandrian approaches to theology, and the Antiochian school of theology, whose more deviant proponents produced [[Arianism]] and [[Nestorianism]], also enabled the Orthodox fight against the Alexandrian school's deviances, namely [[Apollinarianism]] and [[Eutychianism]].
===The Antiochian church today===
[[Image:Ignatius HazimJohn Yazigi.jpg|right|thumb|200px|[[Ignatius IV John X (HazimYazigi) of Antioch|Patriarch Ignatius IV John X (Yazigi) of Antioch]]]]
The [[St. John of Damascus Institute of Theology (Tripoli, Lebanon)|St. John of Damascus Patriarchal Institute of Theology (Tripoli, Lebanon)]] was established by the patriarchate in 1970, and in 1988 it was fully incorporated into the University of Balamand. The Institute functions as the primary [[seminary]] for theological schooling for the patriarchate's [[clergy]] and [[laity|lay]] leaders.
The [[Holy Synod]] of Antioch includes the [[patriarch]] and all the ruling [[bishop]]s. Meetings are held each year in Spring and Autumn at the patriarchate to consider church-wide issues, and to elect the patriarch and other bishops as needed. The patriarch and holy synod govern the Church of Antioch to preserve the true faith, to maintain ecclesiastical order, and to carry out the commandments of Christ. In addition to the synod itself, a general conciliar body meets twice a year to see to the financial, educational, judicial, and administrative matters of the patriarchate. It is composed of members of the synod and of lay representatives. When a new patriarch is to be elected, this body selects three candidates from whom the holy synod chooses the new patriarch.
The current most recent [[patriarch]] is was His Beatitude Patriarch [[Ignatius IV (Hazim) of Antioch]] and all the East, elected in 1979. Patriarch Ignatius has been was particularly active in strengthening ties with other Christian communions, but particularly with those whose roots are in Antioch. His Beatitude and the [[holy synod]] of Antioch were enthusiastic for the Church of Antioch to participate in general talks between representatives of all the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches.
At Anba Bishoy in Egypt and at Chambesy in Switzerland, plenary talks were held resulting in [ agreements] in 1989, 1990 and 1993. All official representatives of the Eastern Orthodox and the Oriental Orthodox there present reached agreement in these dialogues that the Christological differences between the two communions are more a matter of emphasis than of substance. Although elements in a number of the Eastern Orthodox Churches have criticized the apparent consensus reached by the representatives at Anba Bishoy and Chambesy, the patriarch and holy synod of the Antiochian Orthodox Church welcomed the agreements as positive moves towards a sharing in the Love of God, and a rejection of the hatred of insubstantial division.
As recommended in the Agreement of 1990, the Antiochian (Eastern) Orthodox Patriarch Ignatius IV formally met with the Syriac (Oriental) Orthodox Patriarch, Ignatius Zakka I, on [[July 22]], 1991. At that formal meeting, the two patriarchs signed a [ pastoral agreement] which called for "complete and mutual respect between the two churches." It also prohibited the passing of faithful from one church to the other, envisaged joint meetings of the two holy synods when appropriate, and provided for future guidelines for intercommunion of the faithful and [[Eucharist]]ic [[concelebration]] by the [[clergy]] of the two churches. The Church of Antioch expects these guidelines to be issued when the faithful of both churches are ready, but not before.
Patriarch Ignatius has also overseen oversaw participation in a bilateral commission with the [[Melkite Greek Catholic Church]], which is exploring ways of healing the 18th century schism between the Melkite Catholics and the Antiochian Orthodox. In an unprecedented event, [[Melkite]] Patriarch Maximos V addressed a meeting of the Orthodox holy synod in October 1996.
The members of the holy synod of Antioch continue to explore greater communication and more friendly meetings with their Syriac, Melkite, and Maronite brothers and sisters, who all share a common heritage.
In May With the onset of 1997, the holy synod met and declared that the whole [[Pascha]]ltide period is to be observed festallycivil war in Syria in 2010, thus balancing the lengthy fasting situation of [[Great Lent]] with an equal feasting period Christians in celebration of the Resurrection of [[Jesus Christ]]Syria has worsened. Several churches have attacked and destroyed, and many Christians have been expelled by rebels and become refugees.
This decision, the diplomatic activities, and other moves by Patriarch Ignatius and remained on the holy synod, have drawn criticism from some elements within Patriarchal throne until his death in 2012. The Holy Synod of the mainstream Eastern Orthodox Church and particularly from "resistance" groups who have walled themselves off from communion with most of world Orthodoxy.  Of Antioch then elected the churches receiving opprobrium former Antiochian Metropolitan for "Europe, John Yazigi to the patriarchal throne of Antioch on [[ecumenismDecember 17]]", 2012, with the title of His Beatitude [[John X (Yazigi) of Antioch probably has received the greatest amount. The situation |John X of christians in Syria has worsened after Antioch]] and all the Civil war began. Several churches were attacked, many christians were expelled by rebels and become refugeesEast.
===Expansion abroad===
Extensive 20th and 21st century Arab immigration to the New World has further increased the size, vigor and influence of the Church of Antioch, and the majority of Antiochian faithful now reside outside the Middle East and include numerous non-Arabic converts to the Orthodox Christian faith. As a result, besides its Middle Eastern territories in Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Kuwait, Iran, the Arabian Peninsular, and parts of Turkey, the Church of Antioch also includes missionary dioceses in Central, North, and South America, in Europe, and in Australia and the Pacific. The archdiocese with the largest population is [[Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America|North America]]. It is also the only one with internal [[diocese]]s. The archdiocese with the largest area is [[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia and New Zealand|Australia and New Zealand]]. Estimates of the membership of the patriarchate range from 750,000 to over 1,000,000 in Syria alone.
==Notable Antiochian saints==
Over the centuries, the Church of Antioch has been associated with many [[saint]]s on the Church's calendar. These include the following:
[[Image:Antiochian saints.jpg|right|thumb|200px|[[Synaxis]] of the Great [[Saint]]s of the Holy Church of Antioch]]
:*[[Diocese of Worcester and New England (Antiochian)]]
*[[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Santiago and All Chile|Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Santiago and All Chile]]
*[[Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Western and Central Europe|Archdiocese of Western and Central Europe]]
*[[Metropolis of Damascus]]: Patriarchal diocese
*[[Archdiocese of Aleppo|Metropolis of Beroea (Aleppo) and Alexandretta]]: Paul Yazigi (2000–present)
*[[Archdiocese of Tripoli and Al-koura|Metropolis of Tripoli and Al-Koura]]: [[Ephraim Kyriakos]] (2009–present)
*[[Metropolis of Tyre and Sidon]]: Elias Kfoury (1995–present)
*[[Metropolis of Tarsos and Adana]]: vacanctvacant
*[[Metropolis of Amida]]:(Diyarbakır) vacant
*[[Metropolis of Theodosioupolis]](Erzurum): vacant
==See Also==
[[List of Patriarchs of Antioch]]
==External links==
* [ Patriarchate of Antioch] (Official Website)(Arabic and English)
* [ 9&sitecode=HQ&pageno=1 Eastern Christian Churches: The Patriarchate of Antioch], a scholarly text by Ronald Roberson, CSP, a Roman Catholic priest and Eastern Christianity scholar
*[ The Spiritual Tradition of the Antioch Patriarchate], by Prof. [[Constantine Scouteris]]
*[ 'Antioch']: A Centre for Antiochian Orthodox Christian Studies and Research (Oxford, UK)

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