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Joseph I (Galesiotes) of Constantinople

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In view of Patr. Arsenius' opposition to emperor Michael's action, the emperor [[deposition|deposed]] Arsenius and replaced him with Germanus (Lazos Markutzas) III in 1265. Under heavy pressure from supporters of Patr. Arsenius who strongly opposed his uncanonical appointment, Germanus resigned the following year. Then, emperor Michael VIII appointed his confessor, Joseph, as Germanus' successor on [[February 2]], 1267. Patr. Joseph I quickly absolved emperor Michael of blinding John Laskaris and lifted the excommunication imposed by Patr. Arsenius.
Supporters of Patr. Arsenius strongly rejected and opposed Patr. Joseph and the Emperor, creating a split between the Arsenites and the imperial patriarchate, thus initiating the [[Arsenite Schism|Arsenite schism]]. Their actions were based on personal loyalty as well as the [[canon law]] of the Church. In the meantime, Patr. Joseph, who was noted for his mildness and affability of character, came to be influenced by emperor Michael's sister, Eulogia, who had taken [[monasticism|monastic]] vows, but developed considerable influence in the worldly affairs of the court and strongly opposed the union with Rome. In time, Patr. Joseph, in support of Eulogia, took an oath never to agree to the union.
During the late 1260s Charles of Anjou was expanding his domains beyond his conquest of Sicily in 1266. As a defense against the supporters of the Latin Empire, Emperor Michael VIII decided to drive a wedge between the Latins and the pope of Rome by joining in a union with the Latin Church. Initially, Patr. Joseph did not take a position against union of East and West. Against the determined opposition of the [[clergy]] and faithful of the [[Orthodox Church]], the Second [[Councils of Lyons|Council of Lyons]] was held in 1274. During a [[Mass]] celebrated by Pope Gregory X, in which both sides took part, the Orthodox clergy sang the [[Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed|Nicene Creed]] with the addition of the [[Filioque]] clause three times.The council was seemingly a success. Patr. Joseph was not in attendance. The council was seen as a further betrayal of Orthodoxy and further exacerbated the Arsenite schism.
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