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==Apostolic and Ante-Nicene Era==
*ca. 37-53 Episcopacy of [[Apostle Peter]] in Antioch.
*64 Martyrdom of Peter in Rome.
*67 Election of [[Linus of Rome|Linus]], first bishop of Rome.
*410 Rome sacked by Visigoth invaders.
*417 Pope [[Zosimus of Rome|Zosimus]] waffles on [[Pelagianism]].
*451 [[Fourth Ecumenical Council]] notes that Rome's [[primacy]] is because it was "the imperial city"; ''Tome'' of Pope St. [[Leo of Rome|Leo I]] endorsed by Council after review.
*455 Rome sacked by Vandals.
*476 Fall of the Western Roman Empire as [[w:Romulus Augustulus|Romulus Augustulus]], the last Western Roman emperor, is deposed by the German Odoacer, leaving the emperor in the Greek East as the sole imperial authority, and an unstable political environment in the West where the [[Church of Rome]] slowly developed a centralized structure, concentrating religious as well as secular authority in the office of the [[Pope]], the Bishop of Rome.<ref group="note">After the fall of the Western Empire, the terms "Greek East" and "Latin West" are applied to areas that were formerly part of the Eastern or Western Empires, and also to areas that fell under the Greek or Latin cultural sphere but which had never been part of the Roman Empire. In this sense, particular attention is given to differences in Christianity in the two parts, specifically between Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.</ref>
*ca. 537 Pope [[Vigilius of Rome|Vigilius]] allegedly writes letter endorsing [[Monophysitism]].
*589 Insertion of ''[[Filioque]]'' into Nicene Creed by local council in Toledo, Spain.
*ca. 590-604 Pope St. [[Gregory the Great]] rejects the title of "universal bishop" for any bishop.
*680-681 [[Sixth Ecumenical Council]] [[anathema]]tizes Pope [[Honorius of Rome|Honorius]] as a [[Monothelitism|Monothelite]] [[heresy|heretic]].<ref group="note">This [[anathema]] was later one of the main arguments against Papal infallibility in the discussions surrounding the First Vatican Council of 1870, but ultimately it was not regarded as being contrary to the proposed dogma.</ref>
*692 The [[Pentarchy]] form of government of universal Christendom by five patriarchal sees received formal ecclesiastical sanction at the [[Quinisext Council|Council in Trullo]], held in Constantinople, which ranked the five sees as ''Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch'', and ''Jerusalem''.
*710 Last papal visit to Constantinople until 1967.
*800 Usurpation of Western Roman Empire by Charlemagne.
*809 Pope [[Leo III of Rome|Leo III]] forbids addition of Filioque to Creed and has original Creed in both Greek and Latin inscribed on silver tablets displayed in Rome.
*869-870 [[Robber Council of 869-870
|Council in Constantinople]] deposes St. [[Photius the Great]].
*870 Gradual collapse of the [[w:Great Moravia|Moravian]] mission beginning with the death of Prince [[Rastislav of Moravia|Rostislav of Moravia]], who is captured and deposed by his nephew, [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]], who favours more the Latin liturgy and Bavarian clergy represented by the Frankish Bp. Wiching of Nitra (consecrated in 880 as the first Bp. of Nitria);<ref group="note">In Moravia, as in Bulgaria, the Greek mission clashed with German missionaries at work in the same area. Traces of the Slavonic mission lingered on in Moravia for two centuries more, but were eventually eradicated; and Christianity in its western form, with Latin culture and the Latin language (and the filioque), became universal. The attempt to found a Slavonic national Church in Moravia came to nothing. After its collapse in Moravia, the work of the Slavic apostles was saved for the Slavs and Europe by Bulgaria when its ruler Boris, in his endeavor to establish a national church, protected and encouraged the Slavic missionaries who sought refuge in his land. Thus, the Cyrillo-Methodian tradition was preserved and further cultivated in [[Autonomous Archdiocese of Ohrid|Ochrid]] and [[w:Preslav|Preslav]], two great and dissimilar centers which created a rich literature and culture Byzantine in inspiration, yet Slavic in language and ideology. Therefore other countries, where the brothers had not themselves preached, benefited from their work, most notably [[Church of Bulgaria|Bulgaria]], [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]], and [[Church of Russia|Russia]].</ref>
*874 The [[w:Great Moravia|Great Moravian]] king [[w:Svatopluk I|Svátopulk]] subjugated the [[w:Vistulans|Vistulan]] tribe of [[w:Lesser Poland|Lesser Poland]], resulting in the Christianization of Little Poland in the Orthodox Cyrillo-Methodian style, (as opposed to the Western Bohemian style), as early as the end of 9th century, before the conversion of Polish King [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]] in 966;<ref group="note">Antoni Mironowicz. ''[http://www.slonko.com.pl/the-orthodox-church-in-poland.html The Orthodox Church in Poland].'' Sonca.org. 2010.</ref>
*879-880 [[Eighth Ecumenical Council|Council in Constantinople]] (endorsed by papacy) reinstates St. Photius and anathematizes any changes to Nicene Creed, including the Filioque.
*962 Founding of Holy Roman Empire.
*966 [[w:Mieszko I of Poland|Mieszko I]], the first historical ruler of Poland, accepts Baptism, after marrying the Christian princess [[w:Dobrawa of Bohemia|Dobrawa]] in 965, who as a Czech, had strong Orthodox connections.<ref group="note">Their palace was in Ostrov Tumski, where the royal couple worshipped in a chapel before Christianity became the official religion. It is the foundations of this chapel, marking the beginning of Christian life in Poland, which archaeologists think that they have now uncovered. Its pre-Romanesque structure shows the Orthodox architectural style of Western Europe before the schism. We should recall that in southern Poland, along the Moravian border which had been ruled by [[Rastislav of Moravia|St Rostislav]], Slav Orthodox missionaries had begun their task of spiritual enlightenment well before Mieszko’s marriage to Dobrawa. This discovery will surely lead the spiritually sensitive in Poland to realise that '''the origins of Poland's Christian faith are in Orthodoxy, and not in late eleventh-century Roman Catholicism. This was imported from Germany, and only developed to any great extent in Poland in the twelfth century.''' (''Orthodox England. [http://www.orthodoxengland.org.uk/poland.htm Orthodox Europe: Poland uncovers its original Orthodoxy].'')</ref>
*1014 First use of ''Filioque'' by Pope of Rome, at coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Henry II.
*1022 At a Council of Pavia, Pope [[w:Pope Benedict VIII|Benedict VIII]] officially reaffirmed the celibacy of the clergy (first documented at the Synod of Elvira in Spain, ca. 306 AD), banning marriages and concubines for priests.<ref>Fr. Alphonse De Valk ([[w:Congregation of St. Basil|C.S.B.]]). ''"Priestly celibacy."'' '''Catholic Insight'''. Apr. 1997, pp.20-24.</ref><ref group="note">Clerical celibacy was officially reaffirmed once again by [[w:Pope Innocent II|Pope Innocent II]] in 1139 at the [[w:Second Council of the Lateran|Second Lateran Council]], and finally at the end of 1563 at the Council of Trent.</ref>
*1054 Excommunication of Ecumenical Patriarch [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]] by Cardinal Humbertus, papal legate, the conventional date point of the [[Great Schism]]. Michael returns the favor by [[excommunication|excommunicating]] the Pope (who had died, rendering his legate's authority null).
*1059 Beginning of the use of the term ''transubstantiation'' in West.
*ca. 1078-80 Council of Burgos reorganizes national Church of Spain as Roman Archbishopric, replaces use of Mozarabic rite with Roman. Sentences Bishops who refuse to recognize decrees to imprisonment.
*1095-1272 [[Crusades]] promise salvation to warriors from the West.
*1098 Abp. [[w:Anselm of Canterbury|Anselm of Canterbury]] completes ''[[w:Cur Deus Homo|Cur Deus Homo]]'', marking a radical divergence of Western theology of the atonement from that of the East.
*1139 [[w:Pope Innocent II|Pope Innocent II]] declared all priestly marriages annulled and declared clerical [[celibacy]] the rule for all Roman Catholic priests from that day forward ([[w:Second Council of the Lateran|Second Lateran Council]], canons 6 and 7).
*1180 Last formal reception of Latins to communion at an Orthodox altar, in Antioch.
*1182 [[Maronite Catholic Church|Maronites]] (formerly [[Monothelitism|Monothelite]] heretics) submit to Rome.
*1211 Venetian crusaders conquer Byzantine Crete.
*1224 The Byzantines recover Thessaloniki and surrounding area, liberated by the Greek ruler of Epirus Theodore Ducas Comnenus.
*1259 Byzantines defeat Latin [[w:Principality of Achaea|Principality of Achaea]] at the [[w:Battle of Pelagonia|Battle of Pelagonia]], marking the beginning of the Byzantine recovery of Greece.
*ca. 1259-80 Martyrdom by Latins of monks of [[Iviron Monastery (Athos)|Iveron Monastery]].
*1261 End of Latin occupation of Constantinople and restoration of Orthodox patriarchs; Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos makes [[Mystras]] seat of the new [[w:Despotate of Morea|Despotate of Morea]], where a Byzantine renaissance occurred; Pope Urban IV endeavoured without success to stir up a crusade to restore the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
*1263 Roman Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas writes ''[[w:Contra Errores Graecorum|Contra Errores Graecorum]]'' (''Against the Errors of the Greeks'').
*1264 The festival of [[w:Corpus Christi (feast)|Corpus Christi]] ("the Body of Christ") is instituted by Pope Urban IV.
*1274 [[Council of Lyons]] fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy.
*1281 [[w:Pope Martin IV|Pope Martin IV]] authorizes a Crusade against the newly re-established [[Byzantine Empire]] in Constantinople, excommunicating Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos and the Greeks and renouncing the union of 1274; French and Venetian expeditions set out toward Constantinople but are forced to turn back in the following year due to the [[w:Sicilian Vespers|Sicilian Vespers]].
*1282 Death of 26 [[Zographou martyrs|martyrs of Zographou monastery]] on [[Mount Athos]], martyred by the Latins.
*1379 Beginning of Western "Great Schism," during which there are eventually 3 rival popes.
*1341-1351 [[Ninth Ecumenical Council|Councils in Constantinople]] vindicate [[Gregory Palamas|Palamite]] theology of hesychasm against [[Barlaam of Calabria|Barlaamist]] philosophy.
*1414-1418 Council of Constance ends Western "Great Schism;" this council emphasized the [[w:Conciliarism|Conciliar Movement]] over the authority of the pope.
*1415 The 13th Session of the [[w:Council of Constance|Council of Constance]] (June 15, 1415) decreed that the administering of the [[w:Communion under both kinds|Eucharist in Both Kinds]] to the [[Laity]] was to be forbidden, and that the [[Laity]] should receive the [[Eucharist]] under one kind only, that of the Bread, even though the Council itself noted that: ''"[[Christ]] instituted and administered to his disciples this venerable sacrament under both kinds of bread and wine; and that it was received by the faithful in the primitive church under both kinds."''<ref>Prof. Archibald Bower (Esq.) and Rev. Samuel Hanson Cox (D.D.). ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=NSbSAAAAMAAJ&source=gbs_navlinks_s The History of the Popes: From the Foundation of the See of Rome to A.D. 1758, Volume 3].'' Philadelphia: Griffith & Simon, 1845. pp.188-190.</ref><ref>Papal Encyclicals Online. [http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Councils/ecum16.htm Council of Constance 1414-18: SESSION 13 - 15 June 1415].</ref><ref group="note">The Council also stated that no priest, under pain of excommunication, may communicate the people under the forms of both bread and wine:<br>
*1439 [[Council of Florence]] fails to force Orthodox capitulation to papacy and confesses Purgatory as dogma; St. [[Mark of Ephesus]] courageously defended Orthodoxy at the Council of Florence, being the only Eastern bishop to refuse to sign the decrees of the council, regarded as a '''Pillar of Orthodoxy''' by the Church.<ref group="note">Saints [[Photius the Great]], [[Mark of Ephesus]], and [[Gregory Palamas]], have been called the '''Three Pillars of Orthodoxy'''.</ref>
*1444 Catholic priest Lorenzo Valla proves ''Donation of Constantine'' a forgery.
*1452 Unification of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] and [[Greek Orthodox]] Churches in the [[cathedral]] of [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] on [[December 12]], five months before the city fell, on the West's terms, when Emperor [[Constantine XI Palaiologos]], under pressure from Rome, allows the union to be proclaimed by the former Metropolitan of Kiev [[w:Isidore of Kiev|Isidore]] (who had participated in the [[Council of Florence]] and was now a cardinal in the Roman Catholic church) who read the solemn promulgation of union and celebrated the union liturgy, including the name of the [[pope]], arousing the greatest agitation among the population of the city.<ref>[[w:George Ostrogorsky|Georgije Ostrogorski]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Ir7CKnBxRXwC&source=gbs_navlinks_s History of the Byzantine State].'' Rutgers University Press, 1969. p.568.</ref><ref name="Hinson">E. Glenn Hinson. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=cY1SymrAGeEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity up to 1300].'' Mercer University Press, 1995. p.443.</ref><ref group="note">Although some of the Greek party, especially [[w:Basilios Bessarion|Bessarion, Metropolitan of Nicaea]], and [[w:Isidore of Kiev|Isidore]], former Metropolitan of Kiev and all all Rus', showed real concern for unity, they could not rally support for it in the East. The Patriarchates of [[Church of Alexandria|Alexandria]], [[Church of Antioch|Antioch]], and [[Church of Jerusalem|Jerusalem]] and the churches of [[Church of Russia|Russia]], [[Church of Romania|Romania]], and [[Church of Serbia|Serbia]] all rejected it immediately. In Byzantium only a small minority accepted it. Emperors John VIII and and [[Constantine XI Palaiologos|Constantine IX]] (1448-1453) proved unable to force their will on the Church. Most Byzantines felt betrayed. (E. Glenn Hinson. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=cY1SymrAGeEC&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Church Triumphant: A History of Christianity up to 1300].'' Mercer University Press, 1995. p.443.)</ref>
*1472 Decrees of the Council of Ferrara-Florence repudiated by [[Church of Constantinople|Patriarchate of Contantinople]]; martyrdom of [[Isidore of Yuriev]] and 72 companions for refusing to convert to Roman Catholicism.
*1484 [[Council of Constantinople (1484)|Synod of Constantinople]] with all four Patriarchs in attendance, calling itself "ecumenical", officially repudiated the union of the Greek and Latin churches discussed at Florence in 1439, and determined that Latin converts to Orthodoxy should be received into the Church by [[Chrismation]].
*1545-63 Council of Trent answers charges of Protestant Reformation.
*1568 Pope Pius V recognizes four Great [[w:Doctor of the Church|Doctors]] of the Eastern Church, [[John Chrysostom]], [[Basil the Great]], [[Gregory the Theologian|Gregory of Nazianzus]], and [[Athanasius of Alexandria|Athanasius]].
*1576 [[w:Pope Gregory XIII|Pope Gregory XIII]] establishes Pontifical Greek College of St. Athanasius (popularly known as the '[[w:Greek_Pontifical_College#Collegio_Greco|Greek College]]') in Rome, which he charged with educating Italo-Byzantine clerics.
*1582 Institution of [[Gregorian Calendar]].
*1596 [[Union of Brest-Litovsk]], creation of the Unia (Eastern/Byzantine/Greek Catholics); after initially having supported rapproachement with Rome, Bp. [[Hedeon (Balaban) of Lviv]] opposed the Union of Brest until his death.
*1611 [[w:Gallicanism|Gallican]] French theologian [http://www.answers.com/topic/edmond-richer Edmund Richer] (1559-1631), author of ''De ecclesiastica et politica potestate,'' held the view that [[w:Conciliarism|ecclesiastical councils]], not the papacy, was the method by which doctrinal truth was established, but his work was censured at the Council of Aix-en-Provence in 1612; this ‘richérisme’ strongly influenced 18th century Jansenism.
*1620 [[Council of Moscow (1620)|Council of Moscow]] presided over by Patr. [[Philaret (Romanov) of Moscow|Philaret of Moscow]] insisted that only Orthodox [[Baptism]] by triple immersion was valid, and that all Latin converts had to be rebaptized.
*1633 Ethiopian emperor [[w:Fasilides of Ethiopia|Fasilides]] expels Jesuits and other Roman Catholic missionaries from Ethiopia.
*1646 [[w:Union of Uzhhorod|Union of Uzhhorod]] joins 63 Ruthenian Orthodox priests from the Carpathian Mountains to Roman Catholic Church on terms similar to [[Union of Brest]].
*1671 French Roman Catholic nun [[w:Marguerite Marie Alacoque|Margaret Mary Alacoque]] promoted devotion to the Cult of the [[w:Sacred Heart|Sacred Heart]] of Jesus in its modern form.<ref group="note">Marguerite Marie Alacoque was briefly preceeded in establishing the devotion to the Sacred Hearts by her contemporary Fr. [[w:Jean Eudes|Jean Eudes]] (canonized in 1925), a French missionary who was founder of the [[w:Congregation of Jesus and Mary|Congregation of Jesus and Mary]], of the [[w:Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge|Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the Refuge]], and author of the Propers for Mass and Divine Office of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. The feast of the [[w:Immaculate Heart of Mary|Holy Heart of Mary]] was celebrated for the first time in 1648, and that of the [[w:Sacred Heart|Sacred Heart of Jesus]] in 1672.</ref>
*1672 [[w:Synod of Jerusalem|Synod of Jerusalem]] convened by Patr. [[Dositheus II Notarius of Jerusalem|Dositheos Notaras]], refuting article by article the Calvinistic confession of [[Cyril Lucaris]], defining Orthodoxy relative to Roman Catholicism and Protestantism, and defining the Orthodox Biblical canon; acts of this council are later signed by all five patriarchates (including Russia).
*1724 [[Melkite]] [[Schism]], in which many [[Church of Antioch|Antiochian Orthodox]] become Greek Catholics; Old Catholic Schism: on October 15, 1724 Roman Catholic Bp. Dominique (Varlet) of Baghdad consecrated the first dissident bishop of Utrecht, Bp. Cornelius van Steenhoven (elected in 1723), as the [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Holland]], (or [[w:Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands|Church of Utrecht]]) broke with Rome under its own archbishop and hierarchy, becoming the mother church of the Old Catholic Churches.<ref group="note">The Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands headquartered at the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands was [[w:Ultrajectine|Ultrajectine]] in tradition, rejecting papal infallibility and holding to the belief that only the Church in Ecumenical Council may speak infallibly; it was Roman Catholic in liturgy and belief, but refused to submit to Papal abuses.</ref>
*1755 [[Synod of Constantinople (1755)|Synod of Constantinople]] declares Roman Catholic baptism invalid and ordered baptism of converts from Roman Catholicism.
*1763 The [[w:Jansenism|Jansenist]] Provincial Council of Utrecht, seed of the future [[w:Old Catholic Church|Old Catholic]] movements, affirmed every Roman Catholic dogma and pronounced the Orthodox Faith to be schismatic and false, signalling not so much a rapprochement with Orthodoxy, but rather a refusal to drift yet further from her, as much of the Roman fold was doing.
*1767-1815 [[w:Suppression of the Society of Jesus|Suppression of the Jesuits]] in Roman Catholic countries, subsequently finding refuge in Orthodox nations, particularly in Russia.
*ca.1770 About 1,200 Kiev region Uniate churches return to Orthodoxy under political pressure from Russia.
*1793-95 Over 2,300 Uniate churches became Orthodox under Tsarina Catherine the Great.
*1798 Patriarch [[
Anthimios of Jerusalem]] contended in the ''Paternal Teaching'' (''Dhidhaskalia Patriki'') that the [[w:Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Empire]] was part of the [[w:Divine Providence|Divine Dispensation]] granted by [[God]] to protect [[Orthodoxy]] from the taint of [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholicism]] and of Western [[w:Secularism|secularism]] and [[w:Irreligion by country|irreligion]].<ref>"Greece, history of." Encyclopædia Britannica. ''Encyclopædia Britannica 2009 Ultimate Reference Suite''. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009.</ref><ref>Richard Clogg. ''The 'Dhidhaskalia Patriki' (1798): An Orthodox Reaction to French Revolutionary Propaganda.'' '''Middle Eastern Studies''', Vol.5, No.2 (May, 1969), pp. 87-115.</ref><ref group="note">The ''Dhidhaskalia Patriki'' or ''Paternal Teaching,'' attributed to the Patriarch Anthimos of Jerusalem, and published in Istanbul in 1798, described the attitude of the Orthodox hierarchy during the late eighteenth century to the influence of Western ideas in the Greek world. The ''Dhidhaskalia Patriki'' has in fact achieved a certain notoriety among historians as one of the more extreme examples of ecclesiastical anti-Westernism, and its significance was not lost on contemporaries.</ref>*ca.1830 [[w:Slavophile|Slavophile movement]] co-founded by [[ w:Aleksey Khomyakov| Aleksey Khomyakov]] and [[w:Ivan Kireyevsky|Ivan Kireyevsky]] in Russia, drawing on the works of Greek patristics, Russian poets and literary critics to reinforce Orthodox Christian values and Slavic cultural traditions, denouncing "westernizations" by Peter the Great and Catherine the Great, and stressing Russian mysticism over Western rationalism.<ref group="note">For a discussion of Khomyakov see:<br>
:Joseph L. Wieczynski. ''Khomyakov's Critique of Western Christianity.'' '''Church History'''. Vol.38, No.3, Sep., 1969. pp.291-299.</ref>
*1838 [[Council of Constantinople (1838)|Council of Constantinople]] held, attended by Patriarchs Gregory VI of Constantinople and Athanasius V of Jerusalem, whose main theme was the [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Unia]], and the extermination of Latin dogmas and usages, in particular [[Absolution Certificates]].<ref>Sergei Govorun. ''[http://www.pravoslavie.ru/english/7185.htm Indulgences in the history of the Greek Church].'' Transl. by Bishop Tikhon of San Francisco & the West. 25/11/2004.</ref>
*1842 Russian diplomat [[w:Ivan Gagarin|Ivan Sergeyevich Gagarin]] converted to the Roman Catholic Church and joined the Jesuit Order, becoming dedicated to union between the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.<ref group="note">Despite the failure of his unionist activity, Gagarin exerted important influence on such contemporary and later Roman Catholic and Russian thinkers as [[w:Pope Pius IX|Pope Pius IX]], [[w:Aleksey Khomyakov|Alexei Khomiakov]] and [[w:Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher)|Vladimir Solovev]].</ref>
*1847 Restoration of [[w:Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem|Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem]] by Pope Pius IX; [[w:1847 Agreement between the Holy See and Russia|1847 Agreement between the Holy See and Russia]].
*1870 Declaration of Papal Infallibility to be dogma at First Vatican Council.
*1875 Uniate diocese of [[w:Chełm|Chelm]] in modern day Poland incorporated into [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox Church]] under Alexander II, with all of the local Uniates converted to Orthodoxy.
*1889 Roman Catholic priest Fr. [[
w:Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares|Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares]] and hundreds of Goan Catholic families (approximately 5000 Roman Catholics) left the [[w:Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman|Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Goa and Daman]] and joined the [[Church of India|Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church]] as the ''[[Brahmavar (Goan) Orthodox Church|Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon, Goa and India]],'' with Fr. Antonio being ordained as the first (Latin-Rite) Oriental-Orthodox Metropolitan of Goa-Ceylon (1889-1923).<ref group="note">Fr. [[w:Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares|Antonio Francisco Xavier Alvares]] (Mar Julius I) was consecrated in 1889 by St. [[w:Gheevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala|Gregorios of Parumala]], Metr. Athanasius Paulos of Aluva, and Malankara Metr. [[w:Pulikkottil Joseph Mar Dionysious II|Dionysius Joseph II]]; this church maintained relations with the Syrian Orthodox Patr. of Antioch Mar [[w:Ignatius Peter IV|Ignatius Peter III]], and was permitted to continue its Latin or Western rite liturgical practices.</ref>
*1894 ''[[w:Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae|Praeclara Gratulationis Publicae]]'' (''on the Reunion of Christendom''), an Encyclical Letter of Pope Leo XIII promulgated on [[June 20]], called for the reunion of Eastern and Western churches into the "Unity of the Faith", while also condemning Freemasonry; criticized by Ecumenical Patriarch Anthimus VII in 1895; Pope Leo XIII issues ''[[w:Orientalium Dignitas|Orientalium Dignitas]],'' a papal encyclical concerning the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]] including a prohibition aganist [[Latinization|Latinizing]] influences among Eastern Catholics.
*1908 English Roman Catholic priest and Byzantine scholar Dr. [[w:Adrian Fortescue (priest)|Adrian Fortescue]] writes ''[http://www.archive.org/details/orthodoxeasternc00fortuoft The Orthodox Eastern Church],'' written to teach Roman Catholics and people in the West about the [[Orthodox Church]].
*1914 Martyrdom of Fr. [[Maxim Sandovich]], Protomartyr of the [[w:Lemkos|Lemko]] people.
*1918 The "St. Sophia Redemption Committee" is formed in Britain after the [[w:Armistice Day|Armistice]], whose members included two future Foreign Secretaries and many prominent public figures, seeking to restore [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] into an Orthodox Church (1918-1922);<ref>Prof. Erik Goldstein. ''Holy Wisdom and British Foreign Policy, 1918-1922: The St. Sophia Redemption Agitation''. In '''Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies''' Vol.15 (1991): pp.36-64.</ref> Roman Catholic opposition to the St Sophia Redemption Committee included Msgr. Manuel Bidwell (Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Westminster) who was on the initial committee, Roman Catholic British MP Sir [[w:Stuart Coats|Stuart Coats]] also on the committee, Cardinal [[w:Pietro Gasparri|Pietro Gasparri]] the [[w:Cardinal Secretary of State|Papal Secretary of State]], and the Vatican who wished to block [[Hagia Sophia (Constantinople)|Hagia Sophia]] from becoming a Greek Orthodox Church again
— according to the [[w:Grand Vizier|Grand Vizier]] of Constantinople who had an offer of Papal support.<ref>Prof. Erik Goldstein. ''Holy Wisdom and British Foreign Policy, 1918-1922: The St. Sophia Redemption Agitation''. In '''Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies''' Vol.15 (1991): pp.46,47,59.</ref><ref group="note">
[[w:Stuart Coats|Coats]] pointed out that in 1453 Constantinople had officially been in communion with Rome as a [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] church. As such, he argued, St. Sophia should continue as a Greek Rite Uniate Church. Cardinal [[w:Pietro Gasparri|Gaspari]] gave an interview to the French press while in Paris to observe the peace negotiations, explaining that from Rome's viewpoint the great church had been catholic longer than anything else, being only in schismatic hands from the time of [[Michael I Cerularius of Constantinople|Michael Cerularius]] to the [[Council of Florence]]. The Grand Vizier of Constantinople indicated to the British that he had an offer of Papal support, as the Vatican wished to block St. Sophia becoming a Greek Orthodox Church. The Rev. J.A. Douglas, a member of the Redemption Committee reported that:<br>
:" 'The traditional diplomacy of the Vatican has certainly laboured for decades under the influence of what would happen if the Oecumenical Patriarch, a dangerous witness against Roman claims, even when half-buried in the slum of the Phanar and paralysed by Turkish tyranny, should emerge and be the symbol of a great and progressive Communion which functioned with glorious St. Sophia as its mother church.' "<br>
*1926 The Benedictine monastery [[w:Chevetogne Abbey|Chevetogne Abbey]] is founded in Belgium, dedicated to Christian unity, being a ‘double rite’ monastery having both Western (Latin rite) and Eastern (Byzantine rite) churches holding services every day; the [http://orientale-lumen.blogspot.com/ Society of St. John Chrysostom] is founded to promote awareness and friendship in the Christian West for Christians of the East, through prayer and liturgy, conferences and lectures, and praying for the unity of the Churches of East and West; [[w:Pope Pius XI|Pope Pius XI]] decides to attempt the establishment of a provisional hierarchy for the Roman Catholic Church without the knowledge of the Soviet government;<ref group="note">The Pope's plans were set down in the [[w:Papal rescripts|rescript]] ''Plenitudine Potestatis'' and the decree ''Quo aptius'', and involved the establishment of [[w:Apostolic Administrator|Apostolic Administrators]] in metropolitan centres, to replace the diocesan structures that had existed in Tsarist times. (Christopher Lawrence Zugger. ''The Forgotten: Catholics of the Soviet Empire from Lenin Through Stalin.'' Syracuse University Press. 2001. p.229.)</ref> French Jesuit scholar and Roman Catholic bishop [[w:Michel d'Herbigny|Michel d'Herbigny]] receives episcopal ordination in secret and behind closed doors from Eugenio Pacelli (the future [[w:Pope Pius XII|Pope Pius XII]]) in the failed attempt to establish a clandestine hierarchy for the Catholic Church in the Soviet Union during the religious persecutions of the 1920s.
*1929 Papacy and the Kingdom of Italy ratify the [[w:Lateran Treaty|Lateran Treaty]], recognizing sovereignty of Papacy within the new state of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City]], bringing to an end the so-called "[[w:Roman Question|Roman Question]]";<ref group="note">The [[w:Politics of Vatican City|Politics of Vatican City]] takes place in a framework of an '''absolute [[w:Theocracy|theocratic]] monarchy''', in which the head of the [[Roman Catholic Church]], the [[Pope]], exercises ex officio supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the '''State of the Vatican City''' (an entity distinct from the '''Holy See'''), a rare case of non-hereditary monarchy. According to the text of the treaty the Holy See characterizes itself as a neutral State, with a declaration of intent to remain outside any territorial competition (''[http://www.vaticanstate.va/NR/rdonlyres/3F574885-EAD5-47E9-A547-C3717005E861/2528/LateranTreaty.pdf Lateran Treaty], Art.24, para.1,2'').</ref> [[w:Collegium Russicum|Russicum]] (Russian College or 'College of St. Therese') founded in Vatican City by Pope Pius XI and run by the [[w:Society of Jesus|Jesuits]]; Papal Bull ''Cum data fuerit'' regulates Uniate clergy in the US, mandating [[celibacy]], resulting in the return of several parishes back to Orthodoxy in 1938.
*1937 [[w:Pope Pius XI|Pope Pius XI]] issued the encyclical ''[[w:Divini Redemptoris|Divini Redemptoris]]'', condemning Communism and the Soviet regime; the [[Church of Serbia|Serbian Orthodox Church]] led by Patr. [[Varnava (Rosic) of Serbia]] and Bp. [[Nikolai Velimirovic]] fiercely resisted the attempt by the government of Yugoslavian Prime Minister [[w:Milan Stojadinović|Milan Stojadinović]] to implement a [[w:Concordat|Concordat]] with the [[w:Holy See|Vatican]], which would have virtually established the [[Roman Catholic Church]] in Yugoslavia and granted it privileges denied to the Orthodox Church, resulting in the proposal never being ratified.<ref group="note">This treaty would have given enormous priviledges to the Roman Catholic Church which was actually a minority church in Yugoslavia (according to the 1931 census 48.7% of population were Orthodox, while 38% were Roman Catholic). The Serbs felt this to be an attack on the Orthodox Church, and the Church together with virtually all the Serbian people mounted unprecedented resistance to the proposed agreement. In the midst of the crisis Patriarch [[Varnava (Rosic) of Serbia|Varnava (Rosic)]] died. His health had suffered under the strain of the controversy, and it was even rumored that he had been poisoned. The concordat was passed by the parliament on the very day the patriarch died, and was immediately followed by the [[excommunication]] of those Serbian deputies who voted in favor of it. There was also a demonstration organized by the Church and headed by bishops and clergy that set out from the cathedral in Belgrade and was violently broken up by the police. The prime minister had a serious crisis on his hands and withdrew the proposal.</ref>
*1938 In the [[w:Volhynia|Volhynia]] region of modern day Western Ukraine, by 1938 the Polish government had overseen the destruction of 190 Orthodox churches and converted a further 150 churches to Roman Rite Catholicism, despite its Ukrainian majority, and despite Pope Leo XIII's encycical ''[[w:Orientalium Dignitas|Orientalium Dignitas]]'' of 1894; the few Orthodox churches that were permitted to stay open were forced to use the Polish language in their liturgies.<ref name="Kania">Dr. Andrew Thomas Kania. ''[http://www.catholicukes.org.au/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=785 Moral Hemophilia: Concept and Reality (cf. Luke 10: 29 – 37)].'' Fri 28 of Aug., 2009 11:13 EST;</ref> [[American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese]] founded, when a group of 37 Carpatho-Russian [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Eastern Catholic]] parishes, under the leadership of Fr. [[Orestes (Chornock) of Agathonikeia|Orestes Chornock]], were received into the jurisdiction of the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate]].
*1941-45 Croatian [[w:Ustaše|Ustasa]]<ref group="note">A Croatian fascist, anti-Yugoslav separatist movement, whose ideological movement was a blend of fascism, Nazism, Croatian ultranationalism, and Roman Catholic [[w:Clerical fascism|Clericalist]] [[w:Fundamentalist Christianity|Fundamentalism]]. (Palmer Domenico, Roy. ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=Z8ZixRcQfV8C&dq=inauthor:%22Roy+P.+Domenico%22&source=gbs_navlinks_s Encyclopedia of Modern Christian Politics]''. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2006. ISBN 0313323623).</ref> terrorists, part of whose ideology included Roman Catholic [[w:Clerical fascism|Clericalist Fundamentalism]], kill 500,000 Orthodox Serbs, expel 250,000 and force 250,000 to convert to [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholicism]];<ref group="note">According to the [[w:Simon Wiesenthal Center|Simon Wiesenthal Center]] (citing the ''[[w:Encyclopedia of the Holocaust|Encyclopedia of the Holocaust]]''). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum states that "Ustaša units, often encouraged by Catholic clergy, carried out a program of compulsory conversion of Orthodox Serbs to Catholicism; resistance often resulted in murder. Some Serbs, particularly members of the elite, were not even offered the option of conversion to avoid being killed." (''[http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/online/jasenovac/frameset.html Holocaust Era in Croatia 1941-1945 JASENOVAC: History: II Targeted Populations].'' [http://www.ushmm.org/ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum]). The late Bishop [[Nikolai Velimirovic|Nikolai (Velimirovich)]] inscribed into the Church calendar by his own hand the following notation for the date August 31 (O.S.): ''"The 700,000 who suffered for the Orthodox faith at the hands of the Roman crusaders and Ustasi during the time of the Second World War. These are the New Serbian Martyrs."''</ref> the Orthodox in Croatia were forced to wear the Cyrillic letter "P" for Provoslavets, or Orthodox, like the Jews who were forced to wear the Star of David during World War II; <ref name="Ivanov"/> martyrdom of Bp. [[Sava of Gornji Karlovac]], and Fr. [[Djordje Bogic]].
*1943-44 Hundreds of Orthodox priests of the [[Church of Ukraine|Ukrainian Orthodox Church]] eliminated, tortured and drowned by Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - [[w:Ukrainian Insurgent Army|Ukrainian Rebel Army]], aided by [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Metr. Josyf Slipyj who was a spiritual leader of Nazi military units<ref>-----. ''[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=4850 Kharkov pensioners break a memorial desk to the SS spiritual guide].'' Interfax-Religion. 25 June 2008, 16:30.</ref><ref>-----. ''[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=4334 Yushchenko decorates Cardinal Husar with the highest Ukrainian award].'' Interfax-Religion. 27 February 2008, 15:03</ref><ref group="note">[[w:14th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Ukrainian)|SS-Galicia division]] (Galizien/Galichina) and the Wehrmacht [[w:Nachtigall Battalion|Nachtigall battalion]].</ref> that were later condemned by the Nuremberg tribunal, and who was imprisoned by Soviet authorities for aiding the UPA; zenith of the [[w:Papist|Papist]]<ref group="note">'''Papist''' is a term, usually regarded as a disparaging or an anti-Catholic slur, referring to the Roman Catholic Church, its teaching, practices or adherents. It was coined during the English Reformation to denote a Christian whose loyalties were to the Pope, rather than to the Church of England. Over time, however, it came to mean one who supported [[w:Papal supremacy|Papal authority over all Christians]]. A similar term, "papalism", is sometimes used.</ref> persecution in Poland against Orthodox faithful in the region of Helm and Podlaskia - [http://www.impantokratoros.gr/F110A235.en.aspx Holy Poles martyred by the Papists].
State-sponsored synod held Ukraine dissolves the Union of Brest-Litovsk and integrates the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the Russian Orthodox Church, with Soviet authorities arresting resisters or deporting them to Siberia; Croatian Roman Catholic Abp. of Zagreb [[w:Aloysius Stepinac|Aloysius Stepinac]] is tried and found guilty of collaboration with the fascist Ustaše movement and complicity in allowing the forced conversions of Orthodox Serbs to Catholicism .<ref>Dr. [[w:Carl Kosta Savich|Carl Savich]] ([[w:Juris Doctor|J.D.]]). ''[http://www.balkanalysis.com/2005/04/09/another-side-of-the-pope-john-paul-iis-balkan-legacy/ Another Side of the Pope: John Paul II’s Balkan Legacy].'' Balkanalysis.com. April 9, 2005.</ref><ref group="note" name="STEPINAC">"After World War II, Stepinac was arrested by the Communist regime and tried and convicted for his complicity in war crimes and mass murder. Of course, this trial is dismissed by neo-Ustasha propaganda and the official history as a Communist show trial meant to discredit Roman Catholicism. Stepinac served 5 years in prison as a convicted war criminal for complicity in genocide. He died in 1960 under house arrest. The theory of [[w:Command responsibility|command responsibility]] cited today by the Hague and international war crimes law experts was employed in the postwar trial of Archbishop Stepinac. He was found guilty according to this theory. A 1947 publication, ''The Trial of Stepinac'', relates the findings of the Yugoslav War Crimes Commission." (Dr. [[w:Carl Kosta Savich|Carl Savich]] ([[w:Juris Doctor|J.D.]]). ''[http://www.balkanalysis.com/2005/04/09/another-side-of-the-pope-john-paul-iis-balkan-legacy/ Another Side of the Pope: John Paul II’s Balkan Legacy].'' Balkanalysis.com. April 9, 2005.)</ref>
*1947 Death of [[Alexis (Kabaliuk) of Carpathia|Alexei Kabalyiuk]], Apostle of Carpatho-Russia, who played a major role in reviving Orthodoxy in Transcarpathia in the early 20th century.
*1949 Papal [[w:Decree against Communism|Decree against Communism]] by [[w:Pope Pius XII|Pope Pius XII]] excommunicates all Catholics collaborating in communist organizations.
*1950 Declaration of Bodily Assumption of Mary as dogma.
*1962 The secretive [[w:Metz Accord|Metz Accord]] is made between the Holy See and the U.S.S.R. (attended by Metr. [[w:Metropolitan Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad|Nikodim (Rotov) of Leningrad]]) at Metz, France, on 13 August 1962, renewing the previous pacts of 1942 and 1944 concerning the [[w:Ostpolitik|Vatican's Ostpolitik]], by which Eastern Orthodox participation in the Second Vatican Council was authorized in exchange for a non-condemnation of atheistic communism during the conciliar assemblies.<ref>Chiron, Yves. ''Paul VI: Le pape écartelé.'' Perrin, Paris, 1993. ISBN 226200952X pp.186,246.</ref><ref>Interview with Paul-Joseph Schmitt, Archbishop of Metz, in Le Lorrain, 9 March 1963.</ref>
*1962-1965 Vatican II institutes major reforms, especially liturgical, into Roman Catholic Church; Patr. [[w:Maximos IV Sayegh|Maximos IV Sayegh]] of the [[w:Melkite Greek Catholic Church|Melkite Greek Catholic Church]] urged reconciliation between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches, spoke forcefully against the [[Latinization]] of the [[Eastern Catholic Churches]], and championed the Eastern tradition of Christianity, winning a great deal of respect from Eastern Orthodox observers at the council and the approbation of the Ec. Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras I]].
==Era of Dialogue==
*1964 Mutual lifting of excommunications by Patr. [[Athenagoras I (Spyrou) of Constantinople|Athenagoras I]] and Pope Paul VI.*1965 The [[w:North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation|North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] is founded, meeting twice yearly; the office of ''[[w:Latin Patriarch of Constantinople|Latin Patriarch of Constantinople]]'' is officially abolished.
*1966-67 Pope Paul VI continued John XXIII's policy of dialogue with Soviet leaders in order to reduce persecutions against local Christians ([[w:Ostpolitik|Ostpolitik]] policy), receiving Foreign Minister [[w:Andrei Gromyko|Andrei Gromyko]] and USSR President [[w:Nikolai Podgorny|Nikolai Podgorny]]; however while the Soviet officials considered themselves calling on the pope as the head of the [[w:Vatican City|Vatican City State]], the Vatican announced the visit as made to the Holy Father as supreme pastor of the [[w:Holy See|Holy See]].<ref>Francis X. Murphy. ''Vatican Politics: Structure and Function.'' '''World Politics'''. Vol.26, No.4 (July 1974). p.554.</ref>
Visit to [[Patriarchate of Alexandria]] by Vatican representatives, who give Patr. [[Nicholas (Valeropoulos) VI of Alexandria|Nicholas VI]] a part of the relics of [[Apostle Mark|St Mark]] from Venice, on behalf of Pope [[Paul VI of Rome|Paul VI]]; the [[w:Centro Pro Unione|Centro Pro Unione]] center is founded by the [[w:Society of the Atonement|Society of the Atonement]] (Graymoor Friars and Sisters) as an ecumenical research and action center .
*1969 The new Roman Missal ''Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani'' or ''[[w:General Instruction of the Roman Missal|General Instruction of the Roman Missal]] (GIRM)'' is issued, indicating a preference for the liturgical orientation in which the priest celebrates the Liturgy "[[w:Versus populum|Versus Populum]]" ("towards the people"), rather than "[[w:Ad orientem|Ad Orientem]]" ("towards the east"), becoming the new pattern worldwide in Roman Catholic parishes.<ref group="note">According to Fr. Uwe Michael Lang:<br>
:<small>"The most important directive is found in paragraph 262 of the ''Institutio Generalis Missalis Romani,'' the General Instruction of the new Roman Missal, issued in 1969. That says, 'It is better for the main altar to be constructed away from the wall so that one can easily walk around the altar and celebrate facing the people (''versus populum'').' The General Instruction of the Missal issued in 2002 retained this text unaltered except for the addition of the subordinate clause, 'which is desirable wherever possible'. This was taken in many quarters as a hardening of the 1969 text to mean that there was now a general obligation to set up altars facing the people 'wherever possible'. This interpretation, however, was rejected by the [[w:Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments|Congregation for Divine Worship]] on 25 September 2000, when it declared that the word '' 'expedit' '' ('is desirable') did not imply an obligation but only made a suggestion."</small><br>
:<small>"...The liturgical renewal in our own century took up this alleged model and developed from it a new idea for the form of the liturgy. The Eucharist - so it was said - had to be celebrated ''versus populum'' (toward the people). The altar - as can be seen in the normative model of St. Peter's - had to be positioned in such a way that priest and people looked at each other and formed together the circle of the celebrating community. This alone - so it was said - was compatible with the meaning of the Christian liturgy, with the requirement of active participation. This alone conformed to the primordial model of the Last Supper. These arguments seemed in the end so persuasive that after the Council [Vatican II] (which says nothing about "turning toward the people") new altars were set up everywhere, and today celebration ''versus populum'' really does look like the characteristic fruit of Vatican II's liturgical renewal."</small><br>
(Pope [[Benedict XVI]]. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=Wf0llOhrfY4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s The Spirit of the Liturgy].'' Transl. John Saward. Ignatius Press, 2000. p.77.)</ref>
*1979 [[w:Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church|Joint Commission of Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches for Theological Dialogue]] established.
*1980 Extraordinary [http://www.impantokratoros.gr/conference-mountathos.en.aspx Joint Conference of the Sacred Community of Mount Athos], April 9-22, resolved publicly to state the opinion of the Athonite fathers on the subject of dialogue with the heterodox;<ref group="note">"..."Orthodoxy is not one of the churches, but The Church herself. She has preserved precisely and authentically the teaching of [[Jesus Christ|Christ]] in its pristine splendor and in all its purity. Over and above a simple, unbroken historical continuity and consistency there exists in her a spiritual and ontological authenticity. The same Faith, the same Spirit, the same life. It is this which constitutes the distinguishing feature of Orthodoxy and which justifies her claim that she is and remains The Church" (''Episkepsis'', #227, March 15, 1980)...From the Orthodox point of view there is no justification for Optimism in regard to the dialogue, and for this reason no haste should be exhibited concerning it. The Roman Catholics are pressing the dialogue, hoping to strengthen themselves by annexing Orthodoxy to themselves, for they are confronted by very powerful internal disturbances and crises, as is well known. The number of former Roman Catholics who have converted to Orthodoxy also disturbs them. But Orthodoxy has no reason to hasten towards dialogue since the papists remain so obdurate and immovable as regards infallibility, uniatism, and the rest of their pernicious teachings. Hastening the dialogue under such conditions is equivalent to spiritual suicide for the Orthodox." (''[http://www.impantokratoros.gr/conference-mountathos.en.aspx The Announcement of the Joint Conference of the Abbots of Mount Athos]. April 9-22, 1980.)</ref> [[w:Greece – Holy See relations|Greece and the Vatican City State]] formally established diplomatic relations; Pope [[John Paul II]] called the first officially recognized synod of the [[Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church]] (UGCC), presided over by controversial wartime Metr. (now Cardinal) Josyf Slipyj.<ref>''[http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/pages/S/L/SlipyYosyf.htm Slipy, Yosyf].'' '''Encyclopedia of Ukraine''', Vol. 4, 1993.</ref>
*1985 Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope [[Benedict XVI]]) issues ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=bSZtm0DWz_cC&pg=PA162&lpg=PA162&dq=ratzinger+orthodox+static+petrified&source=bl&ots=vesTi9UlXO&sig=pU8wHogd9sO3GEEgFQ1o_QWxxqY&hl=en&ei=rwq5TdGuMMnr0gHshJDdDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false The Ratzinger Report: An Exclusive Interview on the State of the Church],'' where he caricatures all [[Orthodox Church|Eastern Orthodox Churches]] as doctrinally "static" and "petrified as it were."<ref group="note">'We have already referred indirectly to the Eastern Orthodox Churches. What are relations like with them? "Contacts with them are only superficially easier; in reality we are faced with grave problems. These Churches have an authentic doctrine, but it is static, petrified as it were. They remain faithful to the tradition of the first Christian millenium, but they reject later developments on the grounds that Catholics decided upon these developments without them. For them, questions of faith can only be decided by a 'really ecumenical' council, i.e., one which includes all Christians. Therefore they regard as invalid what Catholics have declared since the split..."' (Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger with Vittorio Messori. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=bSZtm0DWz_cC&pg=PA162&lpg=PA162&dq=ratzinger+orthodox+static+petrified&source=bl&ots=vesTi9UlXO&sig=pU8wHogd9sO3GEEgFQ1o_QWxxqY&hl=en&ei=rwq5TdGuMMnr0gHshJDdDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false The Ratzinger Report: An Exclusive Interview on the State of the Church].'' Ignatius Press, 1985. pp.161-162.)</ref>
*1987 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission in Bari issues common document ''"Faith, Sacraments and the Unity of the Church."''
*1988 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission in Valamo publishes common document ''"The Sacrament of Order in the Sacramental Structure of the Church."'' *1989 Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope [[Benedict XVI]]) publishes "''[http://www.ewtn.com/library/curia/cdfmed.htm Letter to the Bishops of the Catholic Church on Some Aspects of Christian Meditation],''" where he rehearses historical heretical arguments against [[hesychasm]] (in sections 26-28), caricaturing [[hesychasm]] as a "psychological-corporal method" with numerous inherent dangers.
*1990 The Soviet Union and Holy See established official relations 15 March 1990.
*1993 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Balamand, Lebanon, issuing common document ''"Uniatism: Method of Union of the Past, and Present. Search for Full Communion"'' (the "[[Balamand document]]"); the Balamand Document declared that what has been called "uniatism" ''"can no longer be accepted either as a method to be followed nor as a model of the unity our Churches are seeking".''<ref>Orthodox Christian Information Center. ''[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/balamand_txt.aspx Full Text of the Balamand Statement].'' Originally published in: '''Eastern Churches Journal''', Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 17-27. Section 12.</ref>
*1995 Pope [[John Paul II]] issues Apostolic Letter ''[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_02051995_orientale-lumen_en.html Orientale Lumen]'' ("Light from the East") on May 2, encouraging East-West union; Pope John Paul II issues Encyclical ''[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_25051995_ut-unum-sint_en.html Ut Unum Sint]'' ("That they may be one") on May 25, reiterating that unity of these two [[w:Sui iuris|sui juris]] churches is essential (as well as further dialogue with the Protestant churches), showing that the [[Roman Catholic Church]] is officially moved to unity.
*1997 Beginning of the annual series of [http://www.olconference.com/ Orientale Lumen Conferences], a grassroots movement among lay persons and clergy providing a common forum for Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholics and Roman Catholics to meet and learn about eachother's traditions; "Orientale Lumen I" is held in Washington D.C.
*1998 Pope John Paul II beatified Zagreb's controversial wartime Abp. and later Cardinal [[w:Aloysius Stepinac|Aloysius Stepinac]].<ref>BBC News. ''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/185655.stm Controversial cardinal beatified].'' Saturday, October 3, 1998 Published at 17:53 GMT 18:53 UK.</ref><ref group="note" name="STEPINAC"/>*2000 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Theological Commission meets in Baltimore, but is suspended after an acrimonious meeting, in particular due to the issues of [[w:Primacy of the Roman Pontiff|papal primacy]] and the role of [[Eastern Catholic Churches]], with the Commission not resuming again for six years; in view of the celebration of the Roman Catholic [[w:Great Jubilee|Great Jubilee]] year (''Jubilaeum''), on Sunday March 12 in his ''"[http://www.vatican.va/jubilee_2000/jubilevents/events_day_pardon_en.htm Day of Pardon]"'' homily Pope [[John Paul II]] formally asked forgiveness for the various sins committed by the Roman Catholic Church over the last two millennia.<ref>''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/674246.stm Pope apologises for church sins].'' BBC News. Sunday, 12 March, 2000, 19:48 GMT.</ref><ref group="note">"...we cannot fail to recognize the infidelities to the Gospel committed by some of our brethren, especially during the second millennium. Let us ask pardon for the divisions which have occurred among Christians, for the violence some have used in the service of the truth and for the distrustful and hostile attitudes sometimes taken towards the followers of other religions." (''HOMILY OF THE HOLY FATHER. "[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20000312_pardon_en.html DAY OF PARDON]".'' Sunday, 12 March 2000).</ref>
*2001 Pope [[John Paul II]] apologizes to Orthodox for [[Fourth Crusade]], on the first trip to Greece by a Pope since AD 710;<ref group="note">"...Some memories are especially painful, and some events of the distant past have left deep wounds in the minds and hearts of people to this day. I am thinking of the disastrous sack of the imperial city of Constantinople, which was for so long the bastion of Christianity in the East. It is tragic that the assailants, who had set out to secure free access for Christians to the Holy Land, turned against their own brothers in the faith. The fact that they were Latin Christians fills Catholics with deep regret. How can we fail to see here the mysterium iniquitatis at work in the human heart? To God alone belongs judgement, and therefore we entrust the heavy burden of the past to his endless mercy, imploring him to heal the wounds which still cause suffering to the spirit of the Greek people. Together we must work for this healing if the Europe now emerging is to be true to its identity, which is inseparable from the [[w:Christian humanism|Christian humanism]] shared by East and West." (''[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2001/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20010504_archbishop-athens_en.html ADDRESS OF JOHN PAUL II TO HIS BEATITUDE CHRISTODOULOS, ARCHBISHOP OF ATHENS AND PRIMATE OF GREECE].'' Friday, 4 May 2001.)</ref> a day earlier some 1,000 Orthodox conservatives took to the streets to denounce his visit; Pope John Paul II goes on a controversial visit to Ukraine during which he was fiercely opposed by that country's largest Orthodox Church, where he beatified 28 [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Greek Catholics]], including 27 martyrs, most of whom were killed by the Soviet secret police.<ref>-----. ''[http://edition.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/06/27/pope.ukraine/index.html Pope home from disputed Ukraine tour].'' CNN.com. June 27, 2001 Posted: 10:00 PM EDT (0200 GMT).</ref>
*2002 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople]] and Pope [[John Paul II]] co-sign Venice Declaration of Environmental Ethics; problem of Vatican [[proselytism]] is highlighted in its decision to upgrade its four [[w:Apostolic Administrator|Apostolic Administrations]] in Moscow, Saratov, Novosibirsk and Irkutsk to fully fledged Diocese status, and elevate the former Apostolic Administrator, Msgr. [[w:Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz (archbishop)|Tadeusz Kondrusiwicz]], to Metr.-Abp. of Moscow, drawing a storm of protest from Patr. [[Alexei II (Ridiger) of Moscow|Alexei II]] and the Holy Synod of Russia who described the move as "unfriendly" claiming the [[Roman Catholic Church]] saw Russia as a field for missionary activity.<ref>
*2004 Return of relics of Ss. [[John Chrysostom]] and [[Gregory the Theologian]] to Constantinople from Rome (after having been stolen by Crusaders); the [http://www.olconference.com/OL_PastConEE1.html Orientale Lumen EuroEast I] conference is held in Istanbul, May 10-13, 2004;<ref group="note">This was the 11th of a series of Orientale Lumen Conferences, since they began in 1997. ''Orientale Lumen EuroEast I'' was jointly announced by the [[Church of Constantinople|Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople]], the [[w:Pontifical Oriental Institute|Pontifical Oriental Institute]], the [http://orientale-lumen.blogspot.com/ Catholic and Orthodox Society of St. John Chrysostom], and [http://ecpubs.com/ Eastern Christian Publications]. The thematic focus of the 80 participants of [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3236/is_2_41/ai_n29153469/?tag=content;col1 Orientale Lumen Euro-East I] was ''"Liturgy as the Foundation of Dialogue."'' The meeting transpired over the anniversary of the founding of Constantinople on May 11,330 A.D.</ref> the [http://www.moehlerinstitut.de/sites/eng/12orthoe/12akie.html Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group] is established at Paderborn (Germany), composed of 26 theologians, 13 Orthodox and 13 Roman Catholics, attempting to go through Church history chronologically to understand and analyze the development of the interrelationship between [[Primacy and Unity in Orthodox Ecclesiology|primacy and synodality]] in terms of both theology and [[praxis]].<ref group="note">Since its foundation in 2004, the [http://www.moehlerinstitut.de/sites/eng/12orthoe/12akie.html Saint Irenaeus Joint Orthodox-Catholic Working Group] has held annual meetings at: Paderborn (2004), Athens (2005), Chevetogne (2006), Belgrade (2007), Vienna (2008), Kiev (2009), and Magdeburg (2010).</ref>
*2005 Major controversy in Ukraine involving the almost exclusively western Ukraine-based [[Eastern Catholic Churches|Uniate]] Greek Catholic Church moving its administrative centre on from Lviv to Kiev, constructing a large cathedral there, and its plans to establish a patriarchate, criticized by the Orthodox [[Church of Ukraine]] and other Orthodox; in his first major policy statement as pope, Pope [[Benedict XVI]] issued [http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccatheduc/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_20051104_istruzione_en.html an instruction] barring actively [[Homosexuality|gay]] priests from seminaries, the only exception being for those with a "transitory problem" that had been overcome at least three years prior to ordination to the diaconate.<ref>CONGREGATION FOR CATHOLIC EDUCATION. ''[http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccatheduc/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_20051104_istruzione_en.html Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders].'' Rome, 4 November 2005, Memorial of St Charles Borromeo, Patron of Seminaries. Cardinal Zenon Grocholewski (Prefect).</ref><ref>IAN FISHER and LAURIE GOODSTEIN. ''[http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/22/international/europe/22vatican.html New Vatican Rule Said to Bar Gays as New Priests].'' NY Times. September 22, 2005.</ref><ref>Peter Gould. ''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4479466.stm Vatican fuels gay clergy debate].'' BBC News. Monday, 28 November 2005, 18:33 GMT.</ref><ref>''[http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28677174/ Less gay behavior in seminaries, Vatican says].'' MSNBC (Associated Press). 1/15/2009 2:26:40 PM ET.</ref><ref>PAUL VITELLO. ''[http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/31/nyregion/31gay.html?_r=1 Prospective Catholic Priests Face Sexuality Hurdles].'' NY Times. May 30, 2010.</ref>
*2006 Pope Benedict XVI drops title ''Patriarch of the West'';<ref>''"[http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/chrstuni/general-docs/rc_pc_chrstuni_doc_20060322_patriarca-occidente_fr.html Communiqué concernant la suppression du titre «Patriarche d’Occident» dans l'Annuaire pontifical 2006]".'' Vatican.va. Retrieved 2010-09-26.</ref><ref group="note">From 1863 until 2005, the ''Annuario Pontificio'' included also the title "Patriarch of the West". This title was first used by [[w:Pope Theodore I|Pope Theodore I]] in 642, and was only used occasionally. Indeed, it did not begin to appear in the pontifical yearbook until 1863. On 22 March 2006, the Vatican released a statement explaining this omission on the grounds of expressing a "historical and theological reality" and of "being useful to ecumenical dialogue". The title Patriarch of the West symbolized the pope's special relationship with, and jurisdiction over, the Latin Church—and the omission of the title neither symbolizes in any way a change in this relationship, nor distorts the relationship between the Holy See and the Eastern Churches, as solemnly proclaimed by the Second Vatican Council.</ref> Pope Benedict XVI visits Ecumenical Patriarchate, drawing criticism from the common Assembly of the twenty Sacred Monasteries of [[Mount Athos]];<ref>''[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/athos_popevisit2006.aspx The Official Statement from Mt. Athos on the Pope's Visit to the Phanar].'' [[Karyes (Athos)|Karyae]], 30 December 2006.</ref> Abp. [[Christodoulos (Paraskevaides) of Athens]] visits Vatican, the first head of the [[Church of Greece]] to visit the Vatican, reciprocating the Pope's visit to Greece in 2001, and signing a ''[http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/2001/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20010504_joint-declaration_en.html Joint Declaration on the importance of the Christian roots of Europe]'' and protecting fundamental human rights; the [[Church of Russia|Russian Orthodox]] and [[Roman Catholic Church|Roman Catholic]] Churches confronted [[w:Secular humanism|Secular Humanism]] at the conference ''"[http://www.pro-oriente.at/?site=ps20060511124020 Giving a Soul to Europe]"'' (Vienna, May 3-5, 2006),<ref group="note">The conference was organized jointly by the [[w:Pontifical Council for Culture|Pontifical Council for Culture]] and the [http://www.mospat.ru/en/department/today/ Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate].</ref> discussing the challenges facing Christianity, specifically materialism, consumerism, agnosticism, secularism and relativism, all based on liberal humanist ideology, constituting a real threat to Christianity today;<ref group="note">From the perspective of the Church [[w:Secular humanism|Secular Humanism]] is defined as a religious philosophical worldview based on [[atheism]], [[w:Naturalism (philosophy)|naturalism]], [[evolution]], and [[w:Moral relativism|ethical relativism]], attempting to function as a civilized society with the total exclusion of [[God]] and His moral principles. At the conference Bishop [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Vienna|Hilarion Alfeyev]] called in most resolute terms for '''an institutionalized Orthodox-Catholic alliance''', without which, he said, it would not be possible to defend traditional values in Europe: ''"What we are witnessing is the final attack of militant secularism on the remains of Christian civilization in Europe."'' Note that at its 50th anniversary World Humanist Congress in 2002, the [[w:International Humanist and Ethical Union|International Humanist and Ethical Union]] (IHEU) published its ''"[[w:Amsterdam Declaration|Amsterdam Declaration]]",'' the defining statement of worldwide secular Humanism, embracing Humanist, atheist, rationalist, secular, skeptic, Ethical Culture, freethought and similar organisations worldwide.</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] met with Bp. Agathangelos of Fanarion and Greek Orthodox Seminarians from the [[Apostoliki Diakonia]] theology college in Greece who were visiting Rome, urging them to confront the challenges that threaten the faith by working to unify all Christians.*2007 Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Ravenna, Italy, 10th plenary, led by co-presidents Cardinal [[w:Walter Kasper|Walter Kasper]] and Metr. [[John (Zizioulas) of Pergamon]], agreeing upon a joint document consisting of 46 articles providing an ecclesiastical road map in discussing union ("[http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/pontifical_councils/chrstuni/ch_orthodox_docs/rc_pc_chrstuni_doc_20071013_documento-ravenna_en.html Ravenna Document]");<ref>Ruth Gledhill, Religion Correspondent and Paul Bompard in Rome. ''[http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/faith/article2880038.ece Vatican joins historic talks to end 950-year rift with Orthodox church].'' [[w:The Sunday Times|The Sunday Times]]. November 16, 2007.</ref><ref>Ian Fisher. ''[http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/15/world/europe/15briefs-orthodox.html Vatican City: Catholic-Orthodox Accord on Papal Primacy].'' [[w:The New York Times|NY Times]]. November 15, 2007. A10.</ref> Russian delegation walks out of Ravenna talks in protest of presence of Estonian delegation ([[Church of Constantinople|EP]]); the Vatican issued a 16-page document prepared by the ''[[w:Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith|Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith]]'', restating its belief that the Catholic Church is the only true church of Jesus Christ, also stating that although Orthodox churches are true churches, they are defective because they do not recognize the [[w:Papal supremacy|primacy of the Pope]];<ref>''[http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2007/07/10/vatican-church.html Catholic Church only true church, Vatican says].'' CBC News. Tuesday, July 10, 2007.</ref> [http://www.olconference.com/OL_PastCon_EE_II.html Orientale Lumen EuroEast II] conference, May, 2007 in Istanbul; the Vatican formally [http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Vatican_abolishes_Limbo reconsiders doctrine of Limbo];<ref>''[http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2007/04/20/limbo-in-limbo.html Catholic Church sees 'hope' for unbaptized babies].'' CBC News. Friday, April 20, 2007 | 4:16 PM ET.</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] issues the Apostolic Letter ''[[w:Summorum Pontificum|Summorum Pontificum]],'' granting greater freedom to use the [[w:Tridentine Mass|Tridentine Mass]] in its 1962 form and for administering most of the [[sacraments]] in the form that they had before the liturgical reforms following the Second Vatican Council.
*2009 Led by three senior archbishops, a group of Orthodox clergy in Greece published a manifesto, ''[http://www.impantokratoros.gr/FA9AF77F.en.aspx A Confession of Faith Against Ecumenism],'' pledging to resist all ecumenical ties with Roman Catholics and Protestants, amongst its signatories including six metropolitans,<ref group="note">Metr. [[Panteleimon (Lampadarios) of Antinoe]]; Metr. Seraphim (Stergioulis) of [[Metropolis of Kythira|Kythira]]; Metr. Kosmas (Papachristos) of [[Metropolis of Aitolia and Akarnania|Aitolia and Akarnania]]; Metr. [[Seraphim (Mentzelopoulos) of Piraeus]]; Metr. Dr. [http://www.kosovo.net/artemy.html Artemije (Radosavljevic)] of Raska and Prizren, Kosovo and Metohia; Bp. [[George (Schaefer) of Mayfield]], Abbott of the [[Hermitage of the Holy Cross (Wayne, West Virginia)]].</ref> as well as 49 archimandrites, 22 hieromonks, and 30 nuns and abbesses, as well as many other priests and church elders; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Paphos, Cyprus, 11th plenary, studying the theme ''"The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium;"'' first-ever Russian Orthodox church is consecrated in Rome; Russia and the Holy See upgraded their diplomatic relations to full ambassadorial relations in 2009, following improvements in the working relationship between the Holy See and the Orthodox Patriarchate of Moscow;<ref>''[http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8394079.stm Russia and the Vatican establish full diplomatic ties].'' BBC News. 20:59 GMT, Thursday, 3 December 2009.</ref> at the invitation of Cardinal Walter Kasper, Abp. [[Hilarion (Alfeyev) of Volokolamsk]] visited Pope [[Benedict XVI]] and several officials of the Roman Curia who have key roles in the Roman Catholic ecumenical dialogue;<ref>''[http://www.interfax-religion.com/?act=news&div=6464 Archbishop Hilarion shares with Pope his concern about Orthodox dioceses in Ukraine destroyed by the Uniates].'' Interfax-Religion. 21 September 2009, 13:19.</ref> the [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] issues ''"[http://www.usccb.org/seia/RavennaResponse.pdf A Common Response]"'' to the Ravenna Document of 2007, identifying a number of criticisms.
*2010 Patr. [[Bartholomew I (Archontonis) of Constantinople|Bartholomew]] firmly addressed the opponents of the Orthodox theological dialogues in the ''[http://www.ec-patr.org/docdisplay.php?lang=gr&id=1168&tla=en Patriarchal and Synodal Encyclical on the Sunday of Orthodoxy],'' signed by 12 Bishops in addition to the Ecumenical Patriarch;<ref group="note">"...These dialogues, together with every effort for peaceful and fraternal relations of the Orthodox Church with other Christians, are unfortunately challenged today in an unacceptably fanatical way – at least by the standards of a genuinely Orthodox ethos – by certain circles that exclusively claim for themselves the title of zealot and defender of Orthodoxy. As if all the Patriarchs and Sacred Synods of the Orthodox Churches throughout the world, who unanimously decided on and continue to support these dialogues, were not Orthodox. Yet, these opponents of every effort for the restoration of unity among Christians raise themselves above Episcopal Synods of the Church to the dangerous point of creating schisms within the Church...moreover, union is not decided by theological commissions but by Church Synods...Beloved children in the Lord, Orthodoxy has no need of either fanaticism or bigotry to protect itself. Whoever believes that Orthodoxy has the truth does not fear dialogue, because truth has never been endangered by dialogue..." (''[http://www.ec-patr.org/docdisplay.php?lang=gr&id=1168&tla=en Patriarchal and Synodal Encyclical on the Sunday of Orthodoxy],'' February 21, 2010.)</ref> first ever visit by a pope to Cyprus, as Pope Benedict went on a sensitive three-day day visit to the divided island; Cardinal Walter Kasper stated that there can be no full integration of eastern and western Europe without ecumenical dialogue and the contribution of the eastern European Orthodox churches; at the ''“[http://www.fordham.edu/mvst/conference10/orthodox/index.html Orthodox Constructions of the West]”'' conference at Fordham University (June 28-30), keynote speaker Fr. Robert F. Taft, (S.J) delivered the address ''"Perceptions and Realities in Orthodox-Catholic Relations Today,"'' calling on Catholic and Orthodox Churches to Restore Communion;<ref group="note">Eastern-rite Jesuit scholar Rev. Robert Taft made a similar appeal for union when he delivered the annual Kelly Lecture at the University of Toronto's St. Michael's College in 2000. (''Jesuit slams Catholic-Orthodox rift.'' [[w:Times-Colonist|Victoria Times Colonist]]. December 16, 2000. A12.)</ref> Pope [[Benedict XVI]] proclaims the [[w:Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation|Pontifical Council for the Promotion of the New Evangelisation]]; [http://www.olconference.com/OL_FutCon_EuroEast_III Orientale Lumen EuroEast III] conference, July 5-8, 2010 in Istanbul; Orthodox-Roman Catholic Joint Commission meets in Vienna, Austria, 12th plenary, studying the theme ''"The Role of the Bishop of Rome in the Communion of the Church in the First Millennium;"'' [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]] meets in Washington DC, issuing two statements: ''[http://www.scoba.us/articles/2855.html Steps Towards A Reunited Church: A Sketch Of An Orthodox-Catholic Vision For The Future].,''<ref>The [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]]. ''[http://www.scoba.us/articles/2855.html Steps Towards A Reunited Church: A Sketch Of An Orthodox-Catholic Vision For The Future].'' Georgetown University, Washington, DC. October 2, 2010.</ref> and ''[http://www.scoba.us/articles/2856.html Celebrating Easter/Pascha Together].''<ref>The [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation]]. ''[http://www.scoba.us/articles/2856.html Celebrating Easter/Pascha Together].'' Georgetown University, Washington, DC. October 1, 2010.</ref> Croatian Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Zadar gives cherished relic of St. [[Simeon the God-receiver|Simeon]] to the [[Church of Jerusalem|Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem]];<ref group="note">The mummified body of St. [[Simeon the God-receiver|Simeon]] was taken from Jerusalem to Constantinople in the 13th century, and was apparently destined for Venice when a storm on the Adriatic Sea forced the ship off course toward what is now Croatia. The saint’s remains have been venerated in Zadar since that time. In 2007, during a pilgrimage to the [[Holy Land]], Archbishop Ivan Prendja of Zadar met with the Greek Orthodox Patriarch [[Theophilus III (Giannopoulos) of Jerusalem|Theophilus III of Jerusalem]], and agreed to provide a relic of St. Simeon to be venerated in an Orthodox monastery dedicated to the saint. Archbishop Prendja died in January of this year, but his successor, Archbishop Zelimir Puljic, carried out his promise in a ceremony in Zadak, turning over the relic to representatives of the Orthodox patriarchate. (''[http://www.catholicculture.org/news/headlines/index.cfm?storyid=7917 Croatian archdiocese gives cherished relic to Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem].'' CatholicCulture.org. October 13, 2010).</ref> over half a million Guatemalan Indians of the "Orthodox Catholic Church of Guatemala" (OCCG), a branch of the "[[w:Orthodox-Catholic Church of America|Orthodox-Catholic Church of America]]" (OCCA), are received in their entirety into the Ecumenical Patriarchate's [[Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Mexico, Central America, Columbia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean Islands|Holy Metropolis of Mexico (Central America)]];<ref>''[http://www.secretariat.orthodoxtheologicalinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_lyftenbloggie&view=lyftenbloggie&category=secretariat%20news&Itemid=50 PRESS RELEASE].'' '''General Secretariat for Pan-Orthodox Ministries'''. FROM THE OFFICE OF THE HOLY METROPOLIS, Mexico City, April 7th 2010.</ref><ref group="note">In announcing this exciting development, His Eminence Metropolitan [[Athenagoras (Aneste) of Mexico]] expressed his great pleasure in welcoming the OCCG which was received in its entirety, including their former clergy, seminarians, lay ministers, catechists and affiliated membership into the canonical family of the [[Orthodox Church]], under the guidance of [[Protosyngellos|Archiepiscopal Vicar]] [[Archimandrite]] Dr. [[Andrew (Vujisić) of Tralles]]. Following their official reception, the leaders of OCCG, Messrs. [[Andrew Girón]] and [[Michael Castellanos]] traveled to Mexico City where on the weekend of March 19-21, they were ordained to the Holy Priesthood, receiving the title of [[Archimandrite]]. The OCCG has an approximate membership of 527,000 faithful and catechumens, overwhelmingly indigenous, with 334 churches in Guatemala and southern Mexico, with 12 (formerly OCCG) clergymen and 14 seminarians, who are assisted in their pastoral ministry by 250 lay ministers and 380 catechists.</ref> renowned Swiss theologian and Patristics scholar Hieromonk [[Gabriel Bunge]] ([[w:Order of Saint Benedict|O.S.B.]]) is received into the [[Orthodox Church]].
*2011 The [[w:United States Conference of Catholic Bishops|United States Conference of Catholic Bishops]] (USCCB) releases a revised edition of the ''[[w:New American Bible Revised Edition|New American Bible]]'' which further departs from the authority of the [[Septuagint]], in favour of the later Masoretic text, most controversially in [[Isaiah|Isaias]] 7:14, revising the NAB from ''"the virgin shall be with child"'' to ''"a young woman shall be with child"'', essentially serving to undermine the doctrines of the Perpetual Virginity of the [[Theotokos]], and the Virginal Conception of [[Christ]]
.<ref>Alexandra Silver. ''[http://newsfeed.time.com/2011/03/04/controversial-bible-revision-about-that-virgin-thing/ Controversial Bible Revision: About That 'Virgin' Thing...].'' TIME NewsFeed. 2011-03-04.</ref><ref group="note">This single act assists, what appears to conscientious Orthodox Christians, as the further Protestantization of the Roman Church by ''progressive'' bishops and theologians.</ref>
* [[Vladimir Guettée|Abbé Guettée]] (D.D.). ''[http://books.google.com/books?id=VcEOAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false The Papacy: Its Historic Origin and Primitve Relations with the Eastern Churches].'' Transl. from the French, with an introduction by [[w:Arthur Cleveland Coxe|Arthur Cleveland Coxe]] (Bp. of Western NY). New York; London: S Low, Son & Co.. 1867. 383 pp. ''(Also online [http://www.pravoslavieto.com/books/papacy_abatt_guette.htm here])''
* Andrew J. Ekonomou. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=zomZk6DbFTIC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes: Eastern Influences on Rome and the Papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590-752].'' Lexington Books, 2007. 347 pp.
* Rev. Dr. Andrew Louth. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=WlpPjOlVzQwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0 Greek East and Latin West: The Church, AD 681-1071]''. '''The Church in History Vol. III'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 2007. 382pp.
* Aristeides Papadakis, (with John Meyendorff). ''The Christian East and the Rise of the Papacy: The Church 1071-1453 A.D.'' '''The Church in History Vol. IV'''. Crestwood, N.Y. : St. Vladimirs Seminary Press, 1994.
* Deno John Geanakoplos. ''[http://www.librarything.com/work/1938791 Byzantine East and Latin West: Two worlds of Christendom in Middle Ages and Renaissance: Studies in Ecclesiastical and Cultural History].'' Oxford, [[w:Basil Blackwell|B. Blackwell]], 1961. 206pp.
* Dr. Clark Carlton. ''[http://books.google.ca/books?id=oA53PQAACAAJ&dq=inauthor%3A%22Michael%20Whelton%22&source=gbs_similarbooks The Truth: What Every Roman Catholic Should Know about the Orthodox Church].'' Regina Orthodox Press, 2007. 268pp.
* Prof. [http://www.religion.rutgers.edu/faculty-navmenu-117/core-faculty/186-tia-m-kolbaba-associate-professor Tia M. Kolbaba]. ''[http://www.amazon.com/Byzantine-Lists-Illinois-Medieval-Studies/dp/025202558X The Byzantine Lists: Errors of the Latins].'' 1st Ed. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2000. 248pp.
:* Abp. [[Michael (Konstantinides) of America]] (1949-58). ''[http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/articles/church_history/michael_theschism.htm The Schism of the Roman Catholic Church from the Eastern Orthodox: 1054-1954].'' Orthodox Research Institute.
:* [[w:Aleksey Khomyakov|Alexei Khomyakov]]. ''[http://www.myriobiblos.gr/texts/english/komiakov_essay.htm Essay on the Unity of the Church: The Church is One].'' In: W.J. Birkbeck, (Ed.). '''[http://www.archive.org/details/russiaandtheengl00birkiala Russia and the English Church During the Last Fifty Years].''' Volume I. London: Rivington, Percival & Co. 1895. (''Correspondence between [[w:William Palmer (theologian)|William Palmer]] and M. Khomiakoff, in the Years 1844-1854'')
:* Archim. [[Augustinos (Kantiotes) of Florina|Augustinos Kantiotes]]. ''[http://www.augoustinos-kantiotis.gr/?p=13944 WHAT IS PAPISM?]'' 1956.
:* Dcn. Herman Ivanov-Treenadzaty. ''[http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/vatican_russia.aspx The Vatican and Russia].'' '''Orthodox Life''', Vol.XL, No.2 [March-April 1990], pp. 8-24. ''
:* Deno J. Geanakoplos. ''The Council of Florence (1438-1439) and the Problem of Union between the Greek and Latin Churches.'' '''Church History'''. Vol.24, No.4. Dec., 1955. pp.324-346.
:* Fr. [[George Dragas]]. ''[http://jbburnett.com/resources/dragas_baptism.pdf The Manner of Reception of Roman Catholic Converts into the Orthodox Church with Special Reference to the Decisions of the Synods of 1484 (Constantinople), 1755 (Constantinople), and 1667 (Moscow)].'' Prepared for and read at the [[North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation|Orthodox/Roman Catholic Dialogue (USA)]] in 1998.
:* Fr. Dr. Michael Azkoul. ''[http://www.ocf.org/OrthodoxPage/reading/ortho_cath.html WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ORTHODOXY AND ROMAN CATHOLICISM?]'' The Orthodox Christian Witness, Vol. XXVII (48), Vol. XXVIII (6) and (8), 1994.