The restoration of the UAOC in Ukraine proved to be brief as the region was occupied by the Red Army in the 1940s and annexed to the Soviet Union. Those hierarchs and clergy of the UAOC who remained in Soviet Ukraine were forced to submit to the [[Moscow Patriarchate]] or else sent into internal exile or executed. Several of the Church's hierarchs fled the advance of the Red Army and ended up in the Ukrainian Diaspora in the West, among them Metropolitan Polycarp.
In the following years the UAOC existed only in the Diaspora, with parishes scattered across the globe in Australia, North and South America, and Western Europe. It, like other jurisdictions present in the West following the Bolshevik Revolution, drifted in and out of communion with world Orthodoxy. Following the repose of Metropolitan Polycarp in France in 1953, Archbishop [[Mstyslav (Skrypnyk)]] of Parma became primate of the UAOC in 1969.
==UAOC Returns to Ukraine==
In 1990 the weakening of the central government of the Soviet Union allowed for the restoration of the UAOC in Ukraine for the first time since World War II. Not long after the UAOC accepted into its communion hierarchs and clergy led by Metropolitan [[Philaret (Denysenko) of Kiev|Philaret of Kiev]] of the Moscow Patriarchate and elected the 92-year old Metropolitan Mstyslav as Patriarch of Kyiv and All Ukraine, enthroning him on 6 November 1990.
Following the repose of Patriarch Mstyslav in 1993 two new Patriarchs of Kyiv, [[Volodomyr (Romaniuk)]] and [[Dymytriy (Yarema)]], were elected by factions of the UAOC, those under Patriarch Volodymyr largely consisting of supporters of the former Russian Orthodox Metropolitan Philaret who together founded the Kyiv Patriarchate of Ukrainian Orthodox Church. It was around this time that both of the UAOC's dioceses in North America together with large parts of its Western European and Australian flocks left the Church to join the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
After the death of Patriarch Dymytriy in 2000 the UAOC elected Archbishop [[Mefodiy (Kudryakov) of Kiev|Methodius]] of Ternopil' as Metropolitan of Kyiv and All Ukraine. Although the UAOC has established new dioceses in the Ukrainian Diaspora, it remains on friendly terms with its daughter churches under the Ecumenical Patriarchate and has attempted itself to establish communion with Constantinople in the hopes of having it establish a universally recognized, independent Ukrainian Orthodox Church.
The UAOC today is concentrated in western Ukraine and has its headquarters at the historic Church of St. Andrew in Kiev.
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